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Table of Contents. 




United States Bonds, ... L. R. M. i 

" The Revival of Letters," Pico Della Mirandola. 7 

The Origin and Early History of Wake Forest College, Samuel Wait, D. D. 11 


Salutatory, E. S. A. 18 

" In Time of Peace Prepare for War," _ ._ E. S. A. 18 

Biography, W. L. P. 19 

Greek and Latin vs. English, W. F. M. 21 

Educational, 24 

Literary Gossip, 27 

Science Notes, _ _ 30 

In and About the College, 34 

Wake Forest Alumni, „ 35 


The Colleges of 1830, ...Barnas Sears, D. D. 37 

The Deadly Cigarette, Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. 38 

Light, _ ._ __ 40 

Abide with Me, _____ Our Continent. 41 

The Wheel of Willegis, T. H. Dobbs, D. D. 42 

The Smitten Rock, __ Springfield Republican. 42 




W | 3 Q. 


September, 1882. 

Vol. 2. 


No. 1. 



Senior Editor.... 
Associate Editor. 

E. S. Alderman. 

H. B. Folk. 


Senior Editor W. F. Marshall. 

Associate Editor D. M. Austin. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all communications to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. 



"The officer in charge of our detach- 
ment of prisoners from Washington 
to Sandusky, was a lineal descendant 
of that ancient family whose charac- 
teristics and ear-marks are given so 
fully and minutely by King Solomon: 
" So honor is not seemly for a fool." 
There were ample arrangements for 
feeding us along the route, but he 
gave us nothing to eat during the 
entire trip of more than two days. 
We arrived at Sandusky in the after- 
noon of April 19th, 1865, and were 
conveyed immediately by steam tugs 
across Put-in Bay, an arm of Lake 
Erie, three miles to Johnson's Island. 

Then occurred the most ridiculous 
farce it has ever been the writer's 
privilege to see. The wayworn, rag- 
ged rebels were searched most care- 
fully by sleek, well-fed Yankees. How 
" Johnnie Reb's " eye flashed with in- 
dignation and scorn ! His enemies 
withered under his proud look of con- 
tempt and seemed to be heartily 
ashamed of their task. 


3 88^8 

Johnson's Island contains about one 
hundred acres, twenty of which were 
enclosed in a stockade similar to the 
one around our Penitentiary at Ral- 
Within this enclosure were 


fifteen buildings — one hospital, two 
mess-halls and twelve barracks for the 
prisoners. The stockade was rectan- 
gular, and there was a block-house in 
each corner, and in front of the prin- 
cipal street. 

The prisoners were a unique set of 
men, and it is doubtful whether 2,800 
of just such men were ever thrown 
together before. There was one brig- 
adier general, and the rest represented 
all grades from colonel down to bre- 
vet-second lieutenant. Perhaps three- 
fourths of them had raised themselves 
from the ranks by gallant and meri- 
torious conduct on the field of battle. 
There were representatives of all the 
armies of the Confederacy, east of the 
Mississippi, but at least one half of them 
were from Lee's army. Many were 
well educated and thoroughly accom- 



plished gentlemen ; some, howevei^ 
could scarcely read, but by dint of 
extraordinary common sense and gal- 
lantry, had forced themselves upwards. 

Our rations were six ounces of pork, 
thirteen of loaf bread, and a small 
allowance of beans or hominy — about 
one-half the rations issued to the 
Federal troops. The pork rarely had 
enough grease in it to fry itself, and 
the bread was often watered to give 
it the requisite weight. Such rations 
would keep soul and body together, 
but when they were not supplemented 
with something else, life was a slow 

For a good long period, terminating 
several months before I went to John- 
son's Island, the prisoners were not 
allowed to buy anything. The suffer- 
ing was very great. Men watched rat- 
holes during those long, cold, winter 
nights in hopes of securing a rat for 
breakfast. Some made it a regular 
practice to fish in slop barrels for small 
crumbs of bread, and I have had one 
man to point out to me the barrel in 
which he generally found his " bo- 
nanza " crumb. If a dog ever came 
into the pen he was sure to be killed 
and eaten immediately. Flour rose to 
ninety cents a pound, in greenbacks, 
and the few lucky prisoners who hap- 
pened to have a little on hand refused 
to sell at that price. This period was 
known as the Siege. At one time the 
situation became so desperate that 
nearly all the prisoners formed a plot 
to break down the fence and attack 
the guards with base-ball clubs. The 
guards were probably as numerous as 
the prisoners and had five block houses 
with several upper stories pierced for 
rifles and the ground floors filled with 

artillery. Moreover, outside of the 
pen there were enclosed earth-works 
mounting many heavy guns, and the 
gunboat Michigan with sixteen guns, 
lay within a quarter of a mile. When 
we remember that these men were 
officers, and knew what fighting was, 
and how to calculate the chances of 
battle, we can form some idea of the 
desperateness of their situation. A 
spy revealed the plot and the leaders 
were arrested. One of the principal 

leaders was Lieutenant H , from 

North Carolina. 

Money sent the prisoners in letters 
was kept at headquarters and placed 
to their credit. When a prisoner 
wished to purchase anything he made 
application to the commandant of the 
post, asking that the sutler be ordered 
to sell him such and such articles. If 
the commandant approved the appli- 
cation, his bookkeeper would send the 
prisoner a " schedule " showing the 
amount due him and ordering the 
sutler to sell him the articles. The 
purchases were entered on the sched- 
ule and receipted for by the prisoner. 
The sutler then carried the schedule to 
headquarters and drew his pay. The 
sutler bought corn meal at 85 cents 
per bushel and, after transporting it 
three miles, sold it for $2.76. He sold 
probably thirty bushels per day and 
received his pay before noon each day. 
He never lost a cent in bad debts and 
ran no risk. Any man who would im- 
pose upon prisoners in that way ought 
to be hung, and I shall take great 
pleasure in sending him at any time a 
Southern grape vine, if I can have any 
assurance that he will hang himself 
with it. 

A dollar inside the prison was worth 



a dollar and a quarter of schedule. 
To buy, therefore, of the sutler on 
schedule and sell the articles for the 
same price in cash, gave a very good 
margin for profit, and a number of 
men setup as " sub-sutlers." In ad 
dition to groceries, they sold all kinds 
of ginger cakes, and " Sampson's 
Spelling-books," and " goodies " that 
they could make with flour and mo- 

All rank disappeared, and the man 
who could command the most money 
was the big man. Sometimes a mess 
composed of lieutenants would hire a 
colonel to cook for them. A man 
cooking for a mess of six or seven 
usually received fourteen dollars per 

Tailoring was well done at reason- 
able rates. Our shoe-makers, strange 
to say, were reliable and charged very 
moderate prices for their mending. 
The chair-makers made very neat and 
comfortable chairs, and bottomed them 
with leather strings cut out of old 
shoes and boots. Our washer-man 
charged only three cents a piece for 
ordinary garments, and five cents for 
linen-bosomed shirts, starched and 
ironed. Our bankers and bill-brokers 
were always ready to exchange gold 
and silver for green-backs, and even 
for Confederate money till Lee's sur- 

We had also a " blockade " distillery 
which made and sold an inferior article 
of corn whiskey at five dollars, in green- 
backs, per quart. It was a very easy 
matter to get the corn meal ; but I 
never could imagine how they could 
conceal the mash-tubs and the still, so 
as to escape detection on the part of 
the Federal officers who inspected the 

prison very thoroughly two or three 
times each week. I lived in the prison 
nearly two months before I found out 
in which building it was located. Cal- 
culate, if you can, the fortunes those 
men have made on " crooked whiskey " 
since that time ! 

In a literary point of view, we were 
not so far behind as one would sup- 
pose. We had schools of Latin, Greek, 
Hebrew, Spanish, Italian, French, Ger- 
man, Theology, Mathematics, English, 
Instrumental Music, Vocal Music, and 
a dancing school. The old " stag- 
dance " began every day except Sun- 
day at 9 a. m., and the shuffling of 
the feet would be heard all day long 
till 9 p. m. 

We had many preachers, too. Dr. 
Girardeau, of South Carolina, one of 
the ablest preachers in the South, 
preached for us nearly every day. Our 
little Yankee chaplain was so far sur- 
passed by the Rebs that he rarely 
showed his face. 

Far more men engaged in making 
jewelry than any other one thing. 
They made all kinds of jewelry out 
of gutta-percha, ornamenting it very 
neatly with the pearly parts of the 
common mussel shells. Skilful work- 
ers made from two to three dollars per 

Some spent weeks, and even months, 
in making fiddles out of cracker boxes 
and any kind of lumber that came to 
hand. I am no judge of music, but 
to my uneducated ear those fiddles 
were as sweet as any I ever heard. 
And no doubt many a Johnson Island 
Reb to-day draws sweet, sad notes 
from his prison-made violin, 

"As o'er the past his memory strays." 

Going along the principal street one 



would see a great many ingenious in- 
ventions and contrivances. I saw one 
day two small wooden figures fight- 
ing with swords. They seemed to go 
through all the parries and thrusts 
laid down in the manual for sword 
exercise. The thing was given life 
and made to run by a small wind-mill. 
But time would fail me to tell of all 
such things. 

Old Bush, the ugly man of John- 
son's Island, was a Kentucky blockade 
runner. He was caught in 1861 and 
condemned to imprisonment for the 
war. He made a vow not to allow 
his whiskers or hair to be cut till his 
release. His face was very red and 
painfully ugly, and ended in a huge 
mass of sandy-red whiskers. His head 
was covered with a tremendous mop 
of reddish hair from two to three feet 

Bush used to say : " I am a gentle- 
manly hog-drover from old Kaintuck. 
I tuck several droves of hogs into 
Virginia before the war. I didn't 
zackly own them, but I went along 
and druv for eight dollars a month." 

When he was brought to Johnson's 
Island a great crowd of men, women, 
and children collected around the train 
in Sandusky, as usual, to see the 
rebels. Some mischievous prisoners 
took a striped Confederate blanket 
and, cutting a slit in it, put it on old 
Bush just as a Mexican wears his 
serape. After fixing up his hair in 
the shape of horns, they made a proc- 
lamation out of the car window: 

" O yes, O yes, walk up, walk up 
this way, and see the great Horned 
Rebel, the streaked Gyrastacutus," &c! 
They came in great crowds, and when 
old Bush's head appeared through the 

window, they scattered like doves be- 
fore the hawk. Then rejoiced John- 
nie Reb — he was so fond of seeing 
the Yankees run. 

Bush was an industrious jeweller, 
and made a great deal of money. 
Whenever a fresh lot of prisoners 
would be brought in, many who were 
hard up would bring their watches to 
him, and sell them for very small sums 
of money. His wealth was estimated 
at a half a bushel of watches. The day 
before my release, I went to see him 
and found him alone in the northwest 
corner room on the ground floor of 
block 11. He had picked up the old 
clothes thrown away by the prisoners, 
and had nearly filled up to the ceiling 
the large room in which he stayed. 
He was going to make a big thing 
selling old rags in Sandusky after his 

Any description of Johnson's Island, 
which contains no mention of bed- 
bugs would be very incomplete. The 
barracks were ceiled, and were several 
years old. During the cool weather 
the bugs did not trouble us much, but 
towards the latter part of May they 
became terrible. My bunk was pa- 
pered with Harper's Weekly, and if at 
any time I struck the walls with any 
object, a red spot would appear as 
large as the part of the object striking 
the wall. We left the barracks and 
slept in the streets. But one man 

" Stood on the burning deck, 
Whence all but him had fled." 

And that man said : " De shinshes 
don't bozzle me." Dickens makes one 
of his characters say: " Old Joe is 
tough, sir — tough, sir." The two men 
must have been akin. When I get my 
logarithmic tables and try to calculate 



coolly and dispassionately the quan- 
tity of them, I am disposed to put 
them at one hundred bushels, but 
when I think of those terrible night 
attacks, I can't see how there could 
have been less than eighty millions of 

Our want of a medium of communi- 
cation was well supplied by a large 
bulletin board. It was about eight 
feet long by four feet wide, and I have 
spent many pleasant hours reading the 
racy, well written advertisements with 
which its two sides were always filled. 
Advertise for anything you might 
want, and you would be almost sure 
to hear from it in an hour or two. 

Johnnie Reb's love of wit and fun, 
for which he was so noted on the 
tented field, did not wane in prison, 
but was rather intensified. All news, 
rumors, &c, were supposed to come 
by the grape vine telegraph, and were 
called " grapes." A short time after 
my arrival at Johnson's Island, a man 
walked into our room and said : 

" Boys, I have gotten a grape ; all 
the tailors are ordered to Washing- 

" What for?" said some one. 

" To mend old Andy Johnson's 
breeches," replied our newsmonger. 

A few of the prisoners had made 
application for the Amnesty Oath be- 
fore I was sent to Johnson's Island. 
As the other prisoners treated them 
with the utmost contempt, and would 
have no dealings with them, the com- 
mandant of the prison collected them 
all in block i. They were called 
" Razor-backs." If the reader will get 
his razor and look for its back-spring 
or back-bone, he will see how appro- 
priate the name was. 

The prisoners remained firm in their 
allegiance until Johnston surrendered, 
when it was evident that the South- 
ern Confederacy was a failure, and 
that they were no longer bound by 
their oath. Then they began to dis- 
cuss the question of taking the oath 
of allegiance to the United States. It 
was a bitter thought, and perhaps half 
of them would have gone into exile, if 
they could have been released without 
taking it. They always spoke of tak- 
ing the oath as swallowing the eagle. 
Of course our dreamer dreamed a 
dream : " I saw something like a dark 
cloud rise up out of Lake Erie far off 
in the East. As it rose higher and 
higher, it appeared to be an enormous 
eagle stretching its wings from the 
North towards the South. When it 
came vertically over the stockade, it 
burst with a loud noise, and thousands 
upon thousands of little eagles fell 
into the prison pen. And then every 
prisoner began to catch the eaglets 
and to swallow them." 

In taking that oath, we swore to al- 
most everything, and that we did it 
"willingly, and of our own accord, 
without any mental reservation or eva- 
sion whatever." It was hard work, 
and I have an unpleasant sensation in 
my throat even now when I think of 

The Vicksburg and Gettysburg men 
were released first. They had been in 
prison nearly two years, and so anx- 
ious were they to get out, that they 
seemed to forget everything else. 
When the officer would call any com- 
mon name, as A. B. Jones, every Jones 
among them, some times as many as 
forty, would answer, and rush for the 
gate. The sentinel would stop them, 



and much time would be lost in find- 
ing A. B. Jones. 

I was released June 19th, 1865, just 
two months from the time I was car- 
ried to the Island. Transportation was 
given me, but I had only one dollar 
and a half with which to pay hotel 
bills. The first night I spent in Cleve- 
land, not at a first-class hotel, but upon 
a platform used in loading cars with 
coal. Early next morning, I went to 
market and bought me a pound of 
nice butter for 28 cents. Putting that 
into a tin bucket I had in my haver- 
sack, I ventured to buy five cents 
worth of loaf bread. 

We made close connection from 
Cleveland to Baltimore, passing 
through Pittsburg and Harrisburg. 
In Baltimore, it was necessary to see 
the quartermaster, and a refined and 
elegantly dressed lady volunteered to 
show us the way to his office. How 
my heart was stirred as she walked by 
my side and spoke kindly to me ! I 
shall never forget her. 

We left Baltimore and steamed 
down the Chesapeake in an old trans- 
port. At night I slept under the din- 
ing table. Mark how rapidly I was 
approaching a first-class hotel! The 
next day the bay was as smooth as a 
sheet of glass, and there was not a 
breath of air stirring. The deck was 
so crowded that I went upon the roof, 
preferring the broiling sun to the 
crowd. About twelve o'clock, what 
was left of my Cleveland butter 
melted and buttered me pretty well 
from head to foot. The cinders from 
the smoke stack seemed to have a nat- 
ural affinity for melted butter, and be- 
fore night I was a lovely looking ob- 

We landed at City Point a few min- 
utes too late. The only train that 
day had just gone. Not wishing to 
stay at City Point all day, Lieut. R. 
and I walked up to Petersburg. R. 
was engaged to a lady living in town, 
and insisted on my going with him to 
see her. I never could see why he 
wanted me with him, except to talk 
to her mother, in case she came into 
the parlor. I consented to go, on con- 
dition that the visit should be defer- 
red till night. In the meantime, I 
improved my toilet as much as I could 
by the use of soap, sand, and water. 
The mother seemed unduly excited, 
and I did not understand it at first. 
R. found his Phyllis seated on a sofa 
with a Yankee officer ! We beat a 
hasty retreat, and took up camp by 
the side of the cool spring which flows 
from the foot of Dunn's Hill, on the 
north side of the Appomattox. There 
we discussed our woes, and assuaged 
our wrath by deep draughts of cool 
water till the night was far spent. 
From R.'s condition next day, I should 
judge that that spring possessed won- 
derful curative properties. 

We found at Burkeville a large num- 
ber of Confederates, detained for the 
want of a train to carry them west. 
The Yankee authorities forbade our 
riding upon the passenger train of the 
I R. & D. R. R. I determined to out- 
wit them. I soon found that a cer- 
tain part of the tender was hid from 
the sentinels, and if I could catch 
hold of that as the train moved off, I 
could easily escape their notice. The 
train started, and I seized the tender. 
But just as I was congratulating my- 
self upon the success of my ruse, the 
train switched off and backed down to 



a more exposed position. Finally, 
they coupled on a box car loaded with 
loose hay and corn, in the door of 
which stood a sentinel. I saw at a 
glance, that to flank that sentinel was 
my only chance. Sauntering up to 
the car door in a careless way, I told 
him I lived fifty miles up that road, 
and that I wanted to ride with him. 
He appearing not to notice me, said, 
" When I give the signal, do you jump 
in and hide under the hay." Our plan 
was a success. 

When four or five miles from Burke- 
ville, I saw a light on the outside of 
our car, and looking out I found that 
one of the journals was burning 

fiercely, and that we were in great 
danger. I whooped and holloed, and 
notwithstanding our car was next 
to the tender, I could not make the 
engine people hear. I resolved not 
to jump till the fire forced me. I was 
going home. After a little while the 
tender ran off the track and our train 
stopped. Bidding my sentinel good- 
bye, I went to the rear of the train 
and laid me down to sleep upon the 
top of the ladies' car. 

As I walked into my mother's yard 
at 3J a. m., June 25th, 1865, the old 
" rooster" in the morello-cherry tree, 
crowed me a cordial welcome. 


In the first decades of the 15th cen- 
tury, the great transition period of 
history, all Europe lay in intellectual 
apathy, bound down in the fetters of 
feudalism and scholasticism, and en- 
vironed by the narrow dogmatism of 
the Romish Church. But the closing 
years of the century saw old things 
passing away, feudalism gone, scho- 
lasticism and the bigotry of the Mid- 
dle Ages fast disappearing before a 
great intellectual revival. 

And this revival, whose first breath, 
like the pure and invigorating breeze 
that sweeps off the snow-capped 
mountains, began to quicken the slum- 
bering energies of Europe, had its 
origin and centre at Florence. 

After the banner of Islam had been 
triumphantly planted upon the ram- 
parts of Constantinople, Florence re- 
ceived within her walls, as refugees 

from Turkish vengeance and Ottoman 
dominion, the talent, genius and 
learning of the Grecian world. 

The city by the Arno had long been 
the patron of art and learning. Amid 
stirring political scenes, the confused 
strifes that surged on year after year, 
and " the vain longing for the rich 
fruits of national happiness and pros- 
perity," she had not been forgetful of 
her intellectual excellencies. Early as 
the 14th century her enthusiasm for 
classical antiquity manifested itself, 
and the civilization of Greece and 
Rome, as the source and basis of cul- 
ture, took powerful possession of her. 
And these influences of antiquity, with 
their diverse sources and varied na- 
tures, powerless in themselves perhaps, 
but uniting together, finally gave their 
peculiar color to, and almost com- 
pletely transformed, the stream of 



Italian thought. So when Constanti- 
nople fell, and stern necessity com- 
pelled the Greek scholar to seek shelter 
in a foreign land, the fair reputation 
of Florence, and the encouragement 
Cosmo de Medici, Florence's first great 
promoter of letters, had previously 
extended in the name of his native 
city, drew many of the learned pro- 
fessors within her walls. 

And, indeed, there was no free city 
in all Europe, at that time, better fitted 
by liberality of culture, natural talents, 
and material prosperity, to become the 
guardian of Grecian lore and the pro- 
tector of ancient culture. Florence's 
recognized encouragement of art and 
learning, enormous wealth and natural 
predisposition, all rendered her espe- 
cially, the fitting receptacle of ancient 
art and classics, and prepared her per- 
manently for becoming the second 
great fountain head from which 
streams of knowledge were to flow 
forth to coming generations. 

With this valuable influx of learn- 
ing, there came naturally a sudden 
outburst of enthusiasm and a uni- 
versal awakening at Florence ; and 
although the full glory of the "new 
birth " can in no wise be, wholly, at- 
tributed to the influence of this tide 
of knowledge, yet Grecian lore was 
the electric spark that set ablaze the 
ready spirit and restless energy of the 

Lorenzo de Medici was at this time 
the great moving spirit in Italy. He 
held in his hands, by his princely wealth 
and matchless diplomacy, not only 
Florence, but all Italy. Renowned as 
his house was as the friend of learn- 
ing, and building as he did upon the 
broad foundation laid by Cosmo, he 

immediately drew around him the 
very flower of both Florentine and 
Grecian talent. The famous Platonic 
Academy received his patronage, and 
his whole policy was the embodiment 
of encouragement and support to the 
beautiful, whether in philosophy, paint- 
ing, poetry, sculpturing, or architect- 
ural art. 

Only in the great Platonic school 
could such men as Ficino, Pico and 
Politeano find a congenial atmosphere. 
There the Italian and Greek vied in 
their zeal and research, and there often 
occurred the wrestlings of these intel- 
lectual gladiators over the subtleties 
of Platonism. 

But the support of Lorenzo, and in 
Lorenzo the support of Florence, did 
not cease here. Lavishly was the 
wealth of their coffers expended in the 
encouragement of this new spirit. 
Grand libraries and seminaries of learn- 
ing were established. The burning 
zeal of the student was fanned into a 
flame; and no privation was deemed 
too severe, no labor too arduous in the 
acquisition of knowledge. Princes in 
wealth left homes of luxury for the 
arduous labors of the student's life ; and 
all Florence became aglow, and strain- 
ed every nerve in this " revival of let- 

For indeed it was in the field of let- 
ters that Florence drew her richest 
stores from antiquity. Painting, sculp- 
turing, architectural art, all received 
valuable contributions ; but nowhere 
did the influence of this revival so 
broaden and enlarge the mind as in 
the domain of letters. Everywhere in 
it there was the deepest research, the 
keenest penetration, and the closest 
scrutiny. Experimental science, poli- 


tics, and religion all were influenced. 
The resurrection and resuscitation of 
ancient manuscripts became the high- 
est objects in life. "The poetry of 
Homer, the drama of Sophocles, the 
philosophy of Aristotle and Plato, 
woke again into life, beneath the 
shadow of the dome with which Brun- 
elleschi had just crowned the city by 
the Arno ;" and the. sudden burst of 
the two great classic literatures upon 
the world was widely felt. 

Nor was it possible for Florence to 
be so thoroughly electrified by such a 
movement without communicating her 
enthusiasm to those beyond her pale. 
Indeed, the " new birth" soon turned 
the eyes of almost every nation to- 
wards Florence, and from every part 
of the Country scholars flocked across 
the Alps eager to learn " the key of 
the new knowledge" from the Floren- 
tine teacher, to study the regenerated 
languages, and revel in the mysticism 
of philosophy ; and having reaped the 
benefits of the new culture, they be- 
came channels through which the new 
spirit flowed out into their own lands. 

Among all the nations who were in- 
fluenced by the Italian revival, Eng- 
land is most noticeable, and she caught 
the enthusiasm at the very outset ; 
for hardly had the first echoes of the 
Florentine revival died away before 
they were resounded from the shores 
of England. Her scholars had been 
drawn early to Italy, and her repre- 
sentative leaders were zealously en- 
gaged in propagating the new doc- 
trines, when the full glory of the Ital- 
ian renascence burst upon the world. 

The suspicion and ill-will of Henry 
VII. imposed a serious check upon the 
English movement in its infancy ; but 


with the accession of Henry VIII., the 
Oxford reformers received the warmest 
encouragement and patronage, and 
the new learning entered upon its bril- 
liant career of reform. 

The English revival, however, dif- 
fered widely in its nature from the 
Italian. The latter was more intensely 
literary and humanistic. Its true 
drift will best be studied in the cluster 
of scholars and flatterers who hovered 
around the court of Lorenzo, the Mag-- 
nificent. Throwing themselves with 
the characteristic energy of the Flor- 
entines into the very heart of the 
movement, they withdrew completely 
from the lower classes, and wound 
about themselves a cloak of learning 
woven from their ideal antiquity, and 
dreamed of the golden age of the past, 
perfectly indifferent to the great mass, 
who, moving in their very midst, were 
enveloped in superstition and igno- 
rance. Forgetful of the practical and 
more important ends of life, they rev- 
elled in their revived classics and semi- 
pagan philosophies, deifying the he- 
roes of antiquity, worshipping pagan 
gods, and caring for little but pleasure, 
while the world around was almost 
hopelessly immoral, and full of cor- 
ruption and debauchery. 

Indeed, antiquity seemed with them 
to have risen like a great cloud, awing 
by its very grandeur, and overshad- 
owing all their native genius and orig- 
inality ; and thus the new learning 
gave to Florence those elegant dilet- 
tanti who form " the top dressing to 
that half brutal, half superstitious ig- 
norance which in such communities is 
the general portion of the poor." 

In England, however, the revival 
was more moral and pre-eminently 



practical in its various bearings, both 
in the religious and political world. As 
exemplified by its great leaders, Colet, 
Erasmus, and Sir Thomas More, 
it attempted the introduction of a 
rational and practical religion, a gener- 
ous and liberal system of instruction, 
and wise, far-advanced social and po- 
litical reforms. Colet and Erasmus 
utilized the practical good of the Ital- 
ian renascence, and uninfluenced by its 
paganistic tendencies, or literary en- 
thusi csm, directed their strongest 
blows against the mystical theology of 
the Middle Ages. Flinging aside its 
traditional dogmas, they aimed at such 
a reform in religion as would confer 
freedom of conscience, and the broad- 
est liberality; a reform, as they con- 
ceived, which was to be brought about 
by the elevating and liberalizing influ- 
ences or the new intellectual culture. 

And while Colet busied himself ex- 
clusively in intellectual and religious 
reforms, Sir Thorn: s More turned to 
the social and political field. He dis- 
covered and gave a solution, the wis- 
dom of which even the light of the 
19th century confirms, to those social 
and political problems — problems of 
crime, labor, law, and government, 
which centuries of perverted religious 
teaching, corruption, and political 
tyranny had given to the world, and 
whose rectification now became an 
imperative necessity. 

But neither the English nor the 

i . 

Italian renascence was destined to 
run its true course. In Italy the 

! seeds of discord had been sown, lib- 

1 eri:y was being sapped, and soon 
the great light of the revival which 

! had shed its rays around the world 
went down as the sun, the shadows of 
darkness fell around it, and it was lost 

I in the gloom of night. True, here and 
there as the night advanced a star 
would appear, but only to be obscured, 
and still the night reigned on. 

In England, the movement when it 
was reaching its zenith ran counter to 

i the Reformation, and the great wheel 
of Revolution as it ran its course 
crushed it ou f of existence. 

But while the revival of letters came 

j prematurely to its end, it nevertheless 
laid the germs of a work which en- 

i title it to the highest considera:'on. 
It was the means of the preservation 
of all that was great and good in 
ancient times, and for this alone the 

; world would be under untold obliga- 
tions. England was aroused from her 
stupor, and prepared for the political 
freedom, religioas liberty, and literary 
glories with which the close of the 
1 6th and the beginning of the 17th 
century crowned her. Who will cal- 

1 culate the worth of a movement that 
first broke the fetters of Catholicism, 
inspired freedom of thought and re- 
lisrious toleration ? 



[The family of Rev. Samuel Wait, D. D., have kindly permitted us to publish from his MS. the 
following, written between 1850 and i860. — Editors.] 

To the Rev. . 

My Dear Brother : — To give you a 
clear idea of the origin of Wake Forest 
College, I find it necessary to state 
some circumstances which preceded, 
and, in fact, led to that event. It may 
not be amiss to state that a train of 
circumstances, quite interesting in 
their bearing, brought me to North 
Carolina, late in January, 1827. With 
no view to settlement in this State I 
passed on, travelling much of the way 
alone, in a private carriage, from Nor- # 
folk, Va., through the lower part of 
this State, touching at the larger 
towns on the way, till I reached* 
Charleston, S. C. Circumstances quite 
unexpected terminated my journey at* 
this point. While lingering in Charles- 
ton a few weeks, I received a very 
friendly communication from the Bap-* 
tist church in Newbern to visit them 
on my return to the North, with a 
view to a permanent settlement among 
them as pastor, should we be mutually 
pleased with such an arrangement. 
With this request I complied. But, 
before leaving the city, I consulted 
Bro. B. Manly, then pastor of the 
only Baptist church in that town, in 
regard to the communication I had 
received. Bro. Manly is a native of 
North Carolina and was raised mostly 
in this State. I wished to know what 
he thought of the expediency of at- 
tempting, at once, the formation of a 
Baptist State Convention in North* 
Carolina. He thought the time had 

not come to make the attempt. He 
added, however, that he had no doubt 
the thing could be done after a few 
years. He said light was increasing 
in the good old North State. Virginia, 
he remarked, had her General Assem- 
bly on one side ; and South Carolina 
her Convention on the other ; and 
each was doing much, not only to ben- 
efit her own people, but also to elevate, 
by her example, the churches in North 
Carolina. My visit in Newbern, on 
my return, resulted in an engagement 
to become pastor of the church. Hav- 
ing spent about two months in New- 
bern on this visit, I returned to my 
family in July, from whom I had been 
separated since the preceding Decem- 
ber, and in November following I 
found myself and family located in a 
portion of the " Sunny South." The 
location of Newbern is not a favorable 
one for making extensive observations 
upon the condition of the churches. 
It is too far removed from the main 
" thoroughfare " through the State. 
But, shut up as I was, I found time 
to visit some of the churches in the 
country, and learn many things touch- 
ing their then present condition. The 
railroad recently constructed has sup- 
plied facilities for intercourse among 
many of the churches unknown thirty 
years ago. The first Association I 
had the pleasure of attending was the 
Neuse, held that year in October at 
Old Town Creek, in the county of 
Edgecombe. Only a short time was 



necessary to convince the most casual 
observer that the state of things in 
the churches composing that body 
was lamentably low. This was but 
too obvious from the tone of preach- 
ing heard at the meeting, and from 
the character of the discussions intro- 
duced into the Association. But a 
few years before the meeting to which 
I now refer, I was informed, a furious 
debate had sprung up, that threatened 
to destroy the very existence of the 
Association, touching the expediency 
of preaching funeral sermons. Not a 
few of the strongest men of that day 
took the ground that the practice in 
question was a monstrous evil. Much, 
too, going to show the actual condi- 
tion of the churches, could be learned 
from the kind of questions sent up 
for discussion, and the answers given, 
and from the minutes published by 
the Association. 

These minutes were usually found 
on four pages of small size, giving only 
the most common statistics, such as 
had occurred during the preceding 
year ; so many • baptized, added by 
letter, dead, excluded, present number, 
name of the pastor, time the meeting 
was held, where, who preached the 
first sermon, and who preached on the 
Sabbath, and where the Association 
would meet the next year. On exam- 
ining these minutes, you look in vain 
for anything going to show that the 
churches were awake to the idea that 
they were living under a heavy re- 
sponsibility to God, and that it was 
the duty of the churches composing 
the body to combine their whole 
strength for the purpose of doing the 
largest possible amount of good. On 
becoming some little acquainted with 

the history of the Baptist denomina- 
tion in North Carolina, I found that, 
perhaps forty or fifty years ago, a so- 
ciety had been formed for the purpose 
of providing a larger amount of preach- 
ing among the churches. This move- 
ment was announced by a very sensi- 
ble and appropriate address written 
by our brother Elder Josiah Crudup. 
Of this society the late lamented El- 
der R. T. Daniel became the general 

| agent. Its career was but a short one. 

| "From the minutes, some of which I 

I have seen, there can be no doubt, but 
that the b ethren who put their hand 
to this work were actuated by pure 
motives. But, in their zeal, they seem 
to have attempted too much. With- 
out having taken as much care as 
should have been taken, when arrang- 

j ing the plan on which they would op- 
erate, they made the impression, as 

! was alleged, that every church which 
contributed to raise funds would be 
supplied with preaching, at least once 
a month. 

Hence, some churches which had 
not raised five dollars, expected a reg- 
ular and acceptable supply of preach- 
ing. It was in vain that the Board 
labored to show them that what they 
looked for was utterly impossible. 
They still held on upon the promise, 
or what they regarded as a promise. 
And more than twenty years after- 
ward, when the Baptist State Conven- 
tion was brought into existence, in 
such parts of the State as had been 
visited by Elder R. T. Daniel, the 
very worst opposition I had to en- 
counter, grew out of the matter I am 
now considering. The charge was 
that promises had been made by the 
friends of the missionary cause that 


had not been kept. No wonder, then, 
that this old society continued in ex- 
istence only a few years. Only a year 
or two before the Baptist State Con- 
vention of North Carolina was formed, 
another attempt was made to provide 
more effectually for the spread of the 
/ Gospel, particularly in North Carolina. 
S This was a very timid beginning. It 
/ was called, I think, a " Benevolent* 
I Society." It was, probably, at the 
/ second anniversary, held at Greenville, 
\ Pitt county, N. C, in March (or April), 

! 1,830, that the Baptist State Convene 
tion of North Carolina was organized. 
By previous appointment, I preached* 
the introductory sermon. Text, Matt. 
9th chapter, 36, 37 and 38 verses." 
Quite a respectable number of dele- 
gates were in attendance. A very 
friendly conversation was held, and 
the conclusion to which the brethren 
came, without a dissenting voice, was, 
that the time had come to form a Con-* 
vention for the entire State of North 
Carolina. Never, in all my life, have 
I seen manifested a better spirit than 
was exhibited on that occasion. Our 
I late lamented Thomas Mered ith, then 
living in Edenton, was present ; and, 
having anticipated the wishes of the 
brethren, had drawn up a constitution,* 
such, as he supposed, would substan- 
I tially embrace their views. This doc- 
' ument was read article by article, and 
a perfectly friendly discussion took 
place. Some amendments and altera- 
tions were made, when, with entire 
unanimity, the constitution was 

Following the order of events, it 
should have been stated that a resolu- 
tion was first passed, dissolving the* 
Benevolent Society, and transferring 

the small amount of funds in hand to 
the Convention to be formed without 
delay. Knowing that nothing could 
.be done without an agent, the Con- 
vention appointed myself, what the 
brethren chose to call, General Agent, 
at a salary of one jdollar a day ; the 
entire outfit and all expenses in trav- 
elling to be borne by myself. At the 
close of the meeting a deep and sol- 
emn feeling seemed to pervade the 
entire body. 

Look at their condition. It must 
not be forgotten that they were few 
and feeble, and the work in which 
they were about to engage, was held, 
by the churches generally, in no high 
repute. The Convention lacked men 
and means. Add to this the fact that 
at this time we had no periodical of 
any kind by. which we could, at once, 
make our plans known to all the Bap- 
tist churches in North Carolina. 

Before a resolution to adjourn was 
passed, an opportunity was given for 
remarks upon the occasio.n that any 
might be disposed to make. A very 
general and friendly conversation fol- 
lowed. All felt and expressed the 
necessity of preserving the most 
friendly relations among ourselves. 
One point, I remember, pressed with 
much earnestness, and concurred in 
by all, was a most rigid adherence to 
our constitution. All agreed that no 
departure from it could, for a moment, 
be allowed, without the consent of all 
concerned. We also settled another 
principle : we determined that we 
would have no noisy contention with 
any one. 

It was determined that the agent 
should visit as many churches as pos- 
sible, preach the gospel, and then ex-. 



plain the objects of the Convention,- 
setting forth, with as much plainness 
as possible, the provisions and safe- 
guards of the constitution, and then,* 
on behalf of the Convention, invite* 
the co-operation of all who felt willing 
to put forth a helping hand. A diffi- 
culty now presented itself. I came 
with reluctance to North Carolina. 
All of the family friends of myself 
and wife were left behind. Before 
any step had been taken for the for- 
mation of the Convention, I had com- 
menced negotiations preparatory to a 
return to the church of which I had 
been ordained as pastor. The arrange- 
ments were nearly completed ; only 
one obstacle stood in my way. A 
stern sense of duty had brought me 
to North Carolina, after I had been 
favored with some opportunity to 
know the actual condition of the 
churches. I could not, therefore, for- 
get the last meeting I enjoyed with a 
large number of my friends at the 
North, before leaving for a residence 
in North Carolina. The text was, 
" For ye are not your own," &c. It 
was a deeply affecting time. I was 
preaching in the pulpit first occupied 
by my venerated grandfather Wait, 
whose ashes were then reposing within 
fifty yards of the spot on which I 
stood. Before me was a large congre- 
gation composed, to a great extent, 
of my relatives and friends. Within 
a short distance, in plain sight, stood 
(and, as I hope still stands) the house 
in which I was born. Many of the 
older portion of the congregation had 
known me from my infancy. As I 
was now about to rend myself off 
from all the endearments and associa- 
tions which naturally cluster around 

the place of one's nativity, I was 
anxious to let them know that I was 
influenced solely by a conscientious 
view of what appeared to be duty. 
And when, nearly three years after- 
wards, I was led by a train of cir- 
cumstances, to deliberate upon the 
question whether it was duty to leave 
North Carolina, I could not forget the 
considerations that brought me at the 
first to this State. Still, for a brief 
period I had about settled the ques- 
tion, and took my seat to give a final 
answer, in writing, to a most affection- 
ate people who were doing what they 
could to induce me to return to them 
again. But only a few moments be- 
fore I began to write, the thought 
occurred to me with great force, that 
it would be best not to commit myself 
absolutely to the church at the North ; 
but rather give such an account of the 
actual destitution of ministers in 
North Carolina as would be suited to 
let all see that, while more ministers 
were much desired among our North- 
ern churches, still they were much 
better supplied with preachers than 
were churches in this State. This 
view of the case left me at liberty to 
to make any arrangements that I 
might think would be compatible with 
the duty I owed to the Master. 

The time soon arrived when I was 
compelled, by circumstances over 
which I had no control, to decide 
whether or not I would engage in the 
work to which I was appointed by the 
Convention. One circumstance con-> 
tributed not a little in making a de- 
cision. And that was, if I failed, there 
seemed not the remotest probability 
of obtaining the service of any other 



man. We were all fully convinced 
that the services of an active agent 
were indispensable to success. While 
I was aware of my own unfitness for 
the work, and would gladly have given 
place to any other brother that would 
have been acceptable to the Conven- 
tion, I was satisfied that I must accept 
the appointment, and do what I could, 
or the Convention would have no 
agent at all. This point being settled, 
I addressed myself to the work before 
me with as little loss of time as possi- 
ble. The Board of the Convention at 
my own request gave me instructions 
touching the course I was to pursue, 
as definite as the nature of the case 
would admit. To obtain a correct 
view of the state of thing's then ex- 
isting in the Baptist churches of 
North Carolina, it must not be for- 
gotten that, with few exceptions, they 
had never been favored with an en- 
lightened ministry. Too often the 
question was, not what is the plain, 
common-sense meaning of a text un- 
der consideration, and what the prac- 
tical use to be made of the import of 
the- passage, but rather, what is the 
hidden, mysterious, and spiritual mean- 
ing of the passage in question. Hence, 
the most useless debates conceivable 
have often sprung up among minis- 
ters at Associations, and private 
brethren at home. I remember to 
have been asked o; two occasions, 
what was the mean ng of the asser- 
tion, "And John did outrun Peter." 
When I suggested that I thought the 
text simply expressed a fact, and that 
fact was, that John ran faster than 
Peter, it was immediately intimated 
that there must be a spiritual mean- 
ing in the passage. And continuing 

his remarks, my brother went on to 
say for my edification, that John was 
the beloved disciple, and was allowed 
the most friendly intimacy with the 
Saviour, and on account of this his 
feelings were buoyant ; whereas, Pe- 
ter had just denied his Lord and Mas- 
ter, and, besides this, had used lan- 
guage shockingly profane ; his spirits 
were heavy, and he was greatly bowed 
down ; how could he run fast ? The 
intimation was, that the guilt upon 
his conscience was very much of the 
nature of an enormous pack upon his 
back. The parable, too, of the prodi- 
gal son has often been made to sup- 
ply a most appropriate theme for a 
baptismal occasion. 

The business of the minister, it was 
supposed, consisted mainly, if not ex- 
clusively, in giving the spiritual mean- 
ing; of almost everything- mentioned 
in the Bible. Hence, all the fixtures 
of Noah's ark must be so explained as 
to furnish the spiritual import of every 
part and parcel thereof. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that 
such an entire misapprehension of the 
proper mode of explaining the Scrip- 
tures should be connected, in many in- 
stances, with very defective notions of 
Christian duty. In some instances, the 
very quintessence of religion was made 
to consist in an obstinate adherence 
to some of the highest points in di- 
vinity, and the most difficult to be ex- 
plained. Persons who never erected 
the family altar, or showed the least 
concern to their children and 
servants trained up in the way they 
should go, and, in a word, in their 
daily life, showing no difference be- 
tween themselves and others who 
made no pretension to religion, have 



often been known ' to clamor most 
about their orthodoxy, their soundness 
in the faith, and the marvellous in their 
experience. No persons deal more in 
severe denunciations of others, or 
manifest a more uncharitable spirit 
than do these. These suggestions 
naturally lead us to expect that, as a 
general thing, discipline, sound gospel 
discipline, was greatly neglected. Few 
of the churches manifested that they 
had a clear perception of the design 
of the Savior in the organization of 
Christian churches on earth. It is 
not therefore surprising that, when it 
pleased the Lord to wake up some to 
a proper sense of their individual duty 
to the heathen perishing in their sins, 
so many were perfectly astonish- 
ed. They seem not to have had the 
faintest conception that it could be 
the duty of any one to attempt to 
visit the opposite side of the globe 
to preach Christ and him crucified. 
As they had no such impressions 
themselves, the probability is that 
many honestly thought that the idea 
of tearing one's self away from all the 
endearments of home, and encounter- 
ing all the hazards incident upon a 
life among the heathen, was entitled 
to no respect whatever, and could 
only be regarded as the ravings of a 
distempered brain. 

The views entertained in some of 
the best informed portions of New 
England, now nearly fifty years ago, 
as expressed when it became known 
that the first Mrs. Judson was about 
to leave her native land for a life-time 
residence on the opposite side of the 
globe, fully sustained the positions 
just laid down. But the most im- 
portant consideration connected with 

the point under review is that the 
true sense and import of the Scrip- 
tures, and the design of our Heavenly 
Father in giving us the Bible, seem 
not to have been generally understood. 
It is by the preaching of the Gospel, 
and nothing else, that we have reason 
to believe that souls will be converted. 
Until the truth revealed in the Scrip- 
tures is brought fairly in contact with 
the conscience, we have no reason to 
expect that the church will be mani- 
fested as the salt of the earth, and 
the light of the world. It is due to 
the cause of truth to add, that a dis- 
position was found in the churches to 
listen, with candor, to statements de- 
signed to promote their lasting pros- 
perity. If some individuals were dis- 
posed to be captious, there were others 
to counteract their influence. A lax 
discipline is only what would naturally 
result from what has just been men- 
tioned above. Offences of a nature 
calculated greatly fo impair confidence 
in a body professing to be a Christian 
church were often passed over with- 
out any notice at all. Intemperance, 
neglect of public worship, neglect of 
the Lord's supper, indulgence in un- 
christian and vindictive feelings in 
cases of unhappy variance, were among 
the cases that illustrate the truth of 
what I am now considering. No one 
at all acquainted with the teachings 
of the Scriptures could look on and 
watch the movements of the churches 
without meeting with numerous and 
affecting proofs, going to show that 
the standard of morality and heart- 
felt piety were at an exceedingly low 

Never in my life have I witnessed 
such a mortifying prostration of al- 


most every trait by which a gospel 
church ought to be distinguished, as I 
found in North Carolina. I had been 
in the field as Agent of the Conven- 
tion but a short time, before I became 
fully convinced that something must 
be done to elevate the tone of feeling 
and of piety among the churches. 
One of the first steps to effect this, 
that occurred to me, was the estab- 
lishment of a religious periodical. As 
soon as the thing was practicable, I 
consulted leading brethren upon this 
subject. Upon this point I found but 
one opinion. Without waiting longer, 
at an early day I began to solicit sub- 
scriptions for the contemplated paper. 
The individuals to whom I applied 
were informed that I could not say 
who would be the editor, at what place 
it would be printed, whether it would 
be a monthly or a weekly, what would 
be its name, or what would be the 
price. I could only say it was in con- 
templation to commence a religious 
periodical of some sort, and that the 
whole management of the thing would 
be in the hands of the Convention. 
Vague and indefinite as all my state- 
ments upon this project were, from 
necessity, I obtained nearly 200 sub- 
scribers. I found, at length, that a 
paper could not be commenced at that 
time by forming a company for that 
purpose. The most reliable men we 
had began to quail. They wanted to 

know who would advance the requisite 
funds — will there not be a debt 
created? how about that ? &c. Such 
were some of the questions which 
served clearly to show the state of 
feeling in regard to this matter. At 
length, our late lamented T. Meredith, 
single-handed and alone, with feeble 
health and limited means, undertook 
the business. He commenced with a 
monthly called the Interpreter; but, as 
soon as circumstances favored, he be- 
gan to issue the Biblical Recorder 
weekly. The history of this enterprise 
is already well understood. How much 
such a paper was needed at that time 
to impart general information, may be 
inferred from the fact that so little 
was known of the actual condition of 
the Baptist denomination in North—. 
Carolina, it was not without much 
effort that I ascertained the number of s 
Associations in this State. This, after 
a long time, I found to be fourteen, \ 
three of which were partly in adjoin- 
ing States. About one half of Moriah ' 
and Broad River Associations were in 
South Carolina, and about one half of 
Mayo Association was in Virginia. 
And having no means of diffusing in- 
telligence among the churches, it is 
no wonder that no interest seemed to 
be felt to know the condition of the 
denomination in North Carolina. 
( To be concluded^) 





To the friends of The STUDENT 
and to all who take an interest in us 
we have a few things to say. 

The novelty of a magazine at Wake 
Forest College has not yet worn off ; 
but one set of editors have served 
their time, and with this number the 
new editors take the places of the old 
ones. It was with many misgivings 
on the part of the former editors that 
The Student was " set adrift on the 
tide of public opinion." Since then, 
however, on account of the favor and 
liberality with which it has been re- 
ceived, and on account of the zeal and 
energy of its editors, our magazine 
has been firmly established, and placed 
on a basis far exceeding our most san- 
guine expectations. Despite adverse 
criticism, and the usual predictions of 
failure from the prophets of evil, we 
think our magazine compares favor- 
ably with those edited in a similar 

We enter upon our new duties be- 
lieving we, at least, realize the respon- 
sibility of our positions, and though 
with some misgivings as to our com- 
petency, yet we shall try to make the 
magazine all it has been, and nothing 
will be left undone to make THE 
Student stand among the first of 
College magazines. Our success in 
the future, as heretofore, depends 
largely on our friends. It will be our 
object to furnish good, wholesome 
reading, such as will benefit as well as 

Our Alumni throughout this and 
other States can do much towards our 
advancement. We shall expect their 
support and contributions, as has been 
the case in the past. Our friends can 
help us, but we would not leave the 
impression that we are begging for 
literary or pecuniar}- aid. W r e thank 
those who have aided us, and ask a 
continuance of their support and en- 


This saying applies to those of us 
who are now at College, as well as to 
the soldier. 

Everything here is now running 
I smoothly ; there is a calm resting upon 
us, but the calm will not last always. 
Away off, no larger now than a man's 
hand, is a cloud. Surely and steadily 
it is drawing nearer — soon the storm 
will be upon us. and the frail bark 
must go under. W hen the storm 
comes the ship must be in full trim. 
The examinations will soon be here — 
they look far away now, but before 
you are aware of it. the session will 
have slipped by, and then woe to the 
bark whose ropes are not taut, whose 
ballast is not securely stowed away ; 
for when the winds and waves strike, 
great will be the ruin. 

Now is the time to begin to do faith- 
ful, honest work. 1 1 will be too late for 
many to wait till only a few days be- 
fore examination, and then begin the 
cramming process. This is not the 
time to lie idly on our oars, drifting 

EDITORIAL "In Time of Peace Prepare for War " Biography. 19 

with the tide, but to begin work at once, 
and begin right. Some of us with 
more experience, perhaps, have learned 
the value of beginning right. 

With some of us our College course 
is almost a thing of the past— it is too 
late, and it is useless for us to think 
of the wasted hours, the half-prepared 
lesson, and the duties disregarded ; 
but we can give you the benefit of our 
experience, hoping that all your reso- 
lutions may be kept — all your air- 
castles prove realities, and that your 
fanciful dreams may not be like ours — 
altogether unrealized — dreams, which 
were dreamed at the expense of 
countless hours — hours, whose value 
is appreciated because they are lost 

"A lie in one's work is like a lie in 
his character — it will show itself sooner 
or later, and bring harm, if not ruin." 
Be honest with yourselves, honest with 
your instructors, and honest with your 
parents. And, finally, if the gale is 
weathered, if successfully you pass 
through the firey ordeal in store for 
every one of us, how proud you will 
be to tell the ones at home of your 
success ! How proud to feel the con- 
sciousness of duty done ! 

Then gracefully you may wear the 
"furlough grin," and complacently 
look down on the discomfiture of the 
hapless ones who have neglected in 
time of peace to prepare for war. 


The more we think of it, the more 
truthful seems this saying: " Man is 
perennially interesting to man ; nay, if 
we look strictly to it, there is nothing 
else interesting." Whatever engrosses 
the popular mind or stirs the emotions 

of men, does so by virtue of its rela- 
tion to man. Dull must be the study 
of the earth — rock, and water, and 
soil — when we leave out of view the 
gradual preparation of it to be the 
abode of man ; and likewise dull, its 
widening circles of life, without that 
life which surrounds and completes 
them all. The charm of history lies 
in its bringing up to the light man in 
other times and under other condi- 
tions. In literature, in general, that 
which attracts is either the man por- 
trayed, or the man portraying. When 
by chance " the proper study of man- 
kind" is discarded, conversation loses 
warmth and ere long dies. The same 
holds in art. Says Carlyle: "Had 
the Transfiguration been painted 
without human hand, had it grown 
merely on the canvas, say by atmos- 
pheric influences, as lichen-pictures do 
on rocks — it were a grand picture 
doubtless, yet nothing like so grand 
as the picture which, on opening our 
eyes, we everywhere in heaven and 
earth see painted, and everywhere pass 
over with indifference — because the 
painter was not a man" 

Biography, therefore, the special 
business of which is to show us men, 
must in itself be interesting. Its neg- 
lect by the reading public is to be ex- 
plained by other considerations, as the 
commonplace subjects, of which there 
are too many, or the commonplace 
way in which worthy subjects are pre- 
sented ; or, further, the inability of 
the reader to appreciate the circum- 
stances, motives, and sentiments which 
moulded and ruled the life delineated. 

What are the uses of biography ? 
We shall mention four. Acquaintance 
with the great and good of other times 



strips one of conceit of character or 
acquisition by putting the narrowness 
and vacuity of his life in contrast with 
the breadth and richness of theirs. It 
cultivates liberal views and generous 
constructions. It reveals the wisdom 
of looking on both sides of a question. 
In short, as the fortune of numbering 
among one's personal friends a truly 
noble man is of incalculable value, so 
the intimate knowledge of the thoughts 
and aims, the trials and triumphs of a 
great man, revealed in a skilful biog- 
raphy, is, for the correction of one's 
littlenesses and the fashioning of char- 
acter, without estimate. 

Secondly, in the biography of the 
great we get another pair of eyes ; or, 
as one has expressed it, biography en- 
ables us not only to look into a man, 
but also to out of him, to view things 
altogether as he views them. We think 
his thoughts, feel his impulses, and, 
with the advantage of his wide expe- 
rience and keen penetration, rejoice in 
a thousand things, beautiful or im- 
portant, which our weaker vision could 
never have discovered. 

It is worth more than appears at first 
right, to be able in these grasping and 
selfish times to recur to an heroic life 
shining like a glorious mountain above 
the mist and gloom of the lower world. 
We say, " Here is a life which makes 
amends for all the rest." It strength- 
ens our trust in God, and feeds our 
faith in the sublime destiny yet pos- 
sible for the race. Sidney Smith once 
said: "When I turn from living spec- 
tacles of stupidity, ignorance, and 
malice, and wish to think better of 
the world, I remember my great and 
benevolent friend Mackintosh." 

The last use of biography to which 
we shall refer is, perhaps, the most 
important. In every man's life there 
is more or less of struggle against ne- 
cessity, or, as we should rather say, 
struggle to adjust himself to what is 
necessary, and still to live. In every 
path of life, from the lowest and 
roughest, to the smoothest and highest, 
has walked some one of those who for 
the world have wrought courageously 
and effectively. So that, no matter 
under what burden an aspiring heart 
has to toil, or how many lions confront 
it in the way to the palace Beautiful, 
it may gather courage and strength 
from the story of another that, under 
the same load, and in the face of the 
same opposition, has yet triumphed. 
The inspiration of a great character — 
who can estimate it ! With the Iliad 
Alexander went forth to the conquest 
of the East ; and, more than his sword, 
the portrait of the magnificent Achilles 
was that which won his victories. A 
despondent lad comes upon that treas- 
ure, My Schools and Schoolmasters ; 
he sees Hugh Miller by day in the 
quarry, and at night mixing the oat- 
meal for the workmen ; and by-and-by 
he finds him recognized as the first 
geologist of his time. Exclaiming, 
" Courage, heart !" he is a new lad in 
a new world, with light ahead. We 
may add that biography not unfre- 
quently changes the aim of one's life, 
or supplies a worthy object of ambi- 
tion where it has been wanting. 

We should be glad to append a list 
of valuable biographies, but reliable 
aid in this matter can be found in the 
14th chapter of Dr. Porter's Books and 

EDITORIAL— Greek and Latin vs. English. 



Quoth David to Daniel, " Why is it these scholars 
Abuse one another whenever they speak ?" 

Quoth Daniel to David, "It nat'rally f oilers 
Folks come to hard words if they meddle with 
Greek !" — Saxe. 

How true that last verse ! How 
many hard words are met, and with 
what hard sayings are they saluted ! 
Four long years in Latin, four long 
years in Greekffour long years among 
horribly staring visages, four long 
years in the gloomy desolation of an 
unknown tongue! Poor Selkirks ! 
The wonder is that we, too, do not 
forget how to speak English in these 
long years of absence from it. 

" Son, what good will all this hard 
work in Greek and Latin do you ?" 
asks many a plain, affectionate, good- 
hearted father of his favorite boy, 
when giving his many ups and downs 
in these studies. The boaster is as- 
tounded. He had never thought of 
that before. Suddenly he remembers, 
and answers, " Professor says the study 
of them trains the mind, enables us to 
acquire great delicacy and variety of 
expression — cultivates the imagina- 
tion, and acquaints us with a great 
many words of our own language." 
The honest old soul takes it for 
' granted that these are all good reasons 
though he can't see through them, 
and says no more. 

No one will deny that a well trained 
mind, tact in composition and expres- 
sion, a fine imagination, a knowledge 
of what his own words mean, each has 
immense practical utility; and, in fact, 
the great demand for skill and acute- 
ness in every department of mental 
labor, for vivid imagination and talent 
in literary composition, attaches a real 

money value to these so-called fruits 
of classical study. But the question 
is not whether these acquirements 
have any value, but whether the toil- 
some course of study in Latin and 
Greek usually taken is the proper or 
most practical method of securing 
these results. If from four to six 
years of hard labor in learning ger- 
unds, infinitives, final clauses, se- 
quences, subjunctives, mysterious ac- 
cents, tongue-twisting pronunciations, 
and barbarous phrases, in scratching 
into musty old scraps and fossils, in 
knocking off and sticking on endings, 
in tearing apart and hitching together 
an endless collection of roots and 
stems, in memorizing and unmemoriz- 
ing, can be called training the mind, 
then it must be admitted that there is 
none other method known among men 
whereby the mind can be trained so 
well. But the modern languages make 
a wonderful approach to Greek and 
Latin in value as a means of mental 
discipline, and being much more close- 
ly allied to our language, furnish us 
with a proportionately greater knowl- 
edge of it ; so that these modern 
languages, besides being learned with 
greater facility, and likely to prove 
valuable in themselves, compensate in 
this way for their inferiority in drill- 
ing the mind, if there be such inferi- 

As a means of cultivating taste and 
style, a close study of the classics will 
undoubtedly afford us good results. 
Yet the same amount of labor expen- 
ded in studying the richness, copious- 
ness, and the elegance of the Anglo- 
Saxon would accomplish for us truly 
astonishing results. From this we can 
learn an honesty and exactness of ex- 



pression, a clearness and simplicity, 
more truly noble than the pomp of 
words, with which the boasted sim- 
plicity of Greek could scarcely com- 

The relative values of the ancient 
and modern languages in cultivating 
the imagination cannot be discussed 
here. Suffice it to say, that the most 
popular works of any tongue are its 
works of imagination, and the easy 
access to these works in the modern 
tongues speaks decidedly in favor of 
studying them for this, even if their 
inferiority in imaginative excellence 
were established. 

Not the least, and perhaps the 
greatest, benefit derived from the 
study of Latin and Greek, is a better 
knowledge of the English. The length 
of time and amount of labor necessary 
to learn these few incorporated foreign 
words make them an exceedingly 
costly element in our language. The 
student gives his time day and night 
to the study of his grammar, his text, 
his vocabulary ; he toils with all his 
mind in turning from one tongue to 
another, for from four to six or eight 
years, in the hope of learning some- 
thing about his own language. But, 
alas ! when he thinks his toils are over 
and his last work in Greek and Latin 
is done, he hears his instructor bid 
farewell to the class by saying they 
have just made a beginning, and re- 
gretting he can go with them no further. 
Oh ! is not all this study of the classics 
for the sake of the tyrant Custom ? 
And if this is but a beginning, well 
might the disconsolate student cry 
out to the tyrant with the sob of the 
broken-hearted goddess, 

Quem das finem , rex magne, laborum ? 

And again, all these years of toil 
are spent in learning, at most, only 30 
per cent, of the words in our vocabu- 
lary, while only one or two years of 
hurried study is devoted to the Anglo- 
Saxon department, which the philolo- 
gists tell us contains from 60 to 90 
per cent, of all our words. 

The object of this short article is to 
create among our students a greater 
desire for becoming acquainted with 
their mother tongue. The number of 
students in our Latin and Greek 
schools approaches a hundred each, 
while the department of English lan- 
guage cannot boast of a score and a 
half ! Will you spend all your most 
valuable time in digging up ar\d clas- 
sifying these scaly old fossils, neglect- 
ing almost entirely the Anglo-Saxon, 
whose very words are like spells of 
music, neglecting the tongue that gave 
us father, mother, home, notwithstand- 
ing it lies alone like an infant in its 
quiet slumbers, needing scarce a touch 
to wake it into a radiant, smiling, liv- 
ing source of joy ? It is far more 
practical than either of the others ; 
you know that. And if you have as- 
pirations toward effective oratory or 
composition, you cannot do better 
than to study your own tongue in its 
purity. Dr. Whately, in his Rhetoric, 
tells us that the more specific, indi- 
vidual, concrete, the words used, the 
more force or energy will they possess 
in comparison with such as are more 
general or abstract. And this, some 
of us remember, our instructor told us 
was the 44 point of all points, to be 
studied, to be delayed on, dwelt on, 
and put into practice." Now, so full 
of special terms, of names of things is 
the Saxon, that it is hardly possible to 

EDITORIAL - Greek and Latin vs. English. 


'conceal our thoughts,' or avoid being 
clear and energetic when we use un- 
adulterated English. The same author 
says, the object being to excite horror, 
the most particular expressions are put 
into Antony's oration over Caesar; 
but could Shakspeare have used any 
but " particular " expressions, if he 
confined himself to good, simple Eng- 
lish? Those of us who have tried to 
turn the hard abstractions of Macau- 
lay, Arnold, Prescott, Grote, into 
Greek, know what labor it cost us to 
get them into the right shape for that 
concrete and simple language. Now 
try to turn into Greek some good 
Saxon writing, like the Bible or Mil- 
ton, and you will be surprisingly con- 
vinced of the simplicity in the pure 
article. Such is the adaptability of 
good Saxon to being rendered into 
Greek that Milton's ' Samson Agon- 
istes' and ' Comus' can now be ob- 
tained in Greek verse as well as Eng- 

Continued neglect of English for 
an ancient language, as in case of the 
writer, will impress upon one as noth- 
ing else will, the great importance of 
studying his own language. A com- 
mon sense view of these things, then, 
will indicate a more thorough ac- 
quaintance with that which will be of 
most service. Do not understand me, 
however, in comparing the numbers 
of the students of ancient and modern 
languages to advise any to forsake the 
former for the latter. This was done 
merely to show the inequality of in- 
terest in the two, and the injustice 
done to the mother tongue. The equi- 
librium should be gained by throwing 

more mind into English study. But 
by no means let your interest in Latin 
and Greek grow cold. Read, study, 
memorize them. A knowledge of 
them is now more clamorously de- 
manded than perhaps ever before. 
Especially is an acquaintance with the 
latter beneficial in this day when 
quarrels of divines and "hard words" 
between scholars and authorities make 
us afraid to believe what we read in 
the Bible unless we have at hand a 
good Greek text and a standard lexi- 
con (!). 

It is even to be hoped that soon 
prose composition will become a com- 
mon every-day affair, and that Latin 
and Greek verse composition will be 
practiced among us as extensively as it 
is in England. Adorn and strengthen 
your own language, discipline your 
mind, cultivate your taste and style 
in composition by all such legitimate 
means. Learn to tell what you wish 
to, by giving simple facts. What a 
scene of rapture and joy does Xeno- 
phon paint with " Thalatta ! Thalatta !" 
What deeds of horror and cruelty 
does Caesar relate in his simple " Fit 
magna caedes." Study them, no mat- 
ter how closely and diligently, pro- 
vided you bestow a like courtesy on 
your own tongue. Fall in love with 
their niceties and balancings, no mat- 
ter how passionately, provided you 
cultivate a due appreciation of the 
elegance, strength, and vivacity of 
your Saxon. Eulogize the Latin and 
Greek no matter how lavishly, but let 
your first care be to frame that eulogy 
in clean, undefiled, faultless, English. 




— Harvard received nearly $400,- 
OOO in bequests last year. 

— Wake Forest College up to 
date has registered 138 students. 

— Brown University expects to 
have a Freshman class of 75 or 80 this 

— Girard College, Philadelphia, 
sustained a severe loss in the death of 
its President, Prof. Allen, on the 29th 

— Columbia College, N. Y., is 
said to be the richest college in Amer- 
ica. It has an endowment fund of 
$4, 800, OCX). 

— Vanderbilt University had a 
larger attendance than any school in 
the South the past session. Its rolls 
showed 603 students. 

— Mr. Geo. I. Seny, a benevolent 
New York banker, has recently given 
another $25,000 to Shorter Female 
College, Rome, Ga. 

— SEVEN of the Professors of Union 
College, N. Y., have preferred charges 
of untruthfulness and incompetency 
against the President. 

— THE Chicago Board of Education 
has declined to adopt a rule dismissing 
all women teachers who are guilty of 
the atrocious crime of marriage. 

— MRS. SHAW, a Boston lady, daugh- 
ter of the late Prof. Agassiz, supports 
33 kindergartens in and about that 
city. It costs her $25,000 a year. 

— A school for training shepherds 
has been established in Algeria. The 
pupils are instructed in all that affects 
the breeding and rearing of sheep. 

— Michigan University is in trou- 
ble. The regents asked for the resig- 
nation of Prof. L. A. Joy. He refused 
to hand it in, and the end is not yet. 

— During the last commencement 
season 75 colleges conferred 206 hon- 
orary degrees, 115 of which were in 
Divinity, 45 in the Law, and 14 in 

— President Sullins, of Emory 
and Henry College, Va., recently made 
a tour through the North and secured 
$18,000 towards the endowment fund 
of that institution. 

— The statistics of the Yale College 
class of '82 are as follows: No fewer 
than 72 confess to a love of "the flow- 
ing bowl," 67 are smokers, 57 chew, 
40 gamble, 52 use profanity, and 14 
are engaged. 

— Col. Alfred Shorter, of Rome, 
Ga., died last July. He was a wealthy 
man, and after the death of his wife, 
a few years since, built what is known 
as the Shorter College, at Rome. It 
is an ornament to the city and to the 

— Dr. Leroy W. Brown, formerly 
Professor of Mathematics at Vander- 
bilt University, was recently elected 
President of the Alabama Agricultural 
and Mechanical College at Auburn. 
Prof. W. J. Waughn, of the University 
of Alabama, succeeds him. 

— PROF. M. W. Humphreys, Pro- 
fessor of Greek at Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity, was recently elected President of 
the American Philological Association, 
at Cambridge, Mass. It is a new thing 
for a Southern man to be thus honored. 


— Co-education seems to be gain- 
ing popularity in the South. At the 
last meeting of the Board of Trustees 
of the University of Mississippi, it 
was decided to admit women to all 
the advantages of the University. 
Boys, how would you like to have 
some girls here at Wake Forest ? 

— THE Centennial Graded School of 
Raleigh, under the superintendence of 
Prof. A. J. McAlpin, opened with 483 
children in their seats. In 1880 it 
openecf with 407 ; last year with 400. 
Including the Principal, there are 
eleven instructors. On the 13th inst., 
there were 560 pupils in attendance. 

— The Southern Baptist Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Louisville had, on the 
1st inst., the best opening in its his- 
tory. Seventy-seven students were 
present, and thirty more were ex- 
pected. Michigan, Kansas, Indiana, 
Mexico, and the District of Columbia 
were represented, as well as the South- 
ern States. 

— The free industrial institute at 
Worcester, Mass., has been training 
pupils in mechanical and other special 
education for a number of years, and 
now graduates classes of two hundred 
annually, who have pursued a course 
of learning and actual labor for three 
years, until they are thoroughly equip- 
ped for their trades. 

— We are glad to state that Bing- 
ham's School was not seriously incom- 
moded by the loss of all its buildings 
in the summer, but that, on the con- 
trary, the - session opened at the ap- 
pointed time with about 160 students. 
The lodgings are on the same plan ; 
but the academy is greatly improved, 
and a gymnasium is added. 

Educational. 25 

— It is encouraging to hear of the 
openings of the different graded schools 
of the State. The Rocky Mount graded 
school under Capt. Dugger opened 
with 169 pupils ; that of Durham, with 
335 ; Charlotte, with about 400; while 
the Newbern Journal predicts that the 
number in the school of that city will 
reach 500. Elsewhere we have given 
the statistics of the Centennial of 

— The mass of the people west of 
the Blue Ridge are said to be more 
thoroughly acquainted with Arithme- 
tic than those of Eastern Carolina, 
although in other matters they are 
behind. Their superiority in this one 
branch is doubtless due to the fact 
that in the prevailing system of trade 
by barter it has been most urgently 
required. That section, however, as 
indeed all North Carolina, is awaken- 
ing to unusual interest in the matter 
of general education. 

— The University of North Caro- 
lina has secured a jewel in the person 
of Prof. J. W. Gore, who is to fill the 
chair of Physics in that institution. 
After graduating at Richmond Col- 
lege, the University of Virginia, and 
Johns Hopkins University, he accepted 
the chair of Natural Philosophy in 
the Southwestern Baptist University, 
at Jackson, Tenn., which he filled with 
great satisfaction to all ; and after re- 
signing this, accepted the Assistant 
Professorship of Mathematics in the 
University of Virginia. This he filled 
with great honor and credit to him- 
self for one session, until invited to 
his present position. Prof. Gore is still 
a young man, and a bright future lies 
before him. 



— Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., was established in 1861 — the 
first in the country — in order to fur- 
nish education for women equal to 
that provided for men. It has ten 
professors and twenty teachers. Be- 
sides the regular course, it admits 
students to a preparatory or a special 
course. It has an Astronomical Ob- 
servatory, a Museum of Art, Cabinets 
of Natural History, and a Library 
of 14,000 volumes. The charges are 
$400 a year, including board, tuition, 
washing, etc. There is no institution 
in America so well equipped ; we 
doubt, however, that the style of wo- 
man which Vassar cultivates would 
suit our Southern homes. 

— Hollins Institute is doing a 
great work in the higher education of 
young ladies. Its influence for good 
is felt all over the South, and there 
are hundreds of young ladies, bright 
ornaments of society, who are proud 
to call themselves Hollins graduates. 
This Institute has a larger Faculty 
than any female college in the South, 
and one not surpassed in ability by 
that of any similar institution in the 
North. The present session is entered 
upon with enlarged facilities, and we 
predict a glowing future for Hollins. 
The situation of the Institute is pecu- 
liarly desirable, in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, a region renowned for the 
beauty and attractiveness of its 
scenery. The girls at the institute 
seem to partake of the characteristics 
of the scenery around them. We have 
been there, and our remarks are 
founded on observation. 

— The circular of the Shelby Fe- 
male College is before us. The Presi- 

dent, Rev. R. D. Mallary, A. M., 
brings with him to his new field high 
commendation from the Trustees of 
Shorter College, Ga., over which he 
presided for six years. His wife, who 
has charge of the Home and Primary 
Departments, is declared by the same 
body to possess remarkable qualifica- 
tions for her position. The Faculty 
consists of Rev. Mr. Mallary and four 
ladies. The girls will get Spelling, 
Reading, Penmanship, Elementary 
Arithmetic, etc., in the Primary classes, 
and in the senior, Mental Science, Ge- 
ology, Evidences of Christianity, As- 
tronomy, and French or German, in the 
meantime going as far in Mathematics 
as Trigonometry, and in Latin as far as 
Cicero and Horace. (Why don't they 
give the girls a chance at Greek?) 
The cost of board and tuition for ten 
months is $175 ; the same with music 
and French or German, $240. The 
first fall term opened on the 20th 

— Progress of Education in Ja- 
pan. — The seventh annual report of 
the Japanese Minister of Education 
states that there are 28,025 common 
schools in Japan, of which 16,710 are 
public, and the remainder private ; 
there being an increase of 1,316 and 
125 respectively, as compared with 
the previous year. The number of 
high schools is 107 public and 677 pri- 
vate, there being an increase of 42 and 
63 respectively. Besides the above, 
many Kindergarten and primary 
schools were established. These pri 
vate schools, even now, play a most 
important part in Japanese national 
life and education. Many of them 
have hundreds of students attracted 

EDITORIAL - Educational— Literary Gossip. 


by the fame of a single teacher. 
Youths flock from all parts of the 
country to sit at the feet of a re- 
nowned scholar, as men did in Europe 
to hear Abelard. The most celebrated 
of these leaders of youth — for this 
they are, rather than simple school- 
masters in our sense of the word — is 
Mr. Fukusawa, of Tokio, whose trans- 
lations from European books and orig- 
inal works on the political and social 
questions of the day are read far and 
wide in Japan.— Scientific American. 

— OUR prediction, in the issue of 
June, relative to the grand Conserva- 
tory of Music in Boston, has not been 
sustained. On the 14th inst., under 
the title of the New England Conser- 
vatory of Music, it began the present 
session in its new home, which, when 
finished will have cost $700,000, and 
said to be the largest and finest con- 
servatory building in the world. It 

has a faculty of one hundred professors 
and instructors. This is not its first 
session, as will be seen from the fol- 
lowing facts: The Musical Institute, 
chartered by the State in 1850, soon 
developed into the Providence Con- 
servatory of Music, at Providence, R. 
I. To secure advantages nowhere to 
be found outside of the largest cities, 
the institution was, in February, 1876, 
removed to its present location in 
Boston; and in 1867, by a Special Act 
of the Legislature of Massachusetts, 
incorporated under the name of the 
New England Conservatory of Music. 
Here its growth was such that it soon 
became the largest Music school in 
the world. During the present year 
students have been in attendance from 
thirty-eight States and Territories. 
The present term over 970 have been 
enrolled — a somewhat larger number 
than ever before. 


— " Susan Coolidge" is Miss Sarah 
D. Woolsey. 

— On the 1st of October Mr. Sam- 
uel Longfellow begins work on the 
biography of his famous brother. 

— Matthew Arnold's definition 
of poetry : " Simply the most delight- 
ful and perfect form of utterance that 
human words can reach." 

— The Nineteenth Century for Sep- 
tember contains a new poem by Ten- 
nyson, inscribed " To Virgil," and 
written at the request of the Mantyans 
for the 19th centenary of Virgil's 

— Many of our readers know that 
" Christian Reid" is the pseudonym 
of Miss Frances C. Fisher, of Salis- 
bury N. C. 

— Mr. Underwood, author of a 
work on Longfellow, says : " It is cer- 
tain that Longfellow's readers are more 
numerous than those of any poet ex- 
cept the Psalmist David." 

— Miss Constance Fennimore 
WOOLSON, whose serial Anne was such 
a success in Harper, will begin in the 
November issue of the same mag- 
azine a new novel, entitled "For the 



The Boston Public Library is re- 
joicing over its gain of 13,239 volumes 
during the year, its total number now 
being 412,000. It is the largest library 
in this country, and has few rivals in 
the Old World. 

— A number of poems by Wm. H. 
Hayne have lately appeared in differ- 
ent newspapers. He is the son of Col. 
Paul H. Hayne, of Georgia. His poems 
are for the most part descriptive of 
scenes in nature, and give evidence of 

— The widow of the late James T. 
Fields edits a volume from his pen 
entitled, " Notes on Men and Their 
Books," which will appear during the 
autumn. No man was better capable 
of forming such judgments, and no 
one ever gave them with more thorough 
kindness, whether for or against. 

A London publishing house discern- 
ing in some of Dickens' early sketches 
marks of genius, asked him to write a 
serial for them. As the best humor- 
ous subject they could think of, they 
suggested the adventures of a party of 
city cockneys seeking pleasure in the 
country. Pickwick Papers was the 

— THREE of the oldest Arabic MSS. 
hitherto known have lately been pur- 
chased by the British Museum, the 
earliest being dated A. H. 348, equiv- 
alent to A. D. 959. They contain the 
cause of the law laid down in the Tal- 
mud, " that the Sacred Scriptures must 
not be written in any other than the 
square Hebrew character." It is 
proved for the first time that the Jews 
were in the habit of using other char- 
acters, and there are other points of ex- 
treme interest to all Oriental students. 

— William Stanley Jevoxs, au- 
thor of Principles of Science, Logic, 
&c, was drowned Aug. 15th, while 
bathing at Bexhill, near Hastings, 
Eng. He was born in 1835. At the 
time of his death he was Professor of 
Political Economy in University Col- 
lege, London, which position he had 
held since 1875. 

— Mr. E. P. Whipple, in his arti- 
cle on Emerson in the Century, de- 
clares that the best prose sentence 
written on this side of the Atlantic is 
this from Emerson's lecture on Shak- 
speare : " The recitation begins ; one 
golden word leaps out immortal from 
all this painted pedantry, and sweetly 
torments us with invitations to its 
own inaccessible homes." 

— The vast amount of valuable in- 
formation buried in public documents 
is to be made accessible by means of a 
classified, analytical, and descriptive 
catalogue of all government publica- 
tions, from the foundation of the 
government to the present time. At 
the last session Congress provided an 
appropriation of $10,000 for the work, 
which will be done under the direction 
of Major Ben. Perley Poore. 

— Walt Whitman is now sixty- 
two years old. He has a noble head 
and a massive but well-proportioned 
figure, being more than six feet tall, 
with broad shoulders and deep chest. 
He looks like a patriarch — an appear- 
ance he covets — having white hair, 
which he wears long and flowing about 
his ruddy visage. His blue eyes are 
soft and light ; his nose is symmetrical, 
his mouth shapely, his chin strong. 
He walks with a cane, being somewhat 
crippled from a partial paralysis of 

EDITORIAL— Literary Gossip. 


years ago. He always dresses in gray ; 
wears his shirt open at the throat, 
without cravat, and is so distinguished 
a figure that he seems like a Homer of 
the nineteenth century. — The South. 

—Dr. Schliemann tempers the 
heavy labor of scientific exploration 
with a generous diet and a liberal hos- 
pitality. He lives in a marble palace 
at Athens, which bears on its front in 
letters of gold, " Hall of Ilium." All 
its decorations commemorate his re- 
searches. The floors are paved with 
Italian mosaics ; the walls are covered 
with Pompeian frescoes and patterns 
of objects found at Troy and Mycenae. 
Homeric mottoes are seen on every 
hand. At the family table classic 
Greek alone is spoken, and the ser- 
vants have classic names : the gar- 
dener is Priam, the porter Bellerophon, 
and the two nurses, Hecuba and Po- 

— A Poet's Struggle. — James 
Berry Bensel, in the Boston Transcript, 
relates some interesting incidents of 
the life of the well-known Southern 
poet, Paul H. Hayne : 

How many persons know the life 
story of Paul Hamilton Hayne, the 
Southern poet? — a man pure-hearted, 
of generous impulses and genuine 

Copse Hill, on the Georgia Railroad, 
is about twenty miles west of Augusta, 
the nearest station to the desolate spot 
where the poet's house stands being 
Grovetown, two miles from Copse Hill. 

On a sandy hill, in a rough board 
cot surrounded by scrub oaks and 
pines, we shall find the man we have 
come to see, the friend of Longfellow, 
of Whittier, Swinburne, Mrs. Mulock- 
Craik, Dobson, the Rossettis, and 

hosts of other literary folk. We are 
at the door of Mrs. Hayne, a cultured, 
delicate little woman of charming 
manners ; the faithful, affectionate 
wife of an invalid, the mother of a 
gifted son. 

We are ushered into a room such as 
it has never been our experience to 
enter before. The walls are covered 
with woodcuts from magazines and 
newspapers, English and American 
samples of art, combining to form a 
mammoth display ; a small open fire- 
place, shelves full of books, and pic- 
tures of many distinguished friends of 
the proprietor, a few chairs, and that 
is all — a contrast, indeed, to the study 
of Holmes, the library of Longfellow ! 

Before the war, Hayne was rich and 
owned a handsome house in Charles- 
ton, S. C, a photograph of which he 
keeps among his treasures. After the 
Rebellion he found his property swept 
away, himself penniless and in a pre- 
carious state of health. He came to 
this barren spot where, without neigh- 
bors, away from every congenial recre- 
ation, devoted to his art and profes- 
sion, he has lived for over sixteen 

In all that time he has been away 
from home but once, and that was for 
a hurried trip through the Northern 
and New England States. 

Think of it ! A man with the deli- 
cate, sensitive organization of a poet, 
a woman of more than ordinary intel- 
ligence and refinement, their son, a 
young man, himself a poet, living on 
year after year in a rude shelter. A 
well man would find it a barren life, 
and Hayne had hemorrhage after 

Isolated and lonely, there comes 



from them no word of complaint. In 
pathetic sentences the noble wife 
writes of her husband's frequent ill- 
nesses, yet there is no outburst of re- 
bellious anger at the fate that is so 
hard. Tenderly, as of a child, Mrs. 
Hayne speaks of him she calls " my 

poet." Glad, with him, of every 
success he wins, of every friend he 
makes — devoted to those who love 
the man she loves — this frail woman 
shows a bravery that is as attractive 
as it is noble. — Youth 's Companion. 


— It requires 2,000 blooms to yield 
one drachm of ottar of roses. 

— Cape Colony exported $22,500,- 
000 worth of diamonds last year. 

— The temperature required for 
kindling matches varies from 150 to 
160 degrees. 

— Three thousand five hundred 
pounds of whalebone have been ob- 
tained from one whale. 

— THE Botanical literature of the 
Chinese is quite extensive and impor- 
tant, and dates back to 2697 B. C. 

— In Russia the sunflower has a 
practical, if not an aesthetic, value. It 
is cultivated for the oil it yields. The 
oil is used in cooking, as well as in 
lamps, and for making soap and paint. 

— An estimate of the quantity of 
sediment carried down by Chinese 
rivers indicates that if the deposit 
continues at the present rate the Yel- 
low Sea will be converted into dry 
land in 36,000 years. 

— The sorrowful tree — so named 
because it flourishes only at night — 
grows upon the island of Gos, near 
Bombay. The flowers, which have a 
fragrant odor, appear soon after sun_ 
set the year round, and close up or 
fall off as the sun rises. 


— The total mileage of railroads in 
the United States, January 1, 1882, 
was 104,813 miles. Since that time 
some 5,000 miles have been built. Of 
this amount Illinois has 8,326 miles, 
which is more than any other State. 
Ohio ranks second and Pennsylvania 

— SOME one has calculated that if 
the salt in the ocean was obtained, 

I there would be 3,000,000 cubic miles, 
or a block of salt 100 miles wide and 
1,000 miles long and thirty miles high. 
It would cover the United States and 
Territories with a block of salt one 
mile in thickness. 

— LIVERPOOL ranks as the most im- 
portant port in the world, with an 

I annual tonnage of 2,647,372 ; London 
stands second, with a tonnage of 
2,330,688; Glasgow third, with 1,432,- 
364 ; New York fourth, with a tonnage 
of 1,153,676. As a manufacturing city 
New York leads the world. 

— The coal fields of Alabama cover 
10,860 square miles, and the coal is all 
bituminous, but differs widely in qual- 
ity. The best coal in the State, and 
in fact in the United States, being 
fully equal to English cannel-coal, is 
the Montevallo coal. No industry in 
the State has had so rapid a growth 

EDITORIAL— Science Notes. 


as the coal industry. In 1872 only 
10,000 tons were mined in the State ; 
in 1879 tne annual output had been 
swelled to 290,000 tons; in 1880 to 
340,000, and in 1881 to 400,000 tons. 
— The South. 

— In Virginia the gathering of su- 
mac for use by tanners has become a 
very considerable industry, and many 
firms are engaged in the purchase and 
sale of that article, the gathered crop 
of which has risen from 100 tons in 
1866 to 10,000 tons in 1881. It is 
used for tanning light-colored leather, 
in dyeing, and in calico printing. 

— Bands of music are forbidden to 
play on most of the iron bridges of 
the world. This is due to the well- 
known phenomenon that a constant 
succession of sound waves, especially 
such as come from the playing of a 
good band, will excite the wire vibra- 
tions ; at first, these vibrations are 
very slight, but they increase as the 
waves continue to come. 

— The American Association for the 
Advancement of Science met August 
2 1st, at Montreal, where it met twenty- 
five years ago. It was organized in 
Philadelphia in 1848, but had no meet- 
ings in i86o-'66, on account of the war, 
which explains the fact that this is 
only the 31st annual meeting. Presi- 
dent, Dr. J. W. Dawson. Among the 
foreign visitors was Dr. W. B. Carpen- 
ter, who gave an address in Queen's 
Hall on the " Temperature of the 
Deep Sea." Prof. C. A. Young was 
chosen President for the ensuing year, 
and Minneapolis the place of next 
meeting. The meeting closed August 
30th. Number in attendance 950 — 
324 new members. 

The Growth of Coral. — After 
a cruise of a few months in the South 
Pacific, a French man-of-war was re- 
cently found to have specimens of 
living coral growing upon her hull. 
This interesting discovery has thrown 
some light on the question of the 
rapidity of the growth of corals. The 
evidence tends to show that the ves- 
sel on passing a reef of the Gambier 
Islands, against which it rubbed, had 
picked up a young fungia, which had 
adhered to the sheathing of the ship, 
and grew to the size and weight it had 
when observed, a diameter of 9 inches, 
and a weight of 2J pounds, in nine 

Old Oaks. — The Cressage Oak — 
called by the Saxons Criste-ache 
(Christ's Oak) — is probably not less 
than fourteen centuries old. The cir- 
cumference of the trunk was about 
30 feet, measured fairly at a height of 
five feet from the ground ; but only 
about one-half of the shell of the hol- 
low trunk now remains. It still bears 
fifteen living branches, each 15 or 16 
feet in length. A young oak grows 
from the centre of the hollow. The 
great Winfarthing Oak, in Norfolk, 
Eng., was called the '* Old Oak " in the 
time of the Conqueror, and has been 
supposed to have attained the age of 
1,500 years. The King Oak in Wind- 
sor Forest is upward of 1,000 years 
old. — The Gardeners Chronicle. 

Valuable Natural History Col- 
lection. — Arrangements have been 
completed for furnishing the American 
Museum of Natural History in Cen- 
tral Park with a complete collection 
of the mammals and birds of North 
America, and of the quadrumana of 



the world. The mammals and birds 
will be the gift of Mr. Morris K. Jesup, 
and the specimens of the monkey 
kingdom that of Mr. Robert Colgate, 
both well known as public-spirited res- 
idents of this city. Prof. Henry A. 
Ward, of Rochester, has taken the 
contract to secure the specimens and 
ship them, mounted in the best man- 
ner, to the museum. The Jesup col- 
lection will include seven or eight 
hundred specimens, to cost in all 
$10,000. The Colgate collection will 
include about three hundred monkeys, 
apes, baboons, and lemurs, to cost 
$7,000. Prof. Ward thinks that the 
collections can be completed in three 
years. — Scientific A merican. 

The Stinging-tree. — The " sting- 
ing-tree " of Queensland, Australia, is 
a luxurious shrub, pleasing to the eye 
but dangerous to the touch. It grows 
from two or three inches to ten or 
fifteen feet in height, and emits a 
disagreeable odor. Says a traveler : 
" Sometimes while shooting turkeys 
in the shrubs, I have entirely forgot- 
ten the stinging-tree till I was warned 
of its close proximity by its smell, and 
have often found myself in a little 
forest of them. I was only once stung, 
and that very lightly. Its effects are 
curious: It leaves no mark, but the 
pain is maddening; and for months 
afterwards the part when touched is 
tender in rainy weather, or when it 
gets wet in washing, etc. I have seen 
a man who treats ordinary pain lightly 
roll on the ground in agony after be- 
ing stung, and I have known a horse 
so completely mad after getting into 
a grove of the trees that he rushed 
open-mouthed at every one who ap- 
proached him, and had to be shot. 

Dogs, when stung, will rush about 
whining piteously, biting pieces from 
the affected part." — Leslie s Illustrated. 

The Artificial Sea in Africa. — 
The French scheme for making- an 
artificial sea in the interior of Africa 
has been abandoned. The commis- 
sioner appointed to investigate the 
project has reported that the inevitable 
cost would be out of all proportion to 
the problematical advantages, being 
somewhere in the neighborhood of 
two hundred and fifty million dollars. 
Aside from the impracticable nature 
of the enterprise, it was reported that 
several positive losses might be ex- 
pected to result from it. One savant 
declared that by the influx of the sea 
an immense number of fresh-water 
wells would be filled up and rendered 
useless, to the great detriment of the 
people on the neighboring slopes who 
are now in the habit of resorting- to 


them. Another maintained that when 
the sea was formed, the breezes and 
spray from it would destroy the vege- 
tation around, and prove specially 
hurtful to the date-palm trees, which 
are now a great source of profit and 
give the most agreeable shade in those 
arid regions. — Leslie's Illustrated. 

Recent Changes in Niagara. — 
Geologists assert that ages have 
elapsed since the cataract of Niagara 
began to retreat towards its present 
position. But the following facts show 
that they have not made allowance 
for the rapidity with which the waters 
wear away their rocky dam. Says the 
Rev. Dr. Prime of the New York Ob- 
server : 

One who returns to Niagara after a 
long absence notes the marked changes 
taking place in the face of the cata- 


ract. My first visit here was made in 
the year 1844, thirty-eight years ago. 

Then the broad expanse of Table 
Rock was the platform on which suc- 
cessive thousands stood. Many crept 
softly to the very verge and looked 
into the abyss. Others more cautiously 
lay on their faces and gazed at the 
crystal current as it broke into jewels 
and fell in a stream from the awful 
height. ' 

Now the broad platform has fallen, 
and the work of undermining is going 
still further on. In forty years more 
the present standpoint will be in the 
depths below. 

But more remarkable is the change 
in the shape of the Horseshoe Fall it- 
self. Then it was a perfect segment 
of a circle, so nearly like the heel of a 
horseshoe as to suggest the fitness of 
its name. 

Now vast masses of rock have been 
dislodged in the middle of the curve, 
making a sharp and wide diversion of 
the current, so that the torrent pours 
into a midway gulf from which the 
mist rises constantly. 

This does not diminish, but perhaps 
enhances, the interest of the cataract. 
It breaks the circuit, destroys the per- 
fect symmetry of the curve. 

It proves that the recession of the 
fall is going on with far greater force 
than Mr. Lyell and his brethren in 
geology calculated when they sup- 
posed they had estimated the ages by 
the progress up-stream of the verge 
of Niagara. 

If in half the life-time of a modern 
man such changes have occurred, what 
may not have been wrought by these 
mighty forces of nature in 5,000 
years ? — Youth's Companion. 


Science Notes. 33 

— Plants and Animals. — The con- 
nection between these two depart- 
ments of life is closer than is generally 
thought. The plant is the bridge be- 
tween the mineral and the animal 
world. It digests and assimilates min- 
eral matter, and then yields its own 
substance as food for bird, beast, and 

Plants, like human beings, have a 
capacity for culture and for what might 
be called civilization, which gives come- 
liness at the expense of vigor, and 
often of fertility. The favorites of 
our gardens are monstrosities, with 
little power to propagate their kind. 

The plant and man equally depend 
on sunlight for health. Each will 
alike starve without its proper food. 
Analogous diseases, to some extent, 
affect each. In both cases, life and 
health often fail before influences too 
subtle even for modern science to ex- 
plain or detect. Plants, like blood- 
suckers, frequently draw their entire 
life from their fellows. 

As men are often poisoned by the 
bite or sting of insects, so are plants. 
Nut galls and other galls are merely 
tumors, morbid or diseased growth, 
due to such stings. 

Says the Medical Record, " There 
are hundreds of varieties of such galls 
easily distinguishable, and each one 
owes its existence to a different agent," 
— a different kind of poison from the 
different insect that bites it. 

It is now known that a large por- 
tion of human diseases result from 
microscopic plants which find their 
way into the system, multiply with 
inconceivable rapidity, and draw their 
support from the most vital parts of 
our bodies. 



Says the above authority, " The 
number of parasites which infect plants 
is enormous. There is hardly a flow- 
ering plant which is not injuriously 
affected by one or more fungi which 
prey upon it. The grapevine alone is 
attacked by at least thirty species. | 

The morbid changes which these par- 
asites induce are manifold ; the rust 
on wheat, the scab on apples, the rot 
in potatoes and in fruits, all represent 
the activity of these foreign intruders." 
All forms of mildew have the same 
| origin. — Youth's Companion. 


— BASE-BALL is now all the go with 
the " small fry." 

— It iz only a step from lazyness 
tew vice, and a short one at that. — 
Josh Billings. 

— One hundred and forrty-five stu- 
dents to begin with — one of the 
largest openings for years. 

— THOSE of the old students who 
have returned feel keenly the absence 
of those who have not returned. 

— A NEW house has been built about 
a quarter of a mile from the village 
for a primary school for boys. It is 
under the control of Mr. J. C. Caddell. 

— The cigarette-consuming young 
man is a bore, and the world is tired 
of seeing him around. — Philadelphia 

— Prof. E. Hilliard, elected tutor 
at a recent meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the Board of Trustees, 
has already ingratiated himself into 
the favor of his pupils by his pleas- 
antness, and manner of instruction. 
Wake Forest may well be proud of 
Professor Hilliard, and we think her 
fortunate in securing the services 
of one so competent to fill the posi- 

— NONE but those who have been 
accustomed to receive Dr. Pritchard's 
pleasant greetings, know how his genial 
face is missed among us. 

— We regret the loss of three or 
I four of our young ladies, who leave us 
1 for distant schools. They are scarce 
enough when all are at home. 

— Something a senior never does — 
! make a pair of shoes. But we have a 
senior who is wearing a pair of shoes 
made by himself ; and they're good- 
looking shoes, too. 

— Prof. Willoughby Reade, the 
noted elocutionist, gave an entertain- 
ment in the lower chapel on the night 
of the 14th inst., which was immensely 
enjoyed by all who attended. 

— The Board of Trustees did a wise 
thing in giving the direction of the 
College into the hands of Prof. W. B. 
Royall. We have only words of the 
highest praise for him. His labors in 
behalf of the best interests of the 
students are unremitting. The boys 
feel he is their friend, and his efforts 
for the good of Wake Forest will be 
seconded by all students who take 
any interest in the prosperity of the 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College— Wake Forest Alumni. 


— The street southwest of the Col- 
lege buildings, and on a line with them, 
is improving. Mr. F. M. Purefoy is 
putting up on it two comfortable cot- 
tages of brick, each with four rooms. 
They are designed for rent. 

— THERE were more visitors spend- 
ing the summer here during last vaca- 
tion than ever before. Three families 
are still here. We predict that next 
season there will be still more. Wake 
Forest possesses some peculiar attrac- 
tions as a place for rest during the 

— We are much gratified with the 
way Faculty and students are moving 
off in the work of the session. The 
condition of things is very hopeful. 
Some of the methods of the College 
have been altered for the better. And 
then we rather expect 150 students 
this term. We have up to date 48 
new students. 

— It is interesting to note that of 
our students 78 are in the school of 
Greek, 98 in the school of Latin, and 
38 in the school of Natural Science. 
We think the percentage in Greek 
larger than usual ; and it is gratifying, 
because when a boy takes Greek he 
means business. The small number 
in Natural Science is explained by the 
very large classes of last session. 

— PROF. READE gave a suitable and 
profitable reading on Sunday, the 17th. 
He has begun the instruction of a class 
in Elocution, comprising some of the 
resident citizens and thirty-five of the 
students. He is to give ten. lessons, 
meeting the class at 4 p. m. He can- 
didly states that he does not expect 
to make perfect readers of them in so 
short a time, his object being simply 
to show them what is in them, and set 
them on the track of its development. 
That is fair and reasonable. 


—'82. Mr. T. B. Wilder has decided 
to make the law his profession, and is 
now studying in Louisburg. 

— Messrs. Poteat, Lewellyn, Davis, 
Herring, Hunter, and G. P. Hamrick 
represent Wake Forest at the Semi- 

— David Ramseur, Esq., a former 
student, whom many will remember, 
is now a successful lawyer in South 

—'81. Rev. L. T. Carroll has taken 
charge of a school at Morrisville, N. 
C, having resigned his position at 
Cochran, Ga. 

— 82. Mr. E. G. Beckwith is teach- 
ing at Olive Chapel, Wake county. 

— '79. Rev. G. P. Hamrick has re- 
signed the pastorate of the church at 
Whitaker, S. C, and has gone to the 
Seminary at Louisville, Ky. 

— '79. Walter E. Daniel, Esq., is 
doing well as a lawyer in Weldon. 
Mr. Daniel is not only doing a good 
work in his profession, but is a bless- 
ing to the Baptists of that town. He 
is the youngest member and the Presi- 
dent of the Roanoke Literary Society, 
which is now erecting a $7,000 build- 
ing in Weldon. 



— '82. Mr. W. J. Ferrell is teaching 
a fine school at Flat Rock, Granville 
county, and we are hearing good re- 
ports of him from his patrons. 

— 82. Mr. J. W. Fleetwood is Prin- 
cipal of the Woodland Academy, for- 
merly under the direction of Prof. 
Picot. It is in Northampton county. 

—'81. Mr. R. A. P. Cooley does not 
return this session to the Greensboro 
law school, but is pursuing his studies 
in Raleigh, where his father now re- 
sides. We were glad to see him on 
the Hill a few days since. 

— '75. It is a matter of grief to 
many besides ourselves that Mr. John 
E. Ray has been confined at his 
father's by sickness for about a month. 
We extend our sympathy. We are 
glad to learn that he is well again. 

— '75. H. R. Scott, Esq., was the 
only nominee of the Democratic con- 
vention of Rockingham county against 
whom no objection was raised by the 
dissatisfied party. He will doubtless 
again represent the county in the 

—'58. Mr. Benj. F. Hester is one of 
the most successful farmers in Granville 
county. He holds a prominent posi- 
tion in his church and is a successful 
Sunday school superintendent. He 
was at College four years and missed 
no duty during that time. 

— Jas. L. Webb, Esq., of Cleveland 
county, a former student, is a promis- 
ing lawyer in the town of Shelby. In 
a recent convention of the Democratic 
party he was nominated to represent 

the counties of Cleveland and Gaston 
in the Senate of North Carolina. He 
has every prospect of success. 

— '82. Mr. E. Hilliard's recommen- 
dation by the Faculty for the position 
of tutor was, at the beginning of the 
session, confirmed by the Executive 
Committee of the Trustees without 
hesitation. In addition to his teach- 
ing, he calls the roll and leads the 
singing at prayers and at public wor- 

—'82. Rev. Mr. O. L. Stringfield 
says : " All ye Wake Forest boys, come 
to see me. I have a large house — 
plenty of room, and plenty of cabbage 
to eat." We can account for this fine 
spirit : he has recently been convinced 
that it is not good for man to be 
alone. He is ahead of his class, and 
must surely have made arrangements 
before his graduation. 

—'81. Rev. E. M. Poteat was the 
youngest theologue at the Seminary 
last year. During the summer he was 
the agent of the State Executive Board 
of South Carolina, and preached at 
different churches in the Broad River 
Association, and made collections for 
the Board. His hard work agreed 
with him. He hopes to take the full 
course, with the " extras," at the 

— Shall we have a grand rally of 
the Alumni next commencement? 
We ask the question in earnest, gen- 
tlemen, and would be glad to have in 
these columns some expression from 
you about the matter. 

WORTH REPEA TING- —The Colleges of 1830. 




[From the address prepared by Dr. Barnas Se 
struction at Saratoga, July 7 th, 1880, the day fater 

The Colleges of that day (1830) 
were not as numerous as they are now. 
Instead of three hundred and fifty, 
there were only about fifty; and this 
is more than twice as many as they 
were in 1800. There were generally 
from two to three in a State. Some 
States had none. The funds of the 
Colleges, and consequently the salaries 
of the officers, were low. My old 
president received $1,200. I remem- 
ber this from the fact that once, when 
he was asked why he did not resign, 
he said he "had 1,200 reasons for not 
resigning." The professors lived on 
$800 a year, if they had good posi- 
tions, or $500, if they did not. In ear- 
lier times each College had a president, 
two or three professors, one of whom 
taught the theology of his church, and 
two tutors. In later times the teach- 
ing force was somewhat increased, and 
the course of study was fixed and inva- 
riable. The student first fell into the 
hands of the tutor, stiff, and very pre- 
cise about preserving his somewhat 
doubtful dignity. He had a room in 
College, and acted as a spy and officer 
of the police. His experiences were 
often romantic. Pope, when a for- 
ward young man, had offered his un- 
solicited advice about inserting an 
interrogation point in a difficult pas- 
sage, said to him, "What is an inter- 
rogation point ?" and received the 

ars, and read before the American Institute of In- 
his death.] 

reply, "A little crooked thing that 
asks questions." Our tutor was not 
crooked or deformed, but as to all his 
teaching it might be said, " He was a 
little stiff thing that asked questions. 
Only this, and nothing more." Our 
professors were more portly men, go- 
ing on to sixty. 

Sitting cross-legged in an arm-chair, 
against which a silver-headed cane 
leaned, they would insist on your giv- 
ing them the exact words of Blair 
(false English and all) or of Karnes, 
and of Stewart and Hedge. Our presi- 
dent, who heard us in Enfield's Phi- 
losophy, was more communicative, and 
was even facetious. His jokes were 
regularly distributed through the 
term, so that when one of an older 
class asked how far we had advanced, 
he would say, " Have you got to the 
joke yet about the identity of a stock- 
ing that is darned all over?" or the 
question of the infinite divisibility of 
matter, " when you take a stick and 
remove half, till it is all gone ?" 

He used to keep a bottle of picra 
for sick students, and they had to take 
it before leaving his room. 

In languages, beyond making Latin, 
after Clarke's Introduction, there was 
nothing, if we except scanning, but 
translation and parsing ; no true phi- 
lology, nothing of the necessary mean- 
ing of words from derivation and us- 



age, or of the force of grammatical 
forms and construction. Everything 
depended on translation, generally 
guessed out, often stolen. 

Students lived in dormitories, and 
boarded in the commons, and had no 
friendly intercourse with the people of 
the town. The college buildings were 
few, small, and poor, and the rooms 
dilapidated, except when repaired by 
the occupant, and sold to his succes- 
sor for S50 or $100. College libraries 
and apparatus were nearly worthless. 
Students' morals and manners may be 
summed up in the words, punctilious 
reverence for the president, professors, 
and tutors, manifested respect to the 
older classes, especially to Seniors ; 
staying in one's room during the hours 
prescribed, not failing to be there at 
the usual hour of the tutor's visit, un- 
less an effigy is put in one's place ; 
being present at the roll-call, and at 
prayers at five o'clock in the morning, 
always half dressed, at least. 

Add to these sundry other things 
not required by law, such as keeping a 
watch on the officers : placing senti- 
nels on important occasions ; joining 
rival college societies, and fighting 
once a year for the capture of new 
members, sitting up in groups all night 
before the examinations, and swallow- 
ing, at one draught, all the learning of 
two or three of the best students, or 
of notes copied for the occasion : mock 
examinations, and hazing Freshmen, 
and mock programmes of exhibitions. 

Along with these things there was 
a serious side of college life. Many 
young men, while they yielded pas- 
sively to college customs, had high 
aims and fixed purposes. They were 
faithful in their studies, and made the 

j most of their opportunities ; and more 
I than all, though boys, they were to 
I become men ; all had taken the true 
measure of themselves ; had formed 
warm and lasting friendships ; had at 
j least surveyed the field of knowledge, 
I and knew what to do in after life ; had, 
, in some way, been so long within the 
college walls as to take on an air of 
liberal culture ; had, in some measure, 
acquired a literary taste. When the 
time for manly action arrived, slum- 
bering capacities were not unfrequently 
aroused which placed their possessors 
in the first rank of society. 

Exactly the same requirements were 
; made of all students. So much mathe- 
| matics, so much of Latin and Greek, 
1 must be swallowed by every one, 
whether his digestive organs were 
j adequate or not for their work. Some 
could not even masticate, and had to 
take their food in liquid form, with a 
good deal of waste between the spoon 
J and lip. These must pass, if they took 
their degree at all, speciali gratia. 


[From Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.] 
We are by no means inclined to play 
the Pharisee in regard to the smoking 
habit, but we will confess that the 
sight of a growing boy puffing a cig- 
arette fills us with regret and pain. 
Admitting, for the sake of argument, 
that adult smoking is not necessarily 
injurious to health, it will, we believe, 
be all but universally conceded that the 
habit in boys is very pernicious. It is 
certainly very prevalent, and seems to 
! us to call for public remonstrance. We 
1 hazard nothing in assuming that adult 
i smokers, without exception, would 

WORTR REPEA TING —The Deadly Cigarette. 


prefer that their sons, during the pe- 
riod of their minority, should be de- 
terred from acquiring the smoking 
habit. There probably is not a re- 
spectable physician in the land who, 
if his opinion were asked, would hesi- 
tate to affirm that for a growing boy 
to smoke is, on physiological grounds, 
objectionable and even dangerous. 
Many eminent physicians, without 
waiting to be asked, have declared this 
to be their opinion. The Surgeon- 
general of the Army, in 1869, strongly 
approved of the rule by which smok- 
ing is forbidden to the students at 
West Point. The same rule is also 
enforced among the students of the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis. The 
regulation in both these institutions 
was adopted after careful investigation 
concerning the physiological effects of 
the smoking habit upon the human 
body while in the growing state. The 
principal of Phillips Exeter Academy, 
so celebrated among educational insti- 
tutions of its class, made an effort 
some time ago to discountenance the 
habit among the students under his 
care. He addressed a circular to their 
parents, informing them that the sub- 
ject had attracted much attention, not 
only in this country, but in England, 
Germany, and France, and that physi- 
cians all but unanimously condemned 
the use of tobacco by boys. He asked 
them, in view of this fact, whether 
they would consider the prohibition of 
tobacco in the institution reasonable 
and practicable. A majority of parents 
replied to the question, and so far as 
they did so, the answers were unani- 
mously in the affirmative. The ex- 
ample of this old and popular institu- 

tion might well be followed by others 
throughout the country. 

It is affirmed by those who have in- 
vestigated the subject that the cigar- 
ettes manufactured for boys are, in 
many cases, compounded of the vilest 
materials. The paper rolls are often 
filled with refuse cigar stubs collected 
in cities, and sometimes even infused 
with opium. The quality of the cigar- 
ette is no doubt often below that of 
the very worst cigar. The effects of 
smoking a compound so abominable 
must be very deleterious, undermin- 
ing the constitution of the growing 
boy and inviting the assaults of dis- 
ease in its most deadly forms. 

A boy who grows up to manhood 
without contracting the tobacco habit 
will not, as a general rule, be likely to 
fall into that habit in his adult years. 
And where is the candid tobacco user 
who will not say that this would not 
be a great advantage? There are few 
smokers, we think, who will not readi- 
ly confess, in spite of the comfort they 
take in their cigars and pipes, that so- 
ciety would be better off, if no such 
habit prevailed. They would gladly 
break themselves of the habit, if their 
wills were not too weak for such a 
struggle. It is not to them a pleasant 
thought that, so long as they smoke, 
they must carry an offensive odor in 
their hair and garments wherever they 
go. A fragrant cigar, freshly lighted, 
may even be agreeable to many ; but 
the odor of stale tobacco in one's gar- 
ments is sickening even to smokers 
themselves. However we may excuse 
the adult smokers, let us do all in our 
power to keep our boys from acquir- 
ing a habit injurious to health and 
perilous to good morals. 




From the quickened womb of the primal gloom, 

The sun rolled black and bare, 
Till I wove him a vest for his Ethiop breast, 

Of the threads of my golden hair; 
And when the broad tent of the firmament 

Arose on its airy spars, 
I pencilled the hue of its matchless blue, 

And spangled it round with stars. 

I painted the flowers of Eden bowers, 

And their leaves of living green, 
And mine were the dyes in sinless eyes 

Of Eden's virgin queen. 
And when the fiend's art in the trustful heart 

Had fastened its mortal spell, 
In the silvery sphere of the first-born tear 

To the trembling earth I fell. 

When the waves that burst o'er a world accursed, 

Their work of wrath had sped, 
And the Ark's lone few, tried and true, 

Come forth among the dead ; 
With the wondrous gleams of my bridal beams, 

I bade their terrors cease, 
As I wrote on the roll of the storm's dark scroll, 

God's covenant of peace. 

Like a pall at rest on a senseless breast, 

Night's funeral shadow slept — 
Where shepherd swains on the Bethlehem plains, 

Their lonely vigils kept ; 
When I flashed on their sight the heralds bright 

Of heaven's redeeming plan, 
As they chanted the morn of the Saviour born — 

Joy, Joy to outcast man : 

Equal favor I show to the lofty and low, 

On the just and unjust I descend ; 
E'en the blind, whose vain spheres roll in darkness and tears, 

Feel my smile, the best smile of a friend, 
Nay, the flower of the waste by my love is embraced, 

WORTH REPEATING— Light - Abide With Me. 


As the rose in the gardens of kings : 
At the chrysalis bier of the worm I appear, 
And lo ! the gay butterfly's wings. 

The desolate morn, like a mourner forlorn, 

Conceals all the pride of her charms, 
Till I bid the bright hours chase the night from her flowers, 

And lead the young day to her arms; 
And when the gay rover seeks Eve for his lover, 

And sinks to her balmy repose, 
I wrap the soft rest by the zephyr-fanned west, 

In curtains of amber and rose. 

From my sentinel steep by the night brooded deed 

1 gaze with unslumbering eye, 
When the cynosure star of the mariner 

Is blotted from out the sky; 
And guided by me through the merciless sea, 

Though sped by the hurricane's wings, 
His compassionless, dark, lone weltering bark, 

To the heaven home safely he brings. 

I waken the flowers in their dew-spangled bowers, 

The birds in their chambers of green, 
And mountain and plain glow with beauty again, 

As they bask in their matinal sheen. 
O if such the glad worth of my presence to earth, 

Though fitful and fleeting the while, 
What glories must rest on the home of the blest, 

Ever-bright with the Deity's smile. 


[From Our Continent.] 
Abide with me ; the sunset's golden finger 

Has drawn a veil between the world and me ; 
Upon the mountain top his rays still linger, 
But in the valley I deep darkness see, 
And whelming shadows hover over me. 

Abide with me ; the way is drear and lonely, 
And frightful phantoms start from every side 

Which battle for my soul, that soul which only 
Knows thee on earth, in heaven, O Crucified ! 
For that dear reason keep thou near my side. 




Abide with me ; earth's blandishments beset me : 
They rise like clouds between my soul and thine, 

Hiding thee, so that soon I must forget thee, 
Unless a beam from loving eyes divine 
Shall through them cast its radiance to mine. 

Abide with me ; dear Lord, let me not perish ! 

Chase from my heart and way these phantoms dire ; 

Thine " altar coals " on my heart's altar cherish, 
So that each sin consumed in love's pure fire 
May clog no more my soul's deep, strong desire. 

And when at last through earth's dark vale ascending 
I reach the heavenly hills, and at thy feet 

Look, Lord, upon thee, doubts and fears all blending 
In one long gaze of joy so deep, so sweet, 
Then satisfied, I need no more repeat, 
Abide with me ! 


[From the German of August Kopisch, by T. H. 
Dobbs, D. D., in The Guardian.] 

" Willegis, Willegis, 

Recole wide veneris /" 

It grieved the lords of Mainz full sore 

That Willegis the mitre wore. 

He was a wagoner's son ; 

And so, for fun, 
The nobles scribbled, o'er and o'er, 
Rude cartwheels on the bishop's door. 
But when he saw it, Willegis 
Was not at all displeased at this ; 
He called an artist near at hand, 
And quickly gave him this command : 
"On every door you see, 

I pray you, paint for me 
A wheel of silver in a field 
Of crimson — this shall be my shield ; 
And let the proud escutcheon bear 
This motto, writ in letters fair: 

' Willegis, Willegis, 

Bethink thee whence thy coming is /' " 
'Tis said that on that very day 

The nobles wiped their scrawls away : 
They learned a lesson then, 
To honor honest men, 
And later bishops there 
In their escutcheon bear, 
From that day unto this, 
The wheel of Willegis. 


[From The Springfield Republican.] 
A blow direct from God's own hand 

Oft cleaves the heart in twain, 
As rocks are rent by lightning stroke 

Amid the wind and rain. 

But in their clefts the wind, ofttimes, 
The seed of sweet flowers blows ; 

Bright shines the sun, soft falls the dew, 
The rock in beauty glows. 

So in the rifts within the heart 

Are planted seeds of grace 
Which take deep root, and blooming 

The healed wounds efface. 



— Our issue being unexpectedly de- 
layed, we have the opportunity to no- 
tice the October periodicals. Among 
our exchanges, we mention The Home 
Circle. A series of articles on Sab- 
bath in the Home, by Mrs. M. G. Ken- 
nedy, is begun. Observing that, in 
spite of the labors and arguments of 
Christians, the tide of Sabbath-break- 
ing still flows on, she proposes to at- 
tack the evil at its root, and takes as 
her text, tm Teach the Children." The 
first number is devoted to hints on the 
amusement and instruction of the little 
members of the family on the Sabbath 
day. Dr. Williams contributes a 
sketch of Richard Fuller, presenting 
him as a regenerated man called of God, 
as a man of prayer, as a preacher, and 
an indefatigable worker. He concludes 
with these words : " In the army, he 
would have been a Napoleon. In law, 
a Wirt. In politics, a Clay. But in 
the ministry, he was Richard FUL- 
LER." " Glennandale " is concluded, 
having proved a readable little novel. 
President Hill writes a short article on 
" Ethics of Strikes." Dr. Dyer takes 
us down in a diving-bell to the bottom 
of the sea. Besides other articles, 
there is a sprinkling of poetry. We 
are informed in the "Announcement " 
for the next year that in November a 
new serial will be begun, by Mrs. Al- 
den, alias " Pansy." Its title is the 
" Endless Chain." Dr. McArthur, of 

New York, will contribute a series of 
papers on " Christian Life in its Rela- 
tions." We doubt not that next year 
will see a marked improvement in 
The Home Circle. 

— We can only mention some of the 
prominent articles in the October 
Harper s. On opening it we are con- 
fronted with the charming frontis- 
piece, Autumn. The leading article 
is the second paper of Mrs. John Lil- 
lie's " In Surrey." " Flash," a poem 
by Will Carleton, hardly comes up to 
that poet's best strain. Mr. Rideing 
writes on Medical Education in New 
York ; the article is mainly a string of 
short biographies. Mary Robinson 
writes on Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 
Then we have " Southern California," 
" The Spanish Discoveries," " The 
Railway Invasion of Mexico," E. In- 
gersoll's " In the Wahlamet Valley of 
Oregon," etc., besides stories by Rose 
Terry Cooke, Margaret Floyd, and S. 
A. Deake, and poems by William 
Sharp, H. E. Clark, and Annie Fields. 

— The October At Home and Abroad 
has been received. We welcome every 
issue, not only on account of its in- 
trinsic merit, but also because it rep- 
resents a worthy purpose to elevate 
the literature of North Carolina. Our 
space will not allow its interesting ta- 
ble of contents. 




— Why is the letter D like a fallen 
angel? Because by its association 
with evil it becomes a devil. 

— Pupil to Teacher: You say 
that the stars we see are planets and 
fixed stars. I wonder if the fixed stars 
planet so as to be all well fixed? 

— Geography Class. — Teacher : 
"Name the principal bays." Young 
hopeful: ''Bay of Biscay. Hudson's 
Bay, Baffin's Bay, and Arabi Bey." 
Teacher : 11 Oh, Pashaw !" 

— Teacher : " How does the earth 
absorb water?" Pupil: "Like a dog." 
Teacher: "How do you make that 
out?" Pupil: "Don't we read of the 
lap of the earth?" Teacher : " Go up 
another grade." 

— FOR a sick man, Herbert Spencer 
uses good, healthy language. Of Os- 
car Wilde he is quoted as saying: 
"He is that outlandish person who 
attempted to reconcile idiocy with 
art and namby pambyism with senti- 

— Dr. G. J. Johnson returned to 
Philadelphia from his western tour 
and took his bed with typhoid fever. 
We anxiously wait to learn that he is 
recovering. Why can't the Publica- 
tion Society give him a vacation that 
is a vacation ? This thing of plowing 
till you are tired and then hoeing corn 
till you rest isn't calculated to produce 
much recuperation. — Central Baptist. 

— Dr. Reid, well known by his 
medical reports in the Monthly Maga- 
zine, was requested by a lady of lite- 
rary eminence to call at her house. 
" Be sure you recollect the address." 

! said she, as she quitted the room, 
"No. I Chesterfield street." "Mad- 
am." said the doctor, 4 * I am too 

| great an admirer of politeness not to 
remember Chesterfield, and I fear too 
selfish ever to forget number one." 

Sleepers. — A sleeper is one who 
sleeps. A sleeper is that in which a 

; sleeper sleeps. A sleeper is that on 
which -the sleeper which carries the 
sleeper while he sleeps runs. There- 

j fore while the sleeper sleeps in the 
sleeper the sleeper carries the sleeper 
over the sleeper under the sleeper until 
the sleeper which carries the sleeper 
jumps off the sleeper and wakes the 
sleeper in the sleeper by striking the 
sleeper under the sleeper, and there 
is no sleeper in the sleeper on the 

; sleeper. — Penman s Art Journal. 

— BRITISH valor shines as conspicu- 
| ously as ever. The Irish, of course, 
distinguished themselves in the victory 
of Tel el Kebir. Gen. Wolseley, in a 
dispatch from the field, says: "The 
Royal Irish particularly distinguished * 
itself bv the dashing manner in which 
it closed with the enemy." When- 
ever British victories are won in India, 
i Afghanistan, Ashantee or Egypt, there 
| are the Irish. It is not strange that 
the British government should hold 
so tenaciously to the Island whence it 
draws so much of its fighting material. 

— There are, no doubt, cases where 
a man earns a great fortune, while his 
wife's existence is that of a butterfly, 
writes Col. T. W. Higginson. These 
cases are rare : taking one family with 
another, the wife works as hard as the 



husband, and the fact that his share 
involves the handling of the money- 
does not make it his money. It be- 
longs to both, and what he pays over 
to her is not a gift, but a matter of 
right. "This was a present to me 
from my wife," said a rich man show- 
ing an ornament. " Bought with your 
money," said a friend jocosely. " No !" 
he said, " out of her own hard earn- 
ings. She keeps house for a man of 
your acquaintance !" 


Yon window frames her like a saint 
Within some old cathedral rare ; 

Perhaps she is not quite so quaint, 
And yet I think her full as fair! 

All day she scans the written lines, 
Until the last dull proof is ended, 

Calling the various words and signs 
By which error may be mended. 

An interceding angel, she, 

'Twixt printing-press and author's 
pen — 

Perhaps she'd find some faults in me ! 
Say, maiden, can you not read men ? 

Forgive me, gentle girl, but while 
You bravely work I've been reflect- 

That somewhere in this world of guile, 
There's some one's life needs your 

Methinks 'tis time you learned this art, 
Which makes the world's wide page 

read better ; 
For love needs proving, heart with 


As well as type with written letter. 
— C. H. Crandall, in Century, 




We thank our friend, and the public, for 
the very liberal patronage bestowed on us the 
past season, and we shall endeavor to merit 
a continuance of the same. 


has been selected with ^reat care, and we o'-ly 
ask you. to examine it &< we feel sure you will 
be pleased. 

Students will find it to their advantage to 
examine our stock of 

Gents' Furnishing (roods. 

Milps & Zeigh'r's celebrated shoes in all lines 
a specialty. Remember our morto : 

"The Best Goods for the Least Possible 

We deliver goods to any part of town free 
of charge. 


Very respectfully, 



Shelby Female College. 

Session begins September 20th, 1882, and closes 
June 21st, 1883. 

Board, washing, fuel, etc., and tuition in Col- 
lege Class, Fall Term, five scholastic months, 
to January 31st, 1833 $87 50 

The same in Preparatory Classes, to 

January 31s% 1883 82 50 

The same in Primary Classes 75 00 

Boarders furnish one pair of sheets, one pair 
pillow-slip*, toilet soaps, table napkins and 
two bags for soiled clothes. 

Without special contract, payments re- 
quired in September. Deposits must be made 
for purchase of books, sheet-music and art 


Fall Term, Five Scholastic Months, to January 
31st, 1883. 

Primary Department, $12 50 ; Preparatory, 
$20 ; College, $25. Incidentals, to be paid with 
first month's tuition, $1. 

For particulars be sure to apply for circular. 

R. D. MALLARY, President, 






Blank Book Manufacturers, 

We have just received a lot of new type and are 
now prepared to print 


In the best style at low rates. 


If you wish anything in the way of Printing, 
Binding or Blank Books, address, 


Cor. Salisbury & Hargett Sts., 

Raleigh, N. C. 



A Summer Vacation in Europe, 


By JOHN E. RAY, A. M. 

This highly interesting volume of 
over 200 pages, with a number of rich 
illustrations of places and customs in 
Europe, is now ready, and is to be had 
at the following remarkably low fig- 
ures : 

Bound in Paper, 50 Cents. 
Bound in Cloth, - $1 00 

Mailed to any address upon receipt 
of the price, and 10 cents for postage. 
Address all orders to 


4— 3m Raleigh, N. C. 


October, 1882. 

Vol. 2. WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, N. C. No. 2. 



Senior Editor _ W. F. Marshall. 

Associate Editor D. M. Austin. 


Senior Editor E. S. Alderman. 

Associate Editor H. B. Folk. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all communications to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. 


[The family of Rev. Samuel Wait, D. D., have kindly permitted us to publish from his MS. the 
following, written between 1850 and i860. — Editors.] 


But the point which, as regards 
nits importance, outweighed all others, 
was the proper training of our young 
brethren designed of God for the min- 
istry. Ministers who were already con- 
siderably advanced in life, it was seen, 
would be compelled to continue on, as 
best they could, in their then present 
condition. But, for the younger por- 
tion, it was thought that something 
could be done. Various plans were 
thought of, and often made the sub- 
ject of conversation. But, for some- 
time, I do not know that any one 
thought of a college. The most that 
seemed to present itself to the minds 
/of the brethren, was to furnish facili- 
[ ties for a plain English education. This, 
it was thought, would add much to 
the usefulness of our young brethren. 
This view of the matter was, no doubt, 
a correct one. But while it would be 
true that much good would be accom- 
plished by simply giving a very limited 
English education, all can see that 

such an education would be far from 
meeting the demands of the case. It 
was found, too, that such a school as 
was at first contemplated would not 
be practicable — it could not be sus- 
tained. Most of our young men who 
had the ministry in view were poor, 
and could not meet the entire expense 
of an education. Some of them would 
be wholly unable to pay for their 
board. This, it was found, was so 
generally true, as regards the pecu- 
niary ability of our young brethren, 
that all our Theological Institutions, 
furnish instruction free of charge. 
These considerations obliged us to re J 
model the original plan so as to admits 
as students, any young gentlemen of 
good character, whether professors of 
religion or not. This would afford a 
prospect of being able to support the 
school. And no other plan was sug- 
gested that would do this. 

About this time much was said 
about Manual Labor Schools. As we 



were without funds, we were com- 
pelled to adopt the most rigid economy 
that would be compatible with a due 
degree of self-respect. It was not sup- 
posed, however, that the amount 
earned by each student would mate- 
rially lessen the cash expense. Still, 
it was supposed that, by having a farm 
in operation, the table could be sup- 
ported at some little less expense. But 
the considerations that, more than all 
others, led to the adoption of the 
Manual Labor plan of operation, were 
the preservation of health, and the 
promotion of industrious habits. The 
most careful statements we were ca- 
pable of drawing up, were published 
to prevent misapprehension, showing 
that pecuniary considerations occupied 
only a subordinate place; and yet, after 
all, many would promise themselves 
very considerable aid, from the little 
time their sons and wards were at 
work. When it was finally settled 
that an institution should be estab- 
lished upon the Manual Labor plan, 
we began to look around for a suita- 
ble site. Many places, as was to be 
expected, were recommended. This 

• farm was then owned by Dr. Calvin 
Jones. The Doctor's main estate was 
in west Tennessee. He had, for some 
time, desired to dispose of his posses- 
sions in North Carolina, that he might 
live at his other home in the far West. 
In this farm were a little more than 

9 six hundred acres. His price, at first, 
I think I was informed, was three thou- 
sand dollars. Land was then low and 
still falling. Finding no purchaser, he 
lowered the price to twenty -five hun- 
dred dollars. Meantime the fences 
were becoming less and less valuable. 
Finally, during the sitting of the Con- 

vention in August, 1832, at Rives'^ 
Chapei, Chatham county, N. C, we 
were given to understand that the 
premises could be purchased for two 
thousand dollars. All were convinced j 
that the time had now come to close 
the contract. A subscription was im- 
mediately commenced, and I think 
fifteen hundred dollars were raised on 
the spot. C Some time before this, 
we began to look around for some 
one to take charge of our contempla- 
ted school. A committee was ap- 
pointed to correspond with distin- 
guished men at the North. For no 
one seemed to think that any one 
living in the South would answer our 
purpose. This committee did what 
could, but reported a failure. No man 
possessing the requisite qualifications 
could be obtained. The farm was 
purchased in August, and in Decem- 
ber following a meeting of the Board 
of the Convention took place in Ral- 
eigh. To secure a Principal, a com- 
mittee was appointed consisting of 
Brethren Wm. Hooper, T. Meredith, 
J. Armstrong, and myself. We found 
the committee previously appointed 
had accomplished nothing. We were 
deliberating in the house then occu- 
pied by our Bro. Meredith. Some of 
the committee expressed a wish to 
have a consultation in the piazza in 
the back part of the house. And there 
the other three of the committee in- 
formed me that they had agreed to 
appoint myself Principal of our con-# 
templated institution. Nothing could 
have surprised me more. I told them 
at once that I was not the man for 
that place ; but, that I would join with 
any two of them to appoint the other. 
Bro. Meredith remarked very kindly 


that, perhaps, it would be of some 
service to me, and help a little in de- 
ciding the question of duty to know 
that, before they had consulted to- 
gether at all, each had made up his 
mind to recommend myself ; or had 
thought of doing so, if the others con- 
curred. Some of the Board, Bro. Arm- ? 
strong particularly, were for com- 
mencing operations on the first Mon- 
day in February following. I told 
them that would be impossible. We 
lacked the requisite funds. Nor had 
we time to make the preparations, even 
if we had the funds. Bro. Armstrongs 
wished to know how much better off 
we should be for commencing one 
year hence than we were now. I told 
him, no better off, if we spent the year 
in doing nothing. But, if we would 
be active during the year, we could 
make preparation for commencing the 
next year to advantage. The farm 
was to go into operation at the same 
time with the school. And the school 
was to be prepared to furnish board- 
ing and lodging. The conclusion was 
to appoint a committee to rent out 
the farm to the best advantage they 
could for that year, and request me to 
continue my agency for the Conven- 
tion another year, and do what I could, 
in the meantime, in collecting funds, 
or any kind of furniture, for the com- 
fort and advantage of the institution. 
By this means an opportunity was af- 
forded to make known more fully the 
plan of the school among the churches 
and to collect aid. And here, I would 
remark, that, just as we expected, 
many were found, especially among 
the sisters, who could, in the course # 
of the year, procure a blanket, sheets, 
pillow cases, comforts, bed, bedding, 

or something else, that would, at a fair 
valuation, be of more use to the school 
than the real worth in cash. 

As my family was with me, having 
travelled with me nearly three years, 
my wife was able in this, as well as in 
laboring for the other objects of the 
Convention, to render most valuable 
assistance. So that in nearly all the 
portions of the State visited during 
the year, something was done for the 
promotion of the good cause. If a 
lady could not furnish a bed, she could 
probably spare a towel. The value of 
these labors was seen when we actually 
commenced operations, on the first 
Monday of February following. All 
was done that I, aided by my wife, 
could do in calling attention to the 
subject of education. I have good 
cause for believing that some who now 
show themselves to be useful, and ex- 
tensively so in the ministry, were in- 
duced, by the efforts of that year, to 
change their whole course of life and 
seek an education. By this means, 
their usefulness has been greatly in- 

The Convention this year, 1833, was 
held at Cartley's Creek, Richmond 
county, called also Dockery's Meeting- 
House, commencing Friday before the 
first Sabbath of November. This, as 
well as the one held the year before 
with Rives' Chapel church in Chatham 
county, was a most interesting meet- 
ing. The weather was remarkably 
pleasant, and the accommodations, 
owing to the energy and liberality of 
the church and friends in that neigh- 
borhood, were most ample. Arranges 
ments were made as far as possible for 
commencing what we now call Wake 
Forest Institute, on the first Monday^ 




in February following. Many articles 
were obtained in this place for the In- 
stitute. I brought as many as I could 
in my two-horse buggy. As soon as 
the meeting closed, I came with what 
speed I could to this place, destined 
to be the scene of my future labors. 
On arriving in the neighborhood, I 
visited the spot not far from the ioth 
of November. Here was the farm, 
with the fence and out-buildings much 
out of repair ; no implements of hus- 
bandry, no stock but my two horses, 
no corn or fodder, no furniture, but 
the few articles I was enabled to bring 
with me from the meeting of the Con- 
vention I had just attended. 

Here I must remark that our furni- 
ture was in New-Bern. When, on 
commencing my agency for the Con- 
vention, we discontinued house-keep- 
ing, we put our furniture in a condi- 
tion convenient for moving. Quite 
providentially, three wagons were in 
New-Bern from some of the counties 
above this (Wake). Having disposed 
of a few of the heavier articles, the 
balance were found quite sufficient to 
fill these three wagons, although from 
the kind of furniture brought, the 
three loads weighed only thirty hun- 
dred pounds. This furniture was used 

iby the Institute just as though it had 
been the property of the Trustees. 
Our trip to New-Bern was, from ne- 
cessity, a very hasty one, and we were 
soon at our posts. Sometime before 
this, arrangements had been made 
with "Bro. C. R. Merriam, a brother of, 
my wife, to take charge of the farm. 
He also aided, in fact had charge of 
the steward's department. We re- 
turned from New-Bern about the 1st 
of December. Only two months now 

to the time when the session was to 

And in that brief space, much re- 
mained to be accomplished before we 
could take the first step in the business 
of teaching. Provisions were to be 
laid in for the family. Beds and many 
other comforts were yet to be provi- 
ded. The Trustees urged me to spend 
as much of the two months that re- 
mained in trying to collect funds as 
would be possible. As I told them, I 
had not an hour for this business. I 
could not resist their importunities : I 
went out, and, by much labor, col- 
lected nearly two hundred dollars. 
Late as it was, I expressed a wish toy 
Bro. F. F. to sow a little wheat, when ( 
he very cheerfully gave me ten bushels 
for seed, and Bro. W. C. " gave the 
sowing and the ploughing it in," as he ' 
called it. This ploughing and sowing 4 
was completed, I think, on the 3rd of 
December. We harvested 112 bushels, 
and had 101 bushels of wheat after 
paying toll at the threshing mill. This 
wheat was of the very best quality. In 
making arrangements, we found some 
difficulty, from the fact that we had 
no means of knowing for what num- 
ber of students it would be necessary 
to provide.^- 

While I was out on my short agency 
servants were hired. The Trustees 
were fearful of having more servants 
on hand than would be needed, and 
could not be induced to make the 
necessary provision when servants 
were to be hired. They thought, too, 
hands could be hired whenever wanted. 
In this, time showed that they were 
^mistaken. We found that when farmers 
and others, had once made their ar- 
rangements for a certain amount of 


force, it was difficult for them to 
change their plans till the season was 
passed. I have intimated that we had 
but a small amount of funds. This 
will be seen by all, when I remark that 
/when we commenced making prepara- 
l tions to begin the school, we had less 
( than two hundred dollars belonging to 
l the Trustees. We were much embar- 
rassed by a very indiscreet announce- 
ment in the papers, made, as I sup- 
pose, by a portion of the Trustees, to 
the effect that the Institute would go 
into operation on the first Monday in 
•February, 1834; that the cash ex- 
pense, after deducting credit for the 
Work, would not exceed $60 per year 
\io months); that each student would 
be required to provide himself with a * 
hoe, towel, &c, mentioning some one- 
or two more articles. I will here re- 

(mark that I am satisfied that all that 
was done by the Trustees was done 
with the best of motives. They were 
good men, but in their anxiety to 
make the school useful to as large a 
number as possible, they attempted 
what could not be done. For instance, 
they put the board at $4.50 per month, 
and bed and board at $5, washing at 
75 cts. Tuition was also low in pro- 

( portion. With the purest intentions, 
the Trustees disgraced the Institute in 
advance. The students at this time 
boarded in common, the table being 
owned by the Trustees. Provisions of 
every kind began at this time to ad- 
vance. Groceries, too, advanced in the 
same manner. Flour at length cost 
$11 per barrel. And in 1839 we were 
compelled to give nine cents per pound 
for all our pork. This pork, I think, 
was fattened in Kentucky. As pro- 
visions of every kind were constantly 

on the rise, it is not at all surprising^ 
that the expenses of the table began 
to create a very considerable amount 
of debt. The only alternative left to 
the Trustees, was to charge a little 
higher for board, washing, &c. This 
they did, making but a small addition 
to their original charges, compared 
with the advance in price for the nec- 
essary supplies for the table. Nor 
was any change made in the charge 
for board, till the table was something 
like three hundred dollars in debt. 
And yet, notwithstanding the perfect 
reasonableness of the course pursued 
by the Trustees, many were loud and 
unsparing in their censures. They 
took no notice of the fact that the 
charges were ridiculously low in the 
beginning, and provisions were con- 
stantly on the rise. 

Another circumstance that occa- 
sioned no little perplexity, was the 
difficulty of furnishing the requisite 
amount of beds. Some few brought 
their beds with them. But by far the 
larger portion were supplied by the 
Institute. When feathers could no 
longer be obtained, we resorted to the 
expedient of making mattresses of 
shucks. And after the Institute went 
into operation, so rapid and unex- 
pected was the increase of the num- 
ber of students, that myself and family 
have often been employed till mid- 
night in making these articles, now 
indispensable to the very existence of 
the school. 

The former owner of the premises 
we now occupied, had encountered 
much expense to provide for the com- 
fort of his servants. I found seven 
good, substantial log cabins, made 
mostly of white oak, with hewn logs, 



good doors, floors, roofs, and, with the 
exception of one, windows. These were 
washed out cleanly and white-washed. 
Good new furniture was provided for 
each house. And although it was 
known that the cabins were built orig- 
inally for servants, and occupied at 
first by them, I never heard of the 
least objection to them from any stu- 
dent. The farm and Institute went 
into operation at the same time. At 
the close of the first session, we could 
have only a few days recess, as we had 
a crop on hand. 

But another circumstance created a 
very considerable difficulty. And that 
was an apartment sufficiently large for 4 
a dining-room. Our number now was 
nearly 70. It was 72 before the close 
of the second session. The largest 
room in the house was about 18 feet 
square. It was not possible for more 
than one-third of the students to be 
seated at the table at the same time. 
Having no other alternative, I divided 
the students into three divisions in 
alphabetical order. The several com- 
panies took their meals in rotation. 
The first division ate first in the morn- 
ing and last at noon, and so on in 
regular rotation. Nine times in a day, 
therefore, our table was obliged to be 
set, and such care taken in dividing 
the meals as would be most likely to 
give satisfaction. At length, this plan 
being so laborious, we constructed a 
cloth tent nearly 70 feet long; and 
here, for the first time, we took our 
meals together.* It must not be for- 
gotten that our only fixtures for cook- 
ing during the first year of the Insti- 
tute, were those constructed for the 
accommodation of a private family — a 
kitchen of common size, and the 

poorest sort of an apology for a brick 
oven, a short distance from the kitchen. 
At this period, I often thought if we 
only had a place sufficiently large for 
a dining-room, and suitable accommo- 
dations for lodging, I should hardly 
know how to give vent to my joy. 
But it is time to notice some other 

The only place in which I could 
convene the students for morning and 
evening prayers or lectures was the 
building erected by Dr. Jones for a 
carriage-house, 16 feet by 24. A sup- 
ply of benches and desks was furn- 
ished, but the large doors were suf- 
fered to remain without alteration. 
The weather at the commencement of 
the Institute was remarkably fine. It 
is seldom that the month of May is 
any more delightful. I had no assist- 
ant. Here was a large number of stu- 
dents from different parts of the State, 
seeking the benefits of the new insti- 
tution. They had, of course, made 
different degrees of improvement. 
They had, too, different objects in 
view. Some wished to be fitted for 
College with all possible dispatch. And 
others could only, with difficulty, read 
in a common spelling-book. The clas- 
sification was, at first, from mere ne- 
cessity, exceedingly imperfect. We 
now greatly needed several more ser- 
vants. We did, in those days, not 
simply what would be most compati- 
ble with our notions of dignity and 
ease, but what we must, or see the In- 
stitute terminate ingloriously a very 
brief existence. Often, therefore, after 
having been closely employed in teach- 
ing till about 12 o'clock at noon, I have 
found it necessary to go and assist in 
setting the table, or do anything need- 



ful to hasten on the dinner. I had 
now a pretty large amount of raw ma- 
terial on which to work. In every in- 
stance in which I thought there might 
be the most distant prospect of ulti- 
mate success, I impressed the impor- 
tance of trying to acquire a collegiate 
education. And I have the happiness 
of knowing that even these early efforts 
were not altogether in vain. It was 
not possible then to do much towards 
the formation of classes ; but even 
that matter was not wholly lost sight 

It was during the session of 1833 
and 1834 that we obtained from the 
Legislature of our State a charter for 
our school. The majority in the Com- 
mons on the final passage of the bill 
was quite respectable, but in the 
Senate there was a tie. And Mr. Wm. 
D. Mosely, to his lasting honor be it 
said, gave the casting vote in our fa- 
vor. This charter created a Board of 
Trustees composed of such individuals 
as were desired, with certain provis- 
ions for perpetuating themselves, al- 
lowed the Institution to acquire funds 
to the amount of fifty thousand dol- 
lars, continuing the obligation to pay 
taxes, the same as on all private prop- 
erty, and to be in force, or continue 
-twenty years, and no longer. Was ever 
a charter given more meagre or lean 
than this? We have leave to be if we 
can. But no disposition to encourage 
us even to the value of a dime. We 
were not exempted from paying taxes. 
Such was the state of things then. 

Two years afterwards the Legisla- 
ture, at the request of the Trustees, 
gave us a College Charter; so that 
from being known as the Wake Forest 
Manual Institute, our Institute is 

known as Wake Forest College, with J 
full power to confer all the degreesN 
and enjoy all the prerogatives of other/ 
Colleges or Universities. Our College^ 
property is freed from taxation. 
can hold property to the amount o¥ 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars] 
and fifty years are added to the original 
term of our charter. / 
About two weeks after operations in 
the school and upon the farm were com- 
menced, an attempt was made to have a 

meeting of the Board of Trustees to 


consider whether the charter just ob- 
tained, should be accepted, or not, and 
for otherpurposes. I think at this time 
a quorum was not present. Several 
members, however, came, who seemed, 
pleased with the prospect before us,and 
were inclined, as individuals, to accept 
the charter. Two of the brethren pres- 
ent being practical farmers, and know- 
ing well the expenses that must inevita- 
bly be created in procuring houses, 
stock and farm utensils, &c, had 
brought each $100 to loan to the 
Institute, with the understanding that 
this money should be refunded at 
the convenience of the Institution. 
To this amount I added another hun- 
dred on the same condition. This 
money was received in good time. My 
hundred was given to the Institute a 
few years afterwards ; and, I think, the 
other two hundred were eventually 
presented as a gift. In May of this 
year (1834), a meeting of the Board of 
Trustees was held, and a quorum was 
obtained. At this meeting all the 
friends seemed well pleased, and much 
encouraged. Our late lamented breth* 
ren, T. Meredith and J. Armstrong, 
were elected Professors — the former of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, 



and the latter of Ancient Languages. 
It was not arranged for these brethren 
to commence their labors at once in 
the Institution. But the plan was for 
the former to hold himself in readiness 
to commence his labors within two 
years, and the latter to enter forthwith 
upon an agency for raising funds dur- 
ing the balance of that year, and com- 
mence the duties of his professorship 
at the commencement of the follow- 
ing February. Subscriptions were 
^opened on the spot, for a large College 
building, and it was on this occasion 
that brethren C. W. Skinner and D. 
L. Williams subscribed $500 each. 
Several subscribed at the same time 
$250. All these subscriptions were to 
be paid in five annual instalments. 
Subscriptions had been commenced in 
August, 1832, at Rives' Chapel, to 
raise funds to pay for our plantation. 
But this is the first step that was taken 
to secure funds for our main College 
building. The brethren were now in 
fine spirits. The next number of the 
Interpreter, a monthly edited and pub- 
lished by our Bro. Meredith, contained 
a glowing account of this meeting, and 
of the prospects ahead. Our Bro. 
Armstrong was very successful in his 
agency. To the best of my recollec- 
tion, he obtained in subscriptions, to 
be paid as before remarked, in five an- 
nual instalments, about $17,000. 
While there is no wish to depreciate 
the value of the services rendered by 
our late brother, it is due in justice to 
the claims of other agents to state the 
facts that belong to the case. The 
'importance of a public institution of 
learning to the Baptist denomination 
in North Carolina, was felt by many 
at the commencement of the Conven- 

tion. And that it was absolutely in-\^ 
dispensable to success, in building up \ 
our churches, was distinctly seen by I 
all before the first anniversary of the J 
Convention. Hence this point was' 
frequently discussed among the breth- 
ren. It had been often noticed by 
the Institution. And one year before 
the termination of my agency for the 
Convention, I had been appointed 
Principal of the contemplated semi- 
nary, and requested by the Convention 
to do all I could towards procuring 
the means requisite for a successful 
beginning. Efforts were accordingly 
made, not only to raise money, but 
also to procure any kind of furniture 
that could be useful in a public board- 
ing school. This was an important 
part of the business of Mrs. W. and 
myself during the last year of my 
agency. But more than all, the school 
was actually commenced, and now in 
successful operation. More room was 
needed. All seemed ro regret that . 
the Institute should be retarded for 
the want of more ample accommoda- 
tions. The school was indeed full. 
From the Trustees I received, almost 
daily, expressions of their joy at the 
prosperity of the Institution, and an 
urgent request to receive all that came. 
Had the whole establishment been my 
own, I think I should not have at- 
tempted to accommodate more than 
thirty-five or forty students. The 
statement row made will enable any 
one to see that our Bro. Armstrong 
commenced his agency under most 
favorable circumstances. The novelty 
of the character of the Institution sup- 
plied with many a powerful incentive 
to immediate action. And the field ' 
was the entire State, no part of which 


had ever been visited by an agent la- 
boring for this Institution. The best 
portions, of course, of the spacious field 
before the agent were visited first. Of 
this no complaint" was ever made. 
Nor is it denied that our brother was 
active and very successful. It is only 
urged that almost any one possessing 
respectable talents could hardly have 
failed of success under the circum- 
stances mentioned. 

It will be remembered that ours was 
a Manual Labor school. At that time 
such institutions were generally in 
high repute. The main object was to 
promote the health of the students 
and contribute somewhat towards the 
establishment of habits of industry. 
Our labor was performed quite late in 
the evening. By this arrangement we 
escaped the heat of the day. This 
exercise produced a good effect. I 
speak from my own experience, hav- 
ing invariably taken part in this ser- 
vice with the students. There was no 
time in the whole day when I felt 
more like giving myself entirely to my 
studies than I did at night, after the 
performance of our usual task. This 
feature of the Institution was con- 
tinued five years. To show in what 
light this matter was viewed by the 
students, I will mention one circum- 
stance. About three or four years 
after the Institute went into operation 
a meeting of the Board of Trustees 
was held at the Institute. It was re- 
ported among the students, that the 
Trustees were deliberating upon the 
expediency of discontinuing the man- 
ual labor of the Institution. A con- 
sultation was at once held by them, 
the result of which was that a com- 
mittee was forthwith appointed to 

draw up a memorial to present to the 
Trustees, assuring them, in the most 
respectful manner, that they had no 
wish for a change, but that they de- 
sired the present state of things to 
continue. So much was done by the 
students, before I had the least inti- 
mation of what they were doing. One 
of the oldest and most influential of 
the young gentlemen then called upon 
me to ask if I thought there would be 
any impropriety in the step they were 
taking. Before I replied, he added 
that they had not shown the memo- 
rial to the younger portion of the stu- 
dents. But all the older ones had 
signed it but one. And that individ- 
ual had not been asked to give the 
measure his sanction, knowing that 
from his peculiar temperament, he 
would feel it a great privilege to set 
himself in opposition. They would 
not, therefore, put it in his power to 
insult them. As was to be expected, 
there was some opposition to the Man- 
ual Labor Department. The case just 
mentioned is a pretty strong one in its 
favor at a time when the number of 
students was large. And it was per- 
fectly voluntary, and showed the feel- 
ing of the students at that time. The 
worst opposition we had to encounter 
was not from the students, but from 
those of whom we had a right to have 
expected better things. Some of the 
guardians of the Institute were known 
on some occasions to have allowed 
themselves the use of such language 
as would gratify such students as 
wanted an excuse for reluctance to 
labor. But worst of all some commu- 
nications appeared in the Interpreter 
from one of the teachers, calculated to 
injure the Manual Labor Department. 



One of the students replied in the 
same paper. The articles, two or three 
on each side, were written with cour- 
tesy and dignity ; and, in the judge- 
ment of the lamented Meredith, the 
editor of the paper, the student gained 
a complete triumph. Still, sugges- 
tions that had been made to the dis- 
advantage of that feature of the Insti- 
tution requiring labor, were often re- 
peated just as though they had never 
been answered. On this account the 
public discussion was much to be re- 
gretted. When, in the autumn of 
1838, this department was suspended, 
for it was not at once abolished, many 
were displeased, and some refused to 
pay their subscriptions. Others ap- 
proved. There were conflicting opin- 
ions. Probably more approved of the 
action of the Board in suspending the 
labor than disapproved. After all, let 
the fate of manual labor, in our semi- 
nary of learning, be what it may, no 
man can have ground to expect to en- 
joy good health, if he be a hard stu- 
dent, in the absence of regular, sys- 
tematic labor. It is a mistake to sup- 
pose that the exercise needful for 
health will retard the student in his 
course. The plain truth is, the effect 
will be directly opposite. 

But one circumstance more remains 
to be mentioned. I allude to the revi- 
vals of religion with which we have 
been favored. The first commenced 
on the 8th of August, 1834. The f 
commencement reminded us of a • 
rushing, mighty wind. We had reasons 
to hope that fourteen or fifteen ob- 
tained a hope on the first night of the 
meeting. So powerful was the work, 
that for two or three weeks the regu- 
lar business of the institution was sus- 
pended. Between 30 and 40 were 
happily brought to a knowledge of 
the truth. Four years in succession 
we were thus blessed with most pow- 
erful and quite extreme revivals. Pass- 
ing over one year, in which we enjoyed 
a pleasant state of things, we were 
again favored with another shower. 
Not less than eight or nine of these 
seasons of refreshing from the presence 
of the Lord have been enjoyed in this 
Institution since it was commenced, 
besides some most precious seasons 
when a smaller number have obtained 
a hope. Among the fruits of these 
revivals, are many very useful minis 
ters of the Gospel. 


Mountain chains form a most inter- 
esting study to lovers of nature. The 
surest method of gaining a satisfactory 
conception of them is to travel among 
them with intelligent guides, who are 
prepared not only to point out noted 
objects of interest, but also to connect 
these into a whole* and map them out 

before you with something approach- 
ing a systematic arrangement of the 
parts. But as some are not thus fa- 
vored, it may not be amiss, for the 
benefit of such, to attempt a descrip- 
tion of some particular section of a 
mountain chain. And there is hap- 
pily within our own borders a segment 
of the Appalachain chain which fur- 



nishes us with a specimen superior in 
many respects to any other portion of 
it. We have here a district whose 
limits may be very loosely set down 
as two hundred miles in length, and 
an average of one hundred in breadth. 
Its northern section, resting upon Vir- 
ginia, is about half as broad as the 
southern, which may be viewed as 
bounded by South Carolina and Geor- 
gia. And the segment may be de- 
scribed in general terms as a trapezoid 
whose parallel sides differ about sev- 
enty-five miles in length, and whose 
other sides diverge uniformly as they 
extend southward. Or, if you are not 
satisfied with the correctness of this 
picture, take Webster's Unabridged 
and see his "Scalene Triangle." Just 
cut off its head with a pair of imag- 
inary scissors, and you have a figure 
to which you cannot object. Now 
this trapezoid consists of an elevated 
plateau varying from 1,500 to 2,700 
feet above the sea-level. Except on 
the northern side and partly on the 
southern, where it is connected with 
the mountain chain, it rises abruptly 
from the surrounding district, which 
may be denominated the hill country, 
itself bordered on the east by the flat 
lands which slope gradually towards 
the Atlantic. 

To understand more clearly the char- 
acter of this plateau, it will be neces- 
sary to know that when, by abrupt 
stages, we have overcome the barriers 
which guard it, and have reached their 
summit, we have but attained to the 
base of what may be regarded as the 
real mountain ranges, with their more 
noted peaks. So that these latter will 
have two distinct measurements, as 
we consider them, with reference either 

to their elevation above the sea, or 
above the plateau on which they im- 
mediately rest. The plateau is not, as 
etymology would imply, a flat surface. 
And yet it has hardly greater superfi- 
cial irregularities than the ordinary 
hill country. 

But, as intimated above, at certain 
points there shoot up from it to the 
height of several thousand feet, ranges 
of mountains, and occasionally isola- 
ted peaks, which latter are generally 
regarded as "spurs" of some range 
not far distant. 

We have then first to realize to our- 
selves the existence of a natural 
mound of about two thousand feet 
in height, covering twenty thousand 
square miles, and to conceive of this 
mound as being itself the base upon 
which are planted the real mountains. 

Now suppose that lines be drawn 
parallel to each other, and extending 
from east to west, connecting the sides 
of the trapezoid that are not parallel, 
and that on these lines there rise 
mountain ranges. Then you have a 
tolerably correct picture of this intri- 
cate mountain system. Call the bar- 
rier which marks the eastern side of 
this figure the Blue Ridge, and that 
which marks the western the Smoky 
Mountains, and call the parallel ranges 
connecting the sides not parallel Black 
Mountain, New Found, Balsam, Cowee 
and Nantahala, and you are prepared 
to conceive of this figure as a ladder 
whose sides are the Blue Ridge and 
Smoky Mountains, and whose rounds 
are these several ranges. 

The reader must not suppose that 
the terms here employed are used with 
anything like mathematical precision. 
For when does Nature ever draw as 



a straight line, or reduce lines to strict 
parallelism or perpendicularity, or her 
figures to triangles, squares, and cir- 
cles ? Perhaps not Qne tree in a thou 
sand is exactly perpendicular to the 
earth, nor any two of its branches par- 
allel to one another. Ocean waves 
chase each other in lines which can only 
in a general way be denominated paral- 
lel. And mountain ranges form no ex- 
ception to the rule. 

Perhaps an observer of nature has 
no greater satisfaction than is afforded 
by the discovery of distinct and well 
marked traces of regularity in the dis- 
position of the parts of any natural 
figure. And we greet with pleasure 
any series of kindred objects, in the 
general arrangement of which we see 
something like an approach to order, 
symmetry, and system, as in crystals, 
for instance. The writer confesses to 
an increased interest in this portion of 
our State, after having, by a some- 
what extended tour among its moun- 
tains, reached a clearer apprehension 
of its topography, and discovered some- 
thing like an orderly arrangement of 
its parts. 

One who desires to scale the barrier 
which nature has raised around this 
plateau, would find it to his interest to 
avail himself of those paths which she 
has grudgingly opened as inlets into 
this elevated region. Steep mountain 
sides forbid entrance, as a rule, to all 
pedestrians, unless they are cloven- 
footed. But, fortunately, water — the 
potent factor in world-building as in 
world-destroying — has come to man's 
help in this difficult job of climbing 
the mountains. The various streams 
rising in this district, uniting their 

forces into creeks and rivers, and swell- 
ing into immense reservoirs, have grad- 
ually eaten away, and burrowed under, 
and made for themselves vents through, 
the barriers which opposed their down- 
ward rush, and asserted thus their an- 
cient right to return to their home in 
the bosom of old father Ocean. These 
vents or outlets following the wind- 
ings of the gorges and valleys, furnish 
highways for man at the same time 
that they allow the waters to descend 
with comparatively easy grade into 
the hill country below. 

Through these "gaps" the traveller 
finds routes which, when put in order 
by skilful hands, and especially when 
turnpiked, conduct him easily and 
safely to the heights above. Some of 
these turnpikes are indeed monuments 
of engineering skill. Sometimes in 
climbing a mountain the track is con- 
structed with so gentle a grade that, 
on having overcome a thousand or 
more feet in sheer height, you are con- 
scious of having moved on a surface 
but little inclined. And it not unfre- 
quently occurs that several hundred 
feet below, almost vertically, you can 
clearly discern the road over which 
you had travelled a mile or two away. 
In one instance the writer, when near- 
ing the summit, saw deep down below 
two different roads, one several hun- 
dred feet above the other, over which 
he had passed, the more distant one 
being fully two and a half miles away, 
as measured on the turnpike. These 
turnpikes in their serpentine tortuosity 
diminish steepness by increasing dis- 
tance, and thus illustrate the principle 
of efficiency in the lever and inclined 
plane. Occasionally the track runs for 
a few rods on the almost perpendicu- 



lar side of the mountain, and within a 
few inches of its outer edge is a prec- 
ipice of hundreds of feet, over which 
if — but, hold ! let us rather look at the 
face of the lofty rock on the other 
side of the track, almost touching the 
wheels of our vehicle, and slake our 
thirst with the waters trickling from 
crevices and sometimes forming little 
pools here and there in natural basins. 

"Gaps" by which we make our way 
through mountain barriers present at 
times views of thrilling interest. As 
the road winds its way up and around 
the successive knobs, following, in 
the main, the course of some wildly 
roaring stream, at one time in its very 
bed, at another several hundred feet 
above it, whence it is seen dashing and 
splashing over the rocks, or leaping 
over opposing barriers, conversation 
is suspended, and you hold commun- 
ion with nature. Then, again, when 
with this deep chasm below you and 
the roaring stream at its bottom, you 
raise your eyes upwards and see the 
rocky walls which shut you in on either 
hand, towering above until they seem 
to reach the sky, shutting out all of 
heaven but the narrow belt defined by 
their jagged summit outlines, you un- 
consciously retire within yourself and 
are "still." 

The railroad having opened up a 
highway for sight-seers into this inter- 
esting district, suppose we determine 
to spy out the land and report to the 
Student some of the things found 
out. Well, from our eastern home we 
start, and after a run of fifteen or 
twenty hours, (varying, of course, with 
the distance of our different homes in 
the east,) we find ourselves at Henry's, 

situated at the foot of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains. We had been from early 
dawn aware of our proximity to them, 
first, by a haziness and cloudiness rest- 
ing on the western horizon, which, as 
we drew nearer, assumed something 
like shape, and awakened a faint sug- 
gestion of solidity. And then as we 
rattled on, distinctness of outline and 
fixedness of position satisfied us that 
what we gazed upon was really the far- 
famed Blue Ridge, whose rugged face 
and beetling crags we had to climb 
and surmount before we could reach 
the summit, and turn our backs upon 
the low-lying lands. 

Breakfast over, curiosity, which had 
needed only hot coffee and rare beef- 
steak to raise it to white heat, prompted 
us to secure a good seat in the "ob- 
servation car." And to one who had 
climbed the mountains on the ordinary 
roads, and who knew what were really 
the points of interest to be watched, 
curiosity to compare experiences es- 
sentially the same and their effects 
under the changed conditions of rapid 
transit and painless motion, added zest 
and interest beyond what others could 
feel. Identical or greatly similar views 
of nature are to be found whether you 
climb by foot, or horse, or steam. But 
how will one feel who views these ob- 
jects by the third method, going at 
railroad speed, who has been thrilled 
by them under circumstances so greatly 
different ? That intensified interest in 
the adventure. 

And sure enough, what a difference 
is at once felt ! How boulders and 
headlands, and chasms and cliffs pass ! 
— with a rapidity that defies contempla- 
tion, and leaving a confused impres- 
. sion, rather unsatisfactory, of the Sub- 



ime. How we whirl and whisk about 
and around crags and over treetops 
and abysses and hollows, and run into 
deep cuts, and over deeper trestles and 
bridges, white and spindle-legged and 
spider-like in the seeming slenderness 
and weakness of their supports! Just 
as the danger of colliding with some 
knob which projects across our path is 
fairly over and we have drawn a long 
breath of relief, here on the left yawns, 
not six inches from the outer rail, a 
monster chasm, which you can see the 
workmen have tried in vain to fill by 
stuffing in his jaws untold loads of 
sand. The evidence of insatiableness 
thus given only serves to suggest the 
eagerness with which he would hail 
your being pitched into his throat. I 
But before you have quite become fa- 
miliar with the picture of the mountain 
swallowing you, your eye, directed 
downward, catches sight of a train of 
cars following your train at a distance 
of two miles, and yet now just below 
you at a perpendicular distance of not 
more than three or four hundred feet. 
How rapid your change of feeling, and 
with what fresh wonder you gaze upon 
this grand achievement of human ge- 
nius and mechanical skill! The journey 
to the top of the Ridge is several miles 
in length, and when completed, after 
all its snake-like contortions, Henry's 
(speaking poetically) lies just at your 
feet, and you have only put yourself 
at the point of departure. Perhaps the 
greatest marvel of all is that the grade 
of this road is only 140 feet to the mile. 
But no power of cutting down or 
elevating, or curling and curving, could 
enable the engineer quite to overcome 
the barrier which kept him away from 

the plateau above. He must pierce 
into and through the tops of sentinel 
knobs, whose inaccessible summits 
keep watch over this point of possible 
entrance. And thus it happens that, 
when we suppose the long agony to be 
over, and the way to be at length 
opened into this land of beauty and 
the grand, — lo ! here and lo ! there, in 
rapid succession we dart into and out 
of three or four short tunnels, whose 
sudden appearance startles, and the 
deafening reverberations from whose 
flinty sides and roof rudely shock the 
tympanum and cut their rugged way 
along the auditor}' nerve into the very 
heart of the brain. 

And what shall we say of the last of 
these tunnels, several hundred yards 
in length, from which light is utterly 
excluded, and darkness visible adds its 
terrors to unearthly sounds — sounds 
that seem to possess solidity, so stun- 
ning are they? Suppose, too, that 
there creeps upon you the suspicion 
that the roof might fall in, as it might 
indeed — a suspicion awakened by con- 
sidering the tremendous force which 
eye and ear inform you is being exerted 
by puffing, laboring engine, and creak- 
ing, thundering train. But, fortunately, 
just then returning daylight lifts the 
pressure and brings relief to thumping 
heart and quickened pulse. What ex- 
hilaration of spirit follows when fan- 
cied suffocation from premature burial 
gives way to unrestrained respiration 
above ground ! 


But here we are at last on the top 
of the Ridge, and scudding away on 
what by contrast seems a level country. 
Soon, on the borders of a beautiful 



mountain stream, we are given to un- 
derstand that we are following the 
course of the Swannanoa, as it makes 
its way by easy grades towards the 
French Broad. The morning sun 
flashes into our faces its rays reflected 
from the clear waters of the baby river. 
At one time the placid waters send 
a dazzling sheen ; at another, as they 
dance down gentle cascades or peal 
over pebbly bottoms, there is a shim- 
mering and a quivering of the sun- 
beams which one never tires in witness- 
ing. Meanwhile, the lower peaks of 
the Black Mountain range on the right, 
and those of the New Found on the 
left, furnish us with exemplifications 
of the Sublime, which set off and en- 
hance the beauty of the landscape of 
hill and dale, river and meadow, which 
lies around and at one's feet. 


To think about eating and drinking 
in such a place, except in connection 
with ambrosia and nectar, is downright 
profanity ; and yet here we flit by the 
everlasting mill-boy and his bag of 
meal nicely balanced upon the inevit- 
able mule, and yonder is the old mill 
itself, with moss-covered wheel lazily 
revolving under the impelling waters 
of this Olympian stream, none too 
sacred to do duty like a common thing 
— steam, for instance. But sensibili- 
ties so rudely shocked recover their 
equilibrium upon reflecting that the old 
mill and the boy and mule are essential 
to add what alone was wanting to a 
perfect scene — picturesqueness. 

And just as you have disposed of 
this matter thus philosophically, the 
door of your coach opens, and 

" asheville!" 
is heard, followed by a bang that 

arouses all sleepers and brings into line 
once more all straggling thoughts. 
Here the railroad " forks," one branch 
continuing down the French Broad to 
Warm Springs and thenceot the Pacific 
Ocean, the other terminating twenty 
miles beyond at Pigeon River, with 
Ducktown as its present objective point 
and the wide, wide world as the ulti- 
mate. Leaving our poet to " do" Ashe- 
ville, prose being utterly inadequate to 
meet the high claims which she and 
her surroundings set up for themselves, 
we set off for Pigeon River and parts 
beyond, the rather (and for divers other 
good reasons) because " they" all go to 
Warm Springs, insuring that route an 
abundance of sight-seers, and we, 
always having a weakness for the neg- 
lected, wished the Pigeon River coun- 
try to have an opportunity to be viewed 
and interviewed. Nor had we any oc- 
casion to regret our choice. 

Darting across the French Broad on 
this new road we soon find ourselves 
plunging into the mazes of the New 
Found Mountains, which seem to un- 
fold themselves and open up notches 
and gaps here and there in impossible 
places for our special benefit. Some- 
times, when, under a full head of steam 
and going at break-neck speed, some 
tall cliff or butte two hundred yards 
ahead seemed to stand across the track 
and effectually close the way. But 
just then the engine, with horrible 
shrieks, makes a sharp curve and turns 
to right or left, following the side of 
the cliff until it reaches a narrow back- 
door which Nature has inserted for our 
rescue, on entering which we find a 
large place and ample room once more. 

Soon, however, we have reached the 
verge of a yawning chasm, on whose 



narrow bottom, far below, some wild 
stream threads its way; and at the 
moment when the fatal plunge must 
occur a friendly trestle, supported we 
know not how, carries us safely over 
and lands us upon terra firma. 

At intervals vistas of enchanting 
beauty and sublimity intoxicate and 
bewilder, elysian fields, alpine heights 
and tartarean depths blending in one 
common picture. After many such 
scene-shiftings, tergiversations and 
hair-breadth 'scapes, we at last find 
ourselves clear of all obstructions and 
on the down grade for Pigeon River. 
This stream is of considerable size, 
carrying off all the waters which fail be- 
tween New Found and Balsam Moun- 
tains. Indeed, when one considers the 
number of rivers which flow through 
this plateau — the Watauga, French 
Broad, Pigeon, Tuckasiege, Tennessee, 
&c, and reflects that they form but 
about one-fourth of the sources of the 
great Tennessee as it sweeps in majesty 
around the foot of Lookout Mountain, 
he wonders that the main stream is no 
larger at that point. 


By hack to Waynesville, twelve miles, 
over a comparatively smooth road, you 
are hardly sensible of the change from 
rail to dirt-road. Competition greases 
the wheels, puts steam into the driver's 
whip, and — keeps money in your 

Waynesville is situated on a broad 
and comparatively level plat of ground 
elevated 2,700 feet above the sea, and 
enjoys an outlook and advantages of 
location and cheapness of living which, 
considered in connection with the pub- 
lic spirit and intelligence of her citi- 

zens, predestinate her to a greatness 
and a fame, on the completion of the 
coming railroad, which shall make her 
a formidable rival to the far-famed 
capital of Buncombe. Surrounded by 
mountains, flanked by the romantic 
Richland Creek, which comes freighted 
with crystal waters from the fountains 
of Balsam, with the White Sulphur a 
" short" mile away, and so situated as 
not to furnish comfortable quarters for 
dense morning fogs — the usual moun- 
tain plague of the weak-lunged and 
asthmatic, — no one need hesitate to 
take up here for pleasure or for health 
in summer and early fall. 

But wishing to visit the regions be- 
yond, and naturally impatient, we tar- 
ried in this lovely spot and its environs 
only long enough to feel assured that 
a valued friend (Rev. N. B. C.) had not 
exaggerated an iota in his glowing 
accounts of it, and then undertook a 
journey of 21 miles across the glorious 
Balsam Mountains, many of whose 
peaks rival in stateliness and grandeur 
Clingman's and Mitchell's. In six hours 
we find ourselves nearing the town of 
Webster, by far the most " beautiful 
for situation" of any mountain town 
in all this region. Imagine a monster 
tortoise of one and a half miles in 
length, one in breadth, and several hun- 
dred feet in depth, and then see a town 
perched upon his back, with mountain 
ranges and isolated peaks in all direc- 
tions around, and no outlet for the eye 
anywhere into the world beyond, and 
you have a picture of Webster. The 
tortoise seems to have sought the cen- 
tral point of the cove that he might 
lave his dainty feet in the dark waters 
of the on-rolling Tuckasiege, and thus 



assert his title to amphibiousness. But 
then the range of mountains on the 
north is not near enough to break the 
force of Boreas and his colleagues, and 
the town must " catch it" in the winter. 
That, however, is a matter for these 
Websterians to settle in their own way. 
For us who only tarry for a night and 
in summer, the blue mountains kissing 
the clouds, and the map of Jackson 
county spread out at our feet, form a 
picture of beauty which no wintry 
blasts can mar. 

One of the most delightful occupa- 
tions of the sight-seer is that of watch- 
ing at early dawn the fogs which cover 
the mountain sides or lie along the 
gorges marking the distinct outlines of 
the otherwise blended mountain peaks, 
and revealing the lines of separation be- 
tween those which belong to the same 
range, and then, as the sun disturbs 
their repose, to see them float away in 
solemn procession, to be dissolved 
somewhere behind the scenes. For 
this purpose Webster furnishes you 
with the most fitting point of observa- 
tion to be found on this plateau. 


But yonder, darkening the western 
sky, stands the Cowee range. And this, 
too, we must scale and see what lies 
on the other side of it. For these 
are parts unknown, and there may be 
even there beings who float the " Stars 
and Stripes," if by this time they have 
learned in their mountain fastnesses 
and inaccessible retreats that the "Stars 
and Bars" no longer wave. Or, per- 
haps, in their innocence and primal 
simplicity they may never have heard 
of either the Stripes or the Bars, and 
know only of the Stars. Urged on by 

such speculations we hitch up the mules 
and are in a few minutes rattling down 
the side of the tortoise which touches 
upon the river. This we cross on a 
bridge securely built. Soon we begin 
the ascent of the mountains by a turn- 
pike which winds so cautiously and 
skilfully around and up the hills and 
mountain sides that after a travel of 
two and a half hours, and before we 
had supposed it possible, we had 
reached the highest point in the notch 
by which you pass into the region west 
of the range. And as in ascending so 
in descending, there was no very thrill- 
ing sight of precipice or overhanging 
cliff to stir the blood to more rapid 
coursing. Scenes and prospects and 
vistas there were which enchanted and 
filled with rapture. But as nature fur- 
nished us with no material for a ro- 
mance, and failed to gratify the morbid 
desire for peril in posse, defective art 
must needs come to our relief and sup- 
ply us with an adventure in the shape 
of a broken tongue, which as we were 
on the down grade, sent the carriage 
with irresistible momentum upon 
mules too soon crushed to the earth 
to have time even for a kick. Splicing 
and tying skilfully performed gave us 
a tongue which enabled us to move on 
as before. 

And soon we cross the Tennessee 
River, and climbing the long hill on the 
top of which is the town of Franklin, 
we come to a halt in front of the ho — 
[Just here the printer's call for " copy," 
"copy," became so loud and irrepres- 
sible that the writer could not finish 
the sentence begun, much less the 
sketch, and has not even the oppor- 
tunity of making a promise in regard 
to the contin — ] 




It was a clear piercing cold night in 
January as two young comrades, wrap- 
ped in their warm overcoats, sauntered 
down a street of one of the populous 
cities of the North. Evidently they 
were students from some institution of 

From their manner and conversation 
one could easily tell that they were 
young men of high families and of 
brilliant minds. 

Had their loving, unsuspicious par- 
ents known whither their steps were 
leading them, as they walked briskly 
on enjoying their fine cigars, these 
fond hearts had been wrung with sor- 

"Dick, if the ' Fac.' should ' acci- 
dentally ' discover where we were going 
to-night, wouldn't they raise Cain?" 

" I congratulate myself, however, on 
the fact that they are not likely to 
make any such discoveries. So I think 
you need give yourself no trouble on 
that score, Will." 

As they turned down a side street 
they saw, by the gas-light, a remark- 
able looking old man cross over from 
the opposite pavement. 

"Juno protect us! Will, did you 
see that face ?" 

" I did, old chum, and I must con- 
fess that I never saw so much desola- 
tion and woe stamped on the human 
countenance before. It makes me 
shiver to think of it." 

" Let's follow him ! I somehow feel 
that my life is to be interwoven with 
that stranger's." 

Following the impulse of the last 

speaker the young men pursued the 
figure on and on through the labyrinth 
of streets till they were entirely beyond 
the limits of the city. They had not 
gone far outside, however, when they 
reached a large river which a huge 
bridge spanned. As they stepped 
upon the bridge the object of their 
pursuit suddenly turned, walked back, 
and confronted them, demanding in a 
hollow voice : " Why do you follow 

"Answer him, Dick!" 
Summoning up all his courage Dick 
replied : 

"Our reason for doing so is, that on 
seeing your face we felt almost unac- 
countably drawn toward you. There 
seemed to be a fascination in the awful 
expression of your countenance which 
dragged us on after you." 

The old man eyed the youth search- 
ingly for a few seconds, and said : " So 
you would hear my story, eh?" 

" If you please." 

" I have never told it before ; but 
somehow I feel like it to-night, and I 
can give you something to think of, 

They were soon seated on the ban- 
ister of the bridge, and the gray-haired 
stranger quietly folding his arms be- 

" I once was young. Before me 
stretched the long untrodden pathway, 
whose end, to my exuberant fancy, 
was invisible. I knew no Present. 
Ah ! but the Future was mine ! In it 
I lived and ever turned from the som. 
bre Past with scorn ; nor did any phan- 



torn from its gloomy cells darken for 
a moment the mirror in which I saw 
reflected my destiny. Into that mirror 
I would gaze with a heart all fired with 
wild enthusiasm till my brain was 
scorched by the brilliancy of its own 
burning pictures. 

" It was my soul's own delight to 
leap into the beyond and bathe in its 
genial sunshine unmolested by a single 
anxious thought.. 

" Upon the common rabble that 
moved about me I gazed with disgust, 
mingled, however, with a generous 
compassion for many of earth's busy 
denizens to whom Fate had decreed 
the drudgery of a hard lot. Squalor 
and wretchedness I saw, but these were 
no care to me. I must be laying my 
plans for the future, to fulfil the grand 
purpose for which I was created. Let 
the conscientious humanitarian harass 
his mind with such — my task was of a 
pleasanter and more lofty character. 
I saw a hearse one day slowly winding 
its way to the cemetery, and I could 
see the casket containing the body of 
one but yesterday as gay and hopeful 
as I. Throb! went my heart. Still! 
heart, still ! That man was born to be 
cut off thus prematurely. 

" My duty was preached to me a 
thousand times by father and mother, 
and most minutely by many an adven- 
turous essayist as, in his extreme youth^ 
he began to sail his little skiff upon 
the vast ocean of thought. 

" Of course I heard it all — yes, lis- 
tened patiently to it till my sensibilities 
became so dull and impenetrable that 
even a cannon ball of warning and ad- 
vice would not make the slightest im- 
pression upon the smooth surface of 
my easy conscience. The bright blood 

of youth which surged through my 
veins fed a heart across which no 
shadow ever fell, and whose throbs 
beat responsive to all that was san- 
guine and impetuous. 

" I would steal into the beautiful 
garden of the Future and spend days 
and weeks and months and years. 
Here fancy played her wildest pranks, 
and to her siren voice I yielded without 
a murmur. Within this delightful Eden 
blossomed eternal flowers, and from its 
snowy marble fountains flowed the 
clearest and purest water, with which 
I quenched my thirst. From its wav- 
ing fruit trees I plucked the choicest 
of their luscious burden. Here dwelt 
only the young and aspiring. Sorrow 
never saw its golden portals. I lived 
in fairyland and was a magician. I 
had only to wish and it was realized. 
I lounged on the green carpeted banks 
of murmuring brooks, listened in the 
gathering twilight to the softest and 
sweetest strains of music, wafted from 
strings swept by angels' hands, its mys- 
terious influence stealing over me till 
every fibre of my being was thrilled 
with its melody. 

" It was here we met and loved, and 
then I led her a willing victim to Hy- 
men's silveraltar and vowed to defend, 
shield and protect so long as life en- 
dured. We entered our cosy little 
cottage, which nestled amid a wilder- 
ness of honeysuckle and waving flow- 
ers, and before which stretched the 
gently sloping lawn, shaded by lofty 
old oaks. 

" Life began in earnest. I entered 
my name in the lists of Fame's many 
aspirants. Sustained, soothed and in- 
spired by a lovely companion, I pushed 
onward. Difficulties vanished at my 



touch, as leaves in the late autumn 
fall before the raging north wind* 
With not a single failure to mar the per- 
fect symmetry of my history, I neared 
the goal of my life. My simple cot- 
tage had grown into a magnificent 
marble residence on the summit of a 
towering hill ; and its lofty rooms and 
palatial halls echoed with the patter of 
little feet and the ringing shouts of 
youthful mirth. Now, in the world 
without, I had reached the acme. I 
stood upon the very top of Fame's 
dizzy peak. Around me raged politi- 
cal storms wild and terrific, which, 
sweeping the earth with cyclonic fury, 
were to me but laughing zephyrs. 
War's hoarse voice thundered at my 
feet and the livid lightnings flashed 
and played above me. Yet undaunted 
I saw and heard it all, for in my own 
hands I held the reins which guided 
those furious tempests. I was master 
of all. Far beneath me lay a conquered 
world! Her great and powerful ac- 
knowledged my supremacy. At length, 
weary of wielding the golden sceptre, 
I laid it aside, and, wrapt in a mantle 
of glory and honor, descended with 
fearless step those rugged heights and 
returned to my princely home, there 
to end my days surrounded by all that 
heart could wish." 

The old man paused a moment ; his 
head drooped low on his bosom, as he 
heaved a troubled sigh and continued : 

" Thus I lived life over a thousand 
times, but woke just so often to find 
the same old world rolling on in its 
orbit, as the Great one had ordained 
it, and that I was the same obscure 
youth moving on its surface. 

" I met a gray-haired sage once who 
in his weird, guttural voice said tome: 

'Young man, you are gay and hopeful ; 
a bright and glorious future looms up 
before you. You live now in that fu- 
ture, oblivious of the present. A hun- 
dred demons beset your pathway, and 
into their snares you are liable daily 
to fall.' 

" Turning proudly away, I answered : 
4 Croaking wizard, go squeak your dis- 
mal lies in some old woman's ears, and 
you will find a more sympathetic audi- 

" I then congratulated myself that 
my old age would be grand and noble, 
not low, vulgar, as that old sinner's. 

" One day as I strolled carelessly 
along, I heard swift wings cut the air, 
and, soft as a snowflake from heaven, 
alighted beside me a blushing nymph, 
whose beauty stupefied me, weak fool 
that I was! "Her ruby lips parted 
with a beautiful smile, as she beckoned 
me to her. Before my excited fancy 
flashed the warning — but that fair 
angel could do no harm. I approached, 
but she had vanished and stood upon 
the opposite hill-top, calling me to fol- 
low. I eagerly plunged into the deep 
thicket and climbed the hill, but as I 
drew near she moved onward. Excited 
to frenzy by her bewitching calls and 
bantering, I rushed madly on in pur- 
suit, forgetting all in the fascination of 
the novel chase. Stopping only a few 
moments now and then to obtain 
nourishment, -I followed the enchant- 
ress on and on, forgetting even the 
lapse of time. At length, with frame 
worn and emaciated, and nerves ex- 
hausted, I caught the object of my 
pursuit. With senses intoxicated with 
delight, I stooped to kiss the ripe lips 
— but, oh God! the transformation ! I 
saw, instead of a laughing nymph, a 



huge serpent. For an instant its 
bowed head towered high above me ; I 
heard its hissing voice, felt the sting of 
its deadly fang, and then its sickening 
poison sweeping through every vein. 

" All is night. A thousand demons 
mock, and curse, and rave, around 
me. I feel the clammy touch of foul 
harpies as they flit and whiz about. I 
was another man. I had awoke to 
find that more than forty years of my 
life had vanished, leaving me an old 
and enfeebled man. The horrible re- 
ality was appalling. Every energy of 
my being was concentrated into one 
mighty effort to shake off this horrid 
dream and be myself again. 

"Could it be that all was lost? 
Youth, manhood, love, ambition, hope 
— all? Yes, gone! gone! forever 
gone! Oh, bright dream of my 
childhood, come back! come back! 
But from the cold, dark caverns of the 
Past, came only grim ghosts which, in 
their hollow, sepulchral voices, mocked 
my desolation. 

" Staggering on in the chill night, 
neither knowing nor caring whither, I 
wandered to the lonely beach, and as 
I stood there upon the brow of its 
weather-beaten cliffs, then only, did 
the tumult of my soul find an echo, 
and that echo was in the sullen roar of 
those restless billows. I tried to think 
what had happened in those long 
years, seemingly so blank. Where 
was my youth ? Were its golden days 
gone, and nothing done? Upon what 
had the energy and power of my man- 
hood been bestowed? Into what had 
that all-absorbing, soul-devouring am- 
bition developed ? Had its grand 
schemes and world-embracing plans 
turned to vapor and become naught? 

Where was love? Was there no fa- 
miliar form and tender voice to soothe 
and comfort now? Swift the answer 
came ; for when memory withdrew the 
curtain, and I saw the history of that 
Past, it all seemed contained in four 
words, written in letters of fire across 
its page with darkened back-ground — 
gone! all gone forever! Then 
the last glimmering spark of a feeble 
hope was smothered, extinguished." 

He paused again, and then contin- 
ued in a husky voice : 

" Though the deep, bitter waters of 
adversity roll and lash around man ; 
though he sink for the moment be- 
neath its raging surges, yet, if hope be 
with him, he will rise and ride tri- 
umphant on its foam-crested waves to 
land again. But that man, in whose 
bosom no cheerful ray of hope is felt, 
is dead to all save woe, which, to him, 
must a twin-brother be till death their 
union sever, to chain him to the putri- 
fying corpse of despair. 

" Not only were youth, manhood* 
love, and ambition gone, but hope was 
lost ! Every bright vision and fancy 
of my childhood had turned to a dis- 
mal shadow, whose chilling presence 
haunted my footsteps from morn till 
eventide. And so it is now. 

" I long to meet death and feel the 
keen edge of his ruthless sickle. In 
my rage and agony I curse and dare 
him come ! Ah, he only smiles a 
mocking, scornful smile, and marks me 
to glut his future vengeance. 

" Deprived, as I am, by a heartless 
fate, of all that is dear on earth, there 
is, however, one thing left me — mem- 
ory. Memories, such as flit with silver 
wings from happy days of yore ? No ! 
but memories whose long skeleton 



hands stretch towards me from a 
black, loathsome, horrid past, all along 
which lie the blasted and rotting ruins 
of a wrecked life ! And those nerve- 
less, merciless fingers, sweep my heart- 
strings until every warm impulse of 
the soul is frozen unto death. 

" And oh, direful thought ! — they 
tell me of more wrecks than my own ; 
wrecks which my own arms have 
made ; how a mother, fond and dot- 
ing, yet bowed in shame for me, had 
fallen into an untimely grave ; of a 
gray-haired father following ; of a wife 
and little one sleeping side by side, 
whom I have slain. And often now, 
when bewildered and stupefiedj by 
thinking, I feel those dimpled hands 
and soft, snowy arms steal around my 
neck, and then awake to find it but a 
nightmare, but a phantom — yet, oh 
God ! it leaves behind a sting which, 
piercing through my heart, there ran- 
kles and festers, and the subtle gan- 
green from those sores is spreading 
and spreading, till soon every nerve 
will be paralyzed. 

"I walk life's desolate waste alone, 
wandering continually, fugitive, traitor, 
vagabond, amid the lonely piles of 
destruction and ghostly ruin which I 
have wrought, seeking to escape mem. 
ory, the bloody memories always pur- 
suing. I am draining the last bitter 
dregs from life's bitterest cup of gall." 

Exhausted by the violence of his 

feelings, which the story had stirred 
almost to frenzy, the aged stranger 
sank for a moment to his knees, utter- 
ing a groan whose dismal reverbera- 
tions in the stillness of night were 
enough to make the strongest heart 
grow cold with dread. 

He soon rose, however, and, wiping 
the cold perspiration from his brow, 
said : " You know my history. I have 
no advice to whine in ears deafened by 
the silly whisperings of youth. Go 
your way, and let me go mine." With 
this he disappeared in the darkness. 

The young men descended from the 
bridge and walked slowly back toward 
the city, not, however, to fulfil the 
original mission on which they set out 
an hour previous. They conversed but 
little, and on reaching the hotel went 
directly to their room. 

Lighting new cigars they sat for 
nearly an hour in silence, each com- 
muning with his own thoughts. Finally 
one broke silence by saying: 

" Dick, I have sometimes longed to 
read the mystic page upon which my 
destiny was written, but I thank God 
that over the future he has dropped a 
veil deep and dark, beyond whose 
sombre folds the eye of mortal can 
never pierce. I would not read the 
history of to-morrow, if it were pos- 

But let us leave them to their 


Who that has ever sailed up the 
Hudson River can ever lose the im- 
pression made upon him by the gran- 
deur of its scenery! If New York is 

its Paris, then surely the Hudson is 
the Rhine of America. 

'Twas one clear, bracing May morn- 
ing when we boarded the elegant Hud- 



son steamer Vanderbilt. Soon, amidst 
the din and excitement of the occa- 
sion, the well known "cast off" was 
uttered by the shrill voice of the cap- 
tain. Hurried good-byes, parting kisses, 
and last mirtful looks, especially from 
a group of pretty Vassar-bound girls, 
bestowed upon their respective crest- 
fallen admirers standing on the pier, 
were all the work of a minute. Another 
minute, and we were gliding over the 
bosom of the Hudson with prow 
headed for Albany. 

Astern, fast fading from view, lay 
Brooklyn, built on the site where stood 
the traditional Plymouth Rock. Here 
the venerable May Flower first shook 
hands with America, and deposited her 
sea-worn crew, our Pilgrim Fathers. 

Steaming on, we passed a stately 
man-of-war riding peacefully at anchor. 
Her admiral could be seen consulting 
his chief officers, as though about to 
weigh anchor to bear down, too, upon 
Cairo or Alexandria. While her spright- 
ly little midshipmen were capering 
aloft through the rigging, as blithe as 
though that peaceful, sun-shiny May 
morning could never be dimmed by 
the clouds of war or disturbed by the 
rude bomb-shell ; as though there were 
no chance that that faultlessly equipped 
vessel which they have learned to love 
may ever meet with the fate of the 
old Ironsides. 

Next came to view those sumptuous 
country-seats which embellish the 
Hudson for miles ; whose green swards 
are bedecked with all the artistic de- 
signs of which the inventive mind of 
the Yankee is capable. Here the opu- 
lent of New York City are wont to re- 
sort to escape the turmoil of business 
and monotony of city life. 

After having been held for hours 
spell-bound to these lovely sights, our 
attention was finally drawn toward 
our fellow passengers. Some, with no 
eye for the beauties of nature, were 
absorbed in reading novels ; others, 
with an eye to business and the ques- 
tions of the day, with brows knit, were 
consulting the morning papers as to 
the present premium on gold, and the 
movements of the railroad kings with 
regard to stocks and bonds. But I 
must note a few of the most important 
personages aboard. 

Here sat Mr. Conkling, surnamed 
the Peacock, the " Apollo of the Sen- 
ate," in close converse with his chum 
Piatt; no doubt at that very moment 
scheming that direful plot of relieving 
the nation of their services. 

Hard by, for " birds of a feather will 
flock together," was seated Charles J. 
Guiteau, a man as famed as Benedict 
Arnold, brooding, with chin settled on 
his breast. Perhaps even then he was 
conceiving that inspiration which ulti- 
mately made the gallows his goal. 

In a sequestered corner, as if to be 
screened from the possible jealous gaze 
of some imaginary rivals, were a super- 
annuated couple, evidently indulging 
in the same sentiments which stirred 
the breasts of Mr.Tupman and Rachel. 
To lend to the inspiration of the 
moment, sweet strains of music, like 
those from the harp of Feramorze dis- 
coursed to Lalla Rookh, his mistress, 
were heard near by. Now, as I did 
not wish to act the part of Dicken's 
fat boy on that occasion, although my 
curiosity, and not jealousy, was at fever 
heat, I moved off and joined my friends 
in a stroll on deck. 

We next encountered a knot of Sen- 



ators, beset by several busy little poli- 
ticians, who barked vigorously, but 
unheeded by the staid Congressmen. 
Some of these little demagogues 
seemed, from their conversation, to be 
conservative with regard to the Civil 
Service system ; while others seemed 
greedy for a Civil Service Reform, ac- 
cording as their prospective interests 

About one o'clock the grim old walls 
of West Point loomed up in the dis- 
tance. As we came into full view of 
the old fortress and barracks, a feeling 
of awed respect took possession of 
me. Respect for that mother of Amer- 
ican colleges, on whose bosom so 
many noble sons have been nourished. 
There our beloved Lee and Jackson 
fired their first guns. From her arms 
were equipped and sent forth many of 
our heroes whose bones whitened the 
plains of Mexico and Gettysburg. But 
I must not linger too long here. We 
soon resumed our voyage and all again 
relapsed into our several diversions, 
which lasted until we hove in sight of 
Tarrytown, the old home of Washing- 
ton Irving. There stands in full view, 
with its antique steeple, the same 
quaint old church, where Irving used 
to worship. Hallowed with the grave 
and memory of this great author, Tar- 
rytown is always an object of curiosity 
to those who are the lovers of pure 
and engaging literature. 

I could fancy that I saw Ichabod 
Crane (vide Sketch Book) jogging 
along on his way to the house of Kat- 
rina Van Tassel, feeding his mind with 
sweet thoughts and " sugared supposi- 
tions," on beholding those " fields of 
Indian corn, with its golden ears peep- 

ing from their leafy coverts, and the 
yellow pumpkins lying beneath them 
turning up their fair, round bellies to 
the sun." I could fancy also that I 
heard that little brook, in which the 
old Angler fished, which went bubbling 
and fretting through the woods and 
leaped into a reservoir. 

These scenes left an impression on 
me which could only be brightened by 
the new scenes and diversions which 
followed. We passed many little ham- 
lets snugly nestled each in its small 
valley on the brow of the Hudson. 
Noticeable among all these were the 
modest little churches with their an- 
tiquated spires. 

Passing further on we find that the 
river is dotted on both sides with little 
manufacturing towns, which fact we 
ascertained by the din and clatter of 
the workman's hammer. This part of 
the Hudson, too, is of especial interest ; 
for in this neighborhood many decisive 
battles were fought during the Revo- 
lutionary War. Here, too, Cooper laid 
the scenes of some of his most interest- 
ing works. The Spy threaded these 
once intricate paths which girt the 
edge of the river. Into the encamp- 
ments of the British and Americans 
alike he stole, and always, with a kind 
of talisman which he possessed, es- 
caped unscathed. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon we 
reached Poughkeepsie. This busy 
town, like Rome, is built on hills, and 
seems almost to be walled in by larger 
ones. Here is seated Eastman's famous 
Business College, which fits hundreds 
of students annually for responsible 
positions in mercantile life. I was told 
she sent out thirteen hundred gradu- 



ates on one year. About two miles 
distant stands Vassar College, the Har- 
vard of female institutions. Though 
we had time to spare, yet we did not 
venture a visit there, being told that 
it was unsafe for youths to go to that 
college of Amazons unguarded. 

A short time before sunset we left 
Poughkeepsie, hoping to reach Albany 
about twilight. It soon became evi- 
dent that Sol was about to bid us good- 
night. But ere leaving us, his face lit 
up with golden hues, whose reflection 
fringed all nature with pretty colorings. 
He sank to rest, promising to rise 

promptly as usual the next morning 
to welcome us with his smiles. About 
six o'clock we were all awakened from 
a reverie by the gong sounding for 
supper. At the table, accordingly, all 
were soon gathered ; and fierce appe- 
tites were shortly appeased. But I no- 
ticed that the couple from the corner, 
whom I described, left the table sooner 
than the rest, their food comparative- 
ly untouched. When supper was over 
we found ourselves at Albany, having 
arrived later than usual, but not too 
late to procure an omnibus. 





It will be remembered that a friend 
of The Student has offered to the 
student of the College who shall pub- 
lish in this magazine the best essay, a 
gold medal to be presented at the 
next Anniversary. There are but four 
more issues before that occasion. 
There have been but few contestants 
so far. It is true that " one receiveth 
the prize " — that is, the gold prize ; 
but we are sure that all who run in 
this race will be greatly helped. No 
honest effort at composition goes 
without some reward. And who 
knows but that some mute, inglorious 
Milton might be stirred to melody, 
or, like Madame D'Arblay, somebody 
might stumble on immortality ? We 
hope, at least, that there shall be sev- 
eral more entering these honorable 


We are largely indebted to the 
knights of the middle ages for the 
high position which woman occupies 
in the world to-day. Their deference 
and delicate gallantry towards woman 
excite our highest admiration and 
respect. They placed her on an equal- 
ity with themselves ; nay, they exalted 
her above themselves, and paid to her 
such attention as she deserves, and to 
them we owe the society of to-day. 

While woman remained in a degra- 
ded state, man was equally so ; but as 

she was elevated man rose with her, 
and the finer susceptibilities of his 
nature began to unfold themselves. 
It would be a deplorable condition of 
affairs if we were without the benefi- 
cent and refining influence which wo- 
man exerts. It is she who teaches us 
to perceive the beautiful in thousands 
of things by which we would other- 
wise be unimpressed. Man left to 
himself would gaze on the flowers 
with no pleasure ; the rainbow would 
vanish unheeded ; the sunset, with its 
delicate tints and blending colors, 
would never be appreciated, unless 
she had stimulated the finer feelings 
of his nature. " Men have marble, 
women waxen, minds." The beauti- 
ful things of life make impressions 
more easily on her than on man, and 
her influence is requisite to soften and 
direct. It is easy to distinguish those 
men who have come under the influ- 
ence of mother and sister and friend. 
We have dormant tastes and percep- 
tions which need only the quickening 
influence of woman's magic hand to 
awake to the appreciation of the beau- 
ties around us. 

Men whose tastes have been culti- 
vated by association have their gene- 
rosity heightened ; tenderness has 
found a lodging place in their breasts, 
and those principles have been incul- 
cated which tend to bless all with 
whom they come in contact. On the 
other hand, the man who has not had 
his tastes and affections cultivated is 

EDITORIAL -Politeness. 


but half a man. There is something 
lacking which can be gained only by 
association with those who are able to 
excite such tastes ; the little civilities 
and courtesies which woman inspires 
are lacking, marked sometimes by a 
neglect of person and even slovenli- 

As students, wedded to our text- 
books and societies, we are separated, 
for the most part, from many things 
which would keep alive in us the feel- 
ings hitherto excited by the associa- 
tions of former days. We are debarred 
the society of woman to a great ex- 
tent, and it is worth our while to see 
to it that we do not retrograde. 

Our characters are forming now . 
and we run a great risk of getting 
into wrong habits of action and 
thought which will remain with us 
throughout life. We are apt to give 
all our attention to our own affairs, to 
look out for number one exclusively, 
what becomes of number two being 
a matter of supreme indifference. The 
young gentlemen at this place are^not 
behind the rest of the world as regards 
civility and politeness, but candor 
compels us to say there is room for 

If one is always occupied with him- 
self and his own affairs, he will natu- 
rally think too much of self, and 
usually in a way to excite the opposi- 
tion and even disgust of others. 

Egotism occupies as much space in 
the world as it ever did, but no man 
can approach the ideal gentleman de- 
scribed in a former number of The 
Student who cannot live out of him- 
self. It does'nt pay in the long run 
to be engrossed with one's own per- 

fections ; one can never be pleasant to 
those about him till he forgets himself. 

Besides, you are absolutely of very 
little importance in this world. Just 
step off the stage of life, and the world 
will go on just as it used to do. There 
is rank after rank extending far back 
behind you, and there is always a man 
ready to step into your place, and the 
grass on your grave will not be green 
ere your name will be forgotten. 

We have become accustomed to 
each other, and often the pleasant 
" good-morning" is omitted. Now, this 
is not the case at your homes, and are 
you not afraid you will contract habits 
which will prove hard to overcome? 
You know "the claims of habit are 
generally too small to be felt till they 
are too strong to be broken," and 
consequently we shall have to guard 
well lest we form habits here which 
will cause us trouble in the future. 
Several things have come under our 
observation in the past few days which 
we consider breaches of politeness, 
and which suggested this article. 
Nothing criminal is charged, only the 
want of that civility which one gen- 
tleman owes another. You can 
measure a man generally by his ac- 
tions ; and beware lest some one is 
taking the measure of your soul when 
the impolite word escapes you. Al- 
most any degree of cultivation is 
within the power of every young man, 
and it is a duty, and should be es- 
teemed a privilege, to cultivate every- 
thing which will aid in afterlife. There 
is no quality which young men are apt 
to think so lightly of as politeness, 
yet it seems to us that it is to be de- 
sired in a young man almost above 
everything else. 



A pleasant manner, politeness, will 
carry one further than most people 
think. " Give a boy politeness and a 
pleasing address, and you give him 
the mastery of palaces and fortunes 
where he goes. He has not the trou- 
ble of earning them ; they solicit him 
to enter and possess." 

" A soft answer turneth away wrath," 
and if you speak politely, you will 
surely receive a polite answer. We 
are answered as we ask. 

We have said, cultivate politeness. 
Do not misunderstand. It can be cul- 
tivated — never assumed. Men are 
keen to detect the false ; they can tell 
the ring of the true metal by intuition. 
Your dog knows when you are in 

Another consideration not to be lost 
sight of by us, is, our voices are expo- 
nents of our characters. All of us de- 
sire to have pleasant voices, many of 
us expect to become public speakers ; 
but it is impossible for one to be gruff 
and sullen and impolite, and then 
whenever he wishes, speak pleasantly. 
The snappish, snarling, irritable tone 
becomes a part of you, and is a cor- 
rect index to the soul within. If you 

are accustomed to speak unpleasantly, 
and then should try to speak pleas- 
antly, your voice cannot but be affect- 
ed, and men will detect the affectation. 
That man will best succeed as a pleas- 
ant speaker who cultivates pleasant 
speaking in his every-day life. This 
subject is worthy of attention, for 
there is nothing that sweetens life so 
much as the little acts of politeness. 
Politeness is a great lubricator, smooth- 
ing the rough places. We benefit 
others, and there is a reflex action. 
Frequently it is hard, particularly when 
some idle visitor bores us when we 
desire to study ; and often have we 
seen young men treated in a manner 
which made them enemies, when a 
polite word would have sent them off 
and retained them as friends. 

Lord Chesterfield says, " I am sure 
that any man of common understand- 
ing may, by culture, care, attention, 
and labor, make himself whatever he 
pleases, except a great poet." There 
need be no exception ; for, as we heard 
a few days since, a Junior at a sister 
college being in some doubt as to his 
being a poet, solved the difficulty 
thus : "Poeta nascitur, I am born, ergo." 


— THERE were 803 men graduated 
from the New England colleges last 

— THE Freshman class at Cambridge 
numbers 875, the largest she has ever 

— There are men at Yale from 
Wales, Scotland, New Brunswick, Can- 
ada, Chili, Japan, Norway, Honolulu, 
and thirty-six States of the Union. 

— The University of Mississippi 
will hereafter admit women to all of 
its branches. 

— One pound of learning requires 
ten pounds of common-sense to apply 
it. — Persian Proverb. 

— The resignation of the chair of 
Greek at Edinburgh, after a service of 
thirty years, is greatly regretted by 
the admirers of Professor Blackie. 

EDITORIAL -Educational. 


Philadelphia spent last year on its 
public schools $1,715,909.04. 

The compulsory Education Act in 
France went into force on the 2d inst. 

— The Trustees of Harvard College 
have secured a fund, to be devoted to 
the medical education of women. 

— The Maryland Teachers' Asso- 
ciation advocates the abolition of cor- 
poral punishment in the public schools. 

The University of Kansas, which was 
founded at Lawrence in 1859, now nas 
eighteen professors and 450 students. 

The school population of Tennes- 
see, white and colored, is 545,875. The 
cost of the schools last year was $707,- 

THE Trustees of the Southern Uni- 
versity, Greensboro, Ala., have elected 
Dr. A. S. Andrews, President of the 

Friends of Yale College are endeav- 
oring to raise $25,000 for the erection 
of a building in which to hold religious 

— The thirty-sixth annual meeting 
of German philologists and teachers 
took place at Carlsrulie, September 
27th to 30th. 

Rev. Dr. Jas. H. Carlisle has de- 
clined the presidency of the University 
of South Carolina, to which he had 
been elected. 

— The University of Gcettingen, in 
Hanover, has . 1,083 students, of whom 
221 are in the departments of philol- 
ogy and history. 

— On account of the studying done 
on Sunday, the Vassar faculty are 
thinking of changing the girls' holiday 
from Saturday to Monday. The Mis- 
cellany objects strongly. 

— The Johns Hopkins University 
has the largest attendance this fall 
that has been known during its his- 
tory. The new laboratory will be 
ready for use next term. 

The Calendar of the University of 
Michigan shows the whole number of 
students at the end of the last term t6 
have been 1534. 

WOMEN are admitted to Cornell 
University on the same conditions as 
men, except that they must be seven- 
teen years of age. 

It is said that nine-tenths of the 
young people brought up in Boston 
wear spectacles, because of injuries to 
the health in school hours. Can it be 
so ? 

Over 10,000,000 pupils are enrolled 
in the public schools in this country, 
and the expenditure is about $80,000,- 
000 annually. Thirty States have a 
permanent school-fund of $1 10,000,000 

In the University of London, so 
says the N. Y. Herald, the women stu- 
dents have succeeded in the study of 
French and German, but have not had 
great success in scientific studies. 

THE Agricultural College at Han- 
over, N. H., will, at its next term, ad- 
mit women pupils, who will be given 
a special course of study, including 
butter and cheese-making, and dairy- 
ing in all its branches. 

Boston University has taken a 
step which the progressive will heart- 
ily approve. Sixty-four scholarships 
have been established in the College 
of Liberal Arts, to be awarded to 
meritorious students, and to be divided 
equally between young women and 
young men. 



A Theological Seminary is to be or- 
ganized in connection with Clark Uni- 
versity, Atlanta, for which Rev. E. H. 
Gammon of Illinois has given $25,000, 
and Bishop Warren has engaged to 
raise $10,000. 

At Amherst College Commence- 
ment President Seelye announced that 
the sum of $270,000 had been contrib- 
uted during the past year — more 
money than in any former year of the 
college's existence. — N. C. Christian 

Alexander H Stephens has, since 
re-entering Congress, kept at school 
from ten to fifteen pupils struggling 
for an education, paying tuition for 
those needing but that assistance, and 
the entire expense for those more 

— The schools of Weimar, Germany, 
have a custom of weekly excursions 
for out-door study and observation 
under care of teachers. This plan has 
been tried in some schools nearer 
home, with the best of results both to 
the health and the mental growth of 

— The citizens of Texas are not in- 
different to education. The town of 
Fort North has just voted to establish 
and maintain six free schools for ten 
months of the year. There are 12,000 
people in the town, and only eighteen 
votes were cast against the proposi- 

DR. J. A. BROADUS gives in sub- 
stance this description of an educated 
man : He is one whose mind is zvidened 
out> so that he can take broad views, 
instead of being narrow-minded ; who 
has the power of patient thinking; 
who has sound judgment, knows how 

to reason to right conclusions, and so 
to argue as to convince ; who can ex- 
press his thoughts clearly and forcibly. 

— Hon. Joseph E. Brown, of Geor- 
gia, has given $50,000 for the educa- 
tion of poor young men at Athens, 
Ga. Two years ago he gave the same 
amount to the S. B. Theological Sem- 
inary at Louisville. He knows how 
to invest his capital : that explains his 
present wealth. Gold put in mind 
yields the largest interest, and becomes 

— Education is a companion which 
no misfortune can depress, no climate 
destroy, no enemy alienate, no des- 
potism enslave. At home, a friend, 
abroad an introduction — in solitude a 
solace, in society an ornament. It 
lessens vice, guides virtue and gives at 
once a grace and government to ge- 
nius. Without it, what is man? A 
splendid slave ! A reasoning savage ! 
vacillating between the dignity of an 
intelligence derived from God and the 
degradation of passions participated 
in by brutes. — Phillips. 

— The Theological Seminary at 
Louisville has a larger endowment 
than any other educational institution 
owned by Southern Baptists. It has 
an endowment of $230,000 in invested 
funds. Next comes Bethel College, 
Kentucky, with $130,000. Then fol- 
low Columbia University, Richmond 
College, and Mercer University, with 
$100,000 each. The most valuable 
pieces of property used for education- 
al purposes among Southern Baptists 
are Columbia University ($150,090), 
Richmond College ($200,000), Mercer 
University and Southern Baptist Uni- 
versity, ($100,000) each. 

EDITORIAL -Educational. 


— Lake Forest University, whose 
name is so nearly identical with that 
of our College, is situated on a bluff 
overlooking Lake Michigan, 28 miles 
from Chicago and 57 from Milwaukee. 
It comprises three departments : the 
Collegiate, started in 1876 and com- 
pleted in organization in 1878; the 
Academy, founded in 1857 ; an d the 
Young Ladies' Department, which is 
distinct from the College and the 
Academy in organization and instruc- 
tion. It has a Faculty of 28 ladies 
and gentlemen, Rev. Daniel S. Grego- 
ry, D. D., being President. The last 
catalogue shows the attendance of 260. 
It is under Presbyterian control, having 
as its motto, " Christo et Ecclesiae." 

— One of the great obstacles in the 
way of the success of the public school 
system is the irregularity of attend- 
ance. We find that in 1880 the num- 
ber of children enrolled in the public 
schools of North Carolina was 224,606; 
while the daily average attendance was 
147,802 ! The irregulars had almost 
as well stayed from school altogether ; 
for they can hardly make any progress 
themselves, and, besides, they prove a 
clog to the remainder of the school. 
In the great majority of cases the 
reason for absence is a poor one. Could 
not some provision be made requiring 
of those who desire the advantages of 
the public treasury to agree to attend 
regularly, or, except in cases of neces- 
sity, forfeit the privilege ? 

The Report of the Commissioner 
of Education, covering the year 1880, 
is before us. It is, of course, a whole 
mine of information. The Department 
is evidently making advances in popu- 
lar esteem, or the educational institu- 

tions of the country have marvellously 
multiplied (perhaps each is true) ; for 
in the year 1871 the persons at the 
head of systems and institutions of 
education who communicated with the 
Office at Washington numbered 2,001, 
whereas, in 1 880, they numbered 8,23 1 . 
It is a sign of better teaching in the 
future that since 1 871 every year has 
seen an increase in the number of Nor- 
mal schools : in that year there were 
in the United States 65 ; in 1880, 207. 
In 1 87 1 we had 290 Universities and 
Colleges; in 1880, 364 — the students 
in them numbering in the respective 
years 45,617 and 59,594. 

Matthew Arnold, in his " Rede 
lecture " at Cambridge, compares that 
university with Oxford, of which he is 
a member. Both have told powerfully 
upon the life and mind of the nation. 
But Oxford, while it has produced 
great men, has especially been the 
source or centre of great movements ; 
for example, in modern history, Royal- 
ism, Wesleyanism, Ritualism, Tracta- 
rianism. At Cambridge, however, the 
men are every thing. From Bacon to 
Byron, what a splendid roll of names ! 
Oxford's disposition to movements 
finds a corrective in the individualities 
of Cambridge : " masses make move- 
ments, individualities explode them. 
In this university of great names, who- 
ever wishes not to be demoralized by 
a movement comes into the right air 
for being stimulated to pluck up his 
courage and to examine what stuff 
movements are really made of." 

The first problem in all education 
is to awaken an appetite in the pupil ; 
many teachers only succeed in awaken- 
ing disgust. One man can lead a boy 



to school ; but a whole faculty cannot 
make him learn. Many a possible 
musician has been spoiled by compel- 
ing her to drum mechanically on the 
piano an hour a day before she has 
learned to love music. Read one chap- 
ter of "Arabian Nights" to your boy, 
and tell him that when he has learned 
to read he can finish the book himself. 
If a man knows that there is a view to 
repay him when he has climbed the 
mountain, he will not only endure, he 
will even enjoy all the fatigue and pri- 
vation of the mountain climb. But he 
must be a rare man who will clamber 
the rugged sides for the fun of clam- 
bering, with no hope of reward when 
he reaches the summit. The best 
teacher is not he who knows the most, 
but he who has most skill in exciting 
the languid appetite of the pupils to 
know- — Religions Herald. 

— We are indebted to the Religious 
Herald for the collection of the fol- 
lowing interesting facts : 

The total number of books in the 
libraries at the Southern Baptist edu- 
cational institutions is 100,500, of 
which 50,000 are in the library of the 
Theological Seminary at Louisville. 
That one of these colleges where the 
annual expense of a student is great- 
est is Columbia University, Washing- 
ton, D. C, where it is $300; that one 
where it is least is Carson College, 
Tennessee, where it is $100. At the 
Louisville Theological Seminary it is 
only $88. The total amount of money 
invested by Southern Baptists in edu- 
cating young men is some $2,000,000, 

while they have only some $630,000 
invested in educating the young wo- 
men. The endowment of their col- 
leges for males amounts to some 
$979,000, while those of colleges for 
females reach only about $100,000. 
In the colleges for males there were 
2,644 students, in those for females 
there were 2,378 students. The whole 
number of young men preparing for 
the ministry in these institutions last 
year was 350, of whom more than one 
fourth were in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Louisville. Mercer University, 
with one hundred students last year, 
had thirteen preparing for the minis- 
try, while Columbia University, with 
279 students, had only two preparing 
for the ministry. Out of 135 students 
in Richmond College last year 35 were 
preparing for the ministry, while out 
of 171 in William Jewell College, 44 
were likewise employed. The total 
amount of money expended by these 
institutions in aiding needy young 
men — far the largest part for young 
preachers — amounted to more than 
$20,000. The oldest college owned by 
Southern Baptists, is Columbia Uni- 
versity, founded in 182 1 ; the newest 
(of prominent institutions) is the 
Southwestern University at Jackson, 
Tennessee, founded 1874. The largest 
number of students in any of these 
colleges is 320, reported at Waco Uni- 
versity, Texas; the smallest number 
is 80, reported at Furman University, 
South Carolina. The average number 
for them all is 155. 

EDITORIAL - Literary Gossip. 



— THE October number of the Eclec- 
tic Magazine is one of unusual interest. 

— The St. Nicholas for October is 
brimful of interesting matterand pretty 
pictures for the rising generation. 

— Prof. Max Muller will soon publish 
a volume containing the lectures re- 
cently delivered by him at Cambridge. 

—Henry Stanly, the African explo- 
rer, and author of several books, died 
on the 2 1st ult., at Lisbon. 

— THE October Century closes the 
first year of the magazine under the 
new name. It is a capital number — 
full of good things. 

— Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. an- 
nounce among their fall publications a 
biography of Bryant, and a memoir of 
the poet by Parke Godwin. 

— Alex. Stephens' new history of the 
United States will soon be out. It 
comes down to the death of Senator 
Ben Hill. 

The poet Laureate is one of the dis- 
tinguished Englishmen who favor the 
placing of a bust of Longfellow in 
Westminster Abbey. 

— Mr. George Augustus Sala is 
writing a book on Living London, his 
own pencil furnishing the illustrations. 
It will doubtless prove a charming 

— Shortly before his death, Carlyle 
gave his consent to the publication of 
his portion of the Carlyle-Emerson 
correspondence which Prof. Norton is 

— A literary treat is promised in an 
early number of The Century — a bio- 
graphical and critical sketch of Victor 
Hugo, by M. Daudet. 

— A distinguished German geogra- 
pher is of opinion that the diamond 
district of Africa is the Ophir from 
which King Solomon drew such liberal 
supplies of gold and precious stones. 

— " Character Readings from George 
Eliot," edited by Prof. Nathan Shep- 
pard, editor of " The Dickens Reader," 
and author of " Shut up in Paris," is 
in Harper Bros.' press. 

— Henry James, Jr., is at work on a 
play, and as dramatic power is the 
principal element lacking in his stories, 
there is some curiosity to know what 
it will be like. 

— The Academy says that the pro- 
gramme of the 19th centenary of Vir- 
gil's death consists of a literary com- 
petition, horse-racing, pigeon-shooting, 
and a cattle show. 

— A large number of our exchanges 
have made the visit of Mr. Herbert 
Spencer the occasion of critical arti- 
cles on his philosophy. This is a some- 
what novel form of welcoming him to 
our shores. 

— We should be glad' to hear the 
address of Dr. P. Bayne on " The Su- 
premacy of Shakspeare." It is to be 
delivered before the New Shakspeare 
Society, on the 13th of October, but 
will be open to the public. We cannot 
cross the seas to hear it, but hope it 
may by-and-by cross the seas to us. 



— Thackeray invented the name 
of The Pall Mall Gazette, for his uses 
in 'Pendennis.' Mr. George Smith, 
his publisher, applied it to the news- 
paper which Thackeray projected, but 
did not live to see. 

— THE Northern papers have just 
found out who Christian Reid is. 
Her publishers, the Appletons, have 
informed the public. In the South it 
has been an open secret for ten years 
at least. 

— Professor Huxley, Sir John 
Lubbock, and Mr. Henry Fawcett 
have received an honorary degree from 
the University of Wurzburg, which 
lately celebrated the three-hundredth 
anniversary of its foundation. 

— Capt. Maynor Reid, the veteran 
story writer, who is now 62 years old 
and lives in Fragnene, England, is 
hereafter to receive a pension of $15 
a month. He served as lieutenant 
during the Mexican War, and was shot 
at Chapultepie. 

— Mr. Richard Grant White has 
been preparing an addition of Shaks- 
peare in three volumes, which is to be 
issued as part of the "Riverside Poets" 
series that is so deservedly popular. 
No man in the United States is better 
adapted to do this work. 

— Carlyle and Emerson were mu- 
tually helpful in gaining for each other 
a hearing in their respective countries. 
The first American edition of Sartor 
Resartus was published at Emerson's 
risk, and the preface to the first series 
of Emerson's Essays was written by 
Carlyle, whose name had then acquir- 
ed a marketable value. 

— The series of " American States- 
men" is attracting more and more at- 
tention, and increasing in value with 
each successive issue. Andrew Jack- 
son, by Professor Sumner, of Yale, is 
now out, and other volumes may be 
expected soon. 

— Mr. KlRKMAN claims for Brown- 
ing " the distinction of being the great- 
est Christian poet we ever had, not in 
the narrow, dogmatic sense, but as the 
teacher who is as thrilled through 
with all Christian sympathies as with 
artistic or musical." 

— The sister-in-law of M. Thiers has 
discovered, among the papers left by 
him, a bundle of notes containing ma- 
terial for a projected volume of me- 
moirs. They contain sketches of 
Louis Philippe, Talleyrand, and'other 
distinguished Frenchmen. 

— Mr. Thomas Whittaker has 
published " The Charles Dickens Birth- 
day Book," an attractive little volume 
compiled and edited by the novelist's 
eldest daughter. His youngest daugh- 
ter contributes five illustrations as her 
share of the work. 

— The Examiner of New York, long 
the leading Baptist'journal of America, 
has actually made "one more advance." 
It . appeared on the 5th inst. in new 
type, on finer paper, with what is equi- 
valent to five additional columns of 
reading matter. It is a handsome 
eight-pager ; and on opening it you are 
impressed that it is chuck-full; on 
reading it you feel that it is chuck-full 
of good things. Its educating power 
in the household is like that of a re- 
fined and cultured man — incalculable. 

EDITORIAL— Literary Gossip. 


— JOHN Morley, editor of the 
"English Men of Letters" series, as- 
sumes the editorship of the new maga- 
zine published by Macmillan & Co., of 
London. It is called the English Critic. 

— Rev. Ray Palmer, D. D., author 
of the beautiful hymn, " My faith looks 
up to thee," resides in Newark, N. J. 
His golden wedding anniversary, just 
celebrated, will be made the occa- 
sion of a substantial tribute to his 
services and worth. 

— DURING his last English visit, Mr. 
Emerson wrote, without hesitation 
these words in the album of a London 
firm of photographers : 

" The man who has a thousand friends 

Has not a friend to spare ; 
But he who has one enemy 

Will meet him everywhere." 

— A lull having occurred in the con- 
troversy as to who wrote Shakspeare's 
Plays, Mr. James Simson, known as a 
writer on the Gypsies, comes' to the 
front with a pamphlet in which he ar- 
gues that the author of " The Pilgrim's 
Progress" was a Gypsy. This discus- 
sion has called forth other theories, 
one of which is that Bunyan was of 
Saxon descent ; another, of Italian. 
Well, what does it matter? 

— ITALIAN literature continues to 
chant its threnodies for Garibaldi. All 
of the famous "Thousand" seem to 
be coming to the front, pen in hand, 
with notes and reminiscences of their 
hero. All the poets are hymning him. 
All the historians are gathering matter 
for biographies. Of these the best is 
Giuseppe Guerzoni's work, the second 
and last volume of which has just ap- 
peared at Barbera's, in Florence. 

— The October Eclectic copies from 
the Contemporary Review an article on 
The Salvation Army by Cardinal Man- 
ning. The writer compares this move- 
ment to the rise of Methodism under 
the Wesleys, but sees in it more re- 
semblance to Romanism than to Prot- 

The Early Days of Christianity, by 
Canon Farrar, is promised soon from 
the press of Cassell, Petter, Galpin, & 

— J. T. Trowbridge is to contribute 
the leading serial story to St. Nicholas, 
during the coming year. It will be 
called "The Tinkham Brothers' Tide- 
Mill," and, like all of his stories, while 
neither unnatural nor overdrawn, will 
be vivid in style and exciting in inci- 
dent. Many fathers, who are now sub- 
scribing to St. Nicholas for their chil- 
dren, will recall their own delight in 
reading his " Neighbor Jackwood " and 
" Cudjo's Cave." 

— The Chinese have long been in 
the habit of printing "sleeve editions" 
of the classics to assist candidates at 
the competitive examinations whose 
memories are not sufficiently retentive. 
A similar benevolent idea has lately 
induced a native merchant at Shang- 
hai to print a diamond edition of the 
" P'ei wan yun foo," one of the largest 
lexicons in the language, consisting of 
one hundred and six books. That it 
might be small enough to be easily 
hidden in the candidates' sleeves or 
plaited into their cues, it was neces- 
sary to print it in so small a type that 
the editor announces in his advertise- 
ment that he will supply a magnifying 
glass to each purchaser to enable him 
to read it. 



— The Popular Science Monthly for 
October contains a portrait and bio- 
graphical sketch of Rudolph Virchow, 
and a large amount of editorial matter. 
The principal papers are Massage, or 
the Rubbing and Kneading Cure, by 
Douglas Graham ; Matthew Arnold's 
Defence of Literature Against the Pre- 
tensions of Scientific Exclusiveness ; 
The Past and Present of the Cuttle 
Fish, by Dr. Andrew Wilson, with il- 
lustrations ; Progress of American Min- 
eralogy, by Professor Brush ; Indus- 
trial Education in the Public Schools, 
by H. H. Straight ; Mozley on Evolu- 
tion, by Herbert Spencer, and What 
are Clouds? by C. Mofit. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. 

— The report which the Rev. Dr. S. 
I. Prime, of the N. Y. Observer, gave 
of his visit in the summer to the Con- 
cord philosophers is specially interest- 
ing as revealing the attitude of that 
celebrated coterie toward the Christian 
faith. Dr. Prime raised the question 
of the atonement, and the venerable 
Dean, Mr. Alcott, replied that the 
atonement he meant was that made 
by Christ for sin, and that he accepted 
that as his own hope of salvation. He 
closed his farewell address with these 
words : " The highest and best of all 
oracles, coming from the throne of 
God himself, were expressed by the 
descended God, the Christ, toward 
whom all our philosophy leads." And 
Dr. Prime describes Prof. Harris as a 
profound and orthodox Christian phi- 

— Here is a fine illustration of the 
prurient curiosity about authors, art- 
ists, &c, which in very truth seems one 
of the characteristics of our time. We 

quote the Examiner : A question has 
arisen as to the color of Mrs. Brown- 
ing's hair. Hawthorne called it black, 
and Bayard Taylor pronounced it 
chestnut. The editor of the Critic has 
tried to settle this question on the au- 
thority of those who had frequently 
seen Mrs. Browning. One witness calls 
it " dark chestnut "; while another con- 
fidently says, " it was not what is or- 
dinarily called chestnut at all," but 
" dark brown, almost black, but not 
what is called blue or raven-black." 
The Examiner adds, "There we are 
still, in dreadful uncertainty as to the 
color of that hair." 

— A recent English interpretation 
of an obscure American phrase is 
comic enough to call for special men- 
tion. The St. James Gazette is an 
evening Journal of the highest literary 
pretensions, which occasionally treats 
scientific subjects in a friendly way. 
It printed a paragraph, not long ago, 
describing a new American system of 
sending and receiving telegrams on 
trains in motion, and referred to ex- 
periments made on the ' Atlanta and 
Charlotte aerial railway.' The puzzled 
American reader wonders what an 
aerial railway may be, and why such a 
road should be needed between Char- 
lotte, N. C, and Atlanta, Ga., where 
land is cheap ; and how so remarkable 
a phenomenon as an aerial railway 
could exist in these United States un- 
known to their inhabitants. But if 
the proverbial inquisitiveness of the 
American leads him to consult a rail- 
way map, he finds that the ' aerial 
railway ' is only the ' Atlanta and 
Charlotte Air Line ' in disguise ! — 

EDITORIAL -Literary Gtossip. 


— Write Plainly. — The rejection 
of the manuscript of an unfamiliar 
author is, perhaps, more on account of 
illegible handwriting than of lack of 
merit. There is no greater torture for 
an editor than to have to attempt to 
decipher a bad manuscript, and the 
sense, especially of a poem, is frequent- 
ly entirely lost in the tangled maze of 
wretched penmanship. Sir Francis Jef- 
frey knew so well the difficulty of form- 
ing a correct judgment of an article by 
a reading in manuscript, that, when he 
sent his first article after he had retired 
from the Edinburgh Review, he had an 
understanding with Napier, his succes- 
sor, that it would not be read until it 

appeared in the proof. A few years 
ago the editor of the Saturday Review 
was accustomed to have every article 
which appeared as if it might be worth 
acceptance put into type before decid- 
ing upon it ; for, as Charles Lamb says, 
there is no such raw and unsatisfactory 
reading as an article in manuscript. 
The same practice is followed by the 
editor of Harper s Magazine, it is said. 
Even authors of wide experience, like 
Thomas Moore and Macaulay, were 
seldom able to form a judgment of 
their own works until they had seen 
how they looked in print. — Boston 


— SCIENCE offers no hindrance to 
our belief that God made heaven and 
earth. — Asa Gray. 

— " The doctrine of evolution is 
now not only recognized by all scien- 
tific workers in biology, but it is pos- 
tulated as the starting-point for inves- 
tigations into the affinities of various 
types, and the efforts of biologists are 
in a great measure directed to the as- 
certainment of the philogeny and der- 
ivation of the various types." So 
says Theodore Gill in his general 
remarks on Zoology in the Smithso- 
nian Report for 1880. We were aware 
that the doctrine of evolution was fast 
gaining ground among scientists, but 
must confess that we have here an 
item of news in the statement that it 
is received by all scientific workers in 

— NORTH Carolina was the first of 
the states to authorize a geological 
survey. That was in 1824. Massa- 
chusetts followed her example in 
1830, and soon after New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, etc. 

— In Harper s Weekly of September 
9th, is this interesting remark by Mr. 
E. L. Youmans about Mr. Herbert 
Spencer : " To show how far in ad- 
vance he was of all other thinkers in 
this field [of evolution], it may be 
stated that he had written more than 
thirty elaborate articles in the chief 
English reviews, all bearing upon evo- 
lution, and had drawn up a detailed 
scheme of the evolution philosophy 
in the exact logical order which he has 
since followed, and all this before Mr. 
Darwin had published a word upon 
the subject." 



A scientific party have sailed, under 
the auspices of the government, to 
Capetown, South Africa, to observe 
the transit of Venus, which will occur 
on the 6th of December. Prominent 
in the party is Prof. Simon Newcomb, 
U. S. N. 

The fastest trip ever made between 
America and Europe was made early 
in September by the steamship Alaska. 
She made the trip in six days fifteen 
hours and nineteen minutes. And it 
is worthy of note that the next quick- 
est time was made by the same vessel. 

— Dr. Schweinfurth has succeed- 
ed, so Leslies Popular Monthly says, 
in freshening and preserving many of 
the leaves and flowers found in the 
breasts of mummies discovered last 
year at Dier el Bahari. A small her- 
barium is thus formed from plants 
which grew 3500 years ago. A num- 
ber of the species have been identified 
with species now growing in the East. 

— The Pipa, or Guiana toad, shows 
us another [than the usual] way in 
which the transformation from aquatic 
to terrestrial animals may take place. 
Its case is not very different from that 
of the black salamander, which pro- 
duces its young alive. The pipa lives 
in a dry climate, and cannot easily find 
pools in which to hatch its spawn. 
Accordingly, as soon as the eggs are 
laid, the attentive father plasters them 
all over the mother's back. There 
they raise small pustules, into each of 
which an egg is absorbed, and in the 
cell thus formed the young tadpole is 
hatched. It passes through its meta- 
morphosis in this queer living honey- 
comb, and hops out at last a perfect 
toad. There is hardly any more won- 

derful instance in nature of cunning 
adaptation to adverse circumstances. 
It must have taken a great many gen- 
erations and a great deal of natural 
selection to produce- such a quaint 
result as that. — ComJiill Magazine. 

The Parasol Ant. — A corres- 
pondent from the London Field, writ- 
ing from the island of Trinidad, W. I., 

says : 

"We v/ere about returning to the 
boat when one of Mr. B.'s sons, who 
had been some little distance away 
from us sauntering about in the bush, 
called to me to come back, and, on go- 
ing to where he was, he pointed to 
what seemed a broad band of moving 
leaves right across the path, and, on 
looking more closely, I saw we had met 
with one of those enormous swarms of 
the "parasol ants," which are so de- 
structive to plantations in the tropics. 

"They were crossing from one side 
of the wood to the other, and were 
travelling in a column of more than a 
foot and a half in width ; and as each 
insect carried in its mouth a piece of 
leaf, which entirely covered the body, 
they presented a singular appearance, 
like a Lilliputian grove in motion : and, 
although we watched them for some 
time, still they came, their numbers 
seeming to be inexhaustible. 

"Nothing can turn them from their 
course ; and, although they be de- 
stroyed by the thousands, enough will 
swarm upon the intruder to make him 
repent interfering with them. On the 
mainland of South America, I have 
known a fruit tree stripped in a single 
night by a swarm of these ants." 

EDITORIAL— Science Notes. 


— A Rocky Mountain Railway 
Tunnel. — The Denver and South 
Park Division of the Union Pacific 
Railroad pierces the main range of the 
Rocky Mountains, 150 miles south- 
west of Denver, Colorado. The length 
of the tunnel is 1,700 feet, and its alti- 
tude above the sea 11,500 feet. The 
approaches on either side are described 
as marvels of engineering skill, laid 
through scenes unrivalled for grandeur 
and magnificence. Although the tun- 
nel commences with a sharp curve at 
its eastern end, so nicely was the 
engineering done, that when workmen 
from either side met in the heart of 
the range, they found only about one 
inch variation in the respective bores. 

This tunnel, said to be the highest 
in America or Europe, leads to the 
new silver region of Gunnison. 

— Lake Constance. — The shrink- 
age of Lake Constance, in Switzerland, 
owing to the extraordinary dryness of 
the past winter, has brought to light 
many interesting relics. Among them 
there are bone and flint implements, 
harpoons, pottery, many specimens of 
which are intact, clubs, baskets, arrows, 
field tools, and animal remains. Among 
the latter are skeletons of the bear, 
the bison, and the moor-hen. The 
discovery also includes a considerable 
quantity of oats and wheat in a good 
state of preservation, and a remarka- 
bly perfect and artistically executed 
stag horn harpoon. The relics have 
all been removed to Frauenfeld, and 
added to the collection of .the local 
historical and natural history society, 
which is now the richest in lacustrine 
objects in the Helvetic Confederation. 
— Set. American. 

The National Geological Sur- 
vey. — Hitherto the surveys conducted 
by the United States geologists have 
been confined to the Territories. Last 
winter Congress authorized the prose- 
cution of such work at national ex- 
pense within the lines of the States. 
Accordingly parties are now at work 
in North Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri, 
and Arkansas, under the direction of 
the Chief of the National Survey, Pro- 
fessor Powell, obtaining data for a 
geological map of the entire country. 
Meantime the territorial surveys are 
not neglected, Professor Powell going 
to join the large party at work in Ari- 
zona and New Mexico. The Bureau 
of Ethnology has several parties at 
work in the Mississippi Valley. — Scien- 
tific American. 

— An Ant Battle. — Mr. Huber, 
of Geneva, might be called the ant 
war correspondent, and we give here 
the substance of his report of a certain 
great battle. The fight was between 
an army of brown ants that had two 
hills, and a nation of black ants that 
had five hills forty feet from them. 
One June morning the observer no- 
ticed a great commotion in the hills of 
the brown ants. They marched out 
to the middle of an uncultivated field 
between them and their enemies, and 
arranged themselves in a long unin- 
terrupted oblique line of battle about 
twenty-four feet long, of one file. In the 
meantime the smaller but much more 
numerous black ants also marched 
out and arranged themselves in a line 
of battle three ranks deep, their right 
wing being covered by a mass of sev- 
eral hundred, their left supported by 
almost a thousand. The two armies 



moved one against the other till they 
were near enough to fight, when the 
two masses that supported the wings 
formed oblong squares three or four 
inches wide, not taking part in the 
affray. The battle began with fury, 
jaws, stings, and venom being the de- 
structive weapons. Soon mutilated 
bodies and torn-out feet and legs were 
strewed over the miniature battle- 
ground. This was continued with 
great vigor until noon, when the 
slaughter ceased, and the remnant of 
the brown ants, as victors, took pos- 
session of the field and of the enemy's 
fortresses, and carried off with them 
their wounded fellow-soldiers. 

American and European Crys- 
tals. — In comparing the minerals 
found in America with those found in 
Europe it cannot be expected that 
very marked differences should exist. 
Yet, said Prof. G. J. Brush, in his Mont- 
real address in August last, a marked 
feature of American minerals is the 
grand scale upon which crystallization 
has taken place, individual crystals of 
large size being very common. The 
granite veins of New England afford 
striking examples of this kind. We 
have common mica, in sheets a yard 
across ; feldspar has been observed 
where a single cleavage plane meas- 
ured ten feet; gigantic hexagonal 
prisms of beryl, four feet long, and 
more than two feet in diameter, and 
weighing over two tons, have been de- 
scribed ; spodumene crystals, six to 
seven feet in length, and a foot or 
more across, and masses of rock-crys- 

tal of immense size, have been found. 
While it is true that these are extra- 
ordinary instances, it is also true, as a 
general fact common to a large pro- 
portion of minerals found in this coun- 
try, that the species occur in much 
larger crystals than those obtained 
from European localities. 

— Well, how does a bird fly? 
It seems simple enough to describe, 
and yet it is a problem that the wisest 
in such matters have not yet worked 
out to everybody's satisfaction. This 
explanation, by the Duke of Argyle, 
appears to me to be the best : An 
open wing forms a hollow on its under 
side like an inverted saucer ; when the 
wing is forced down, the upward pres- 
sure of the air caught under this con- 
cavity lifts the bird up, much as you 
hoist yourself between the parallel 
bars in a gymnasium. But he could 
never in this way get ahead, and the 
hardest question is still to be answered. 
Now, the front edge of the wing, 
formed of the bones and muscles of 
the forearm, is rigid and unyielding, 
while the hinder margin is merely the 
soft flexible ends of the feathers ; so 
when the wing is forced down, the air 
under it, finding this margin yielding 
the easier, would rush out here, a,nd, 
in so doing, would bend up the ends 
of the quills, pushing them forward 
out of the way, which, of course, would 
tend to shove the bird ahead. This 
process, quickly repeated, results in 
the phenomenon of flight. — Ernest 

EDITORIAL -In and About the College. 



—What band shall we have for 
Senior speaking ? 

It has reached our editorial ears that 
a paper is going the rounds of the stu- 
dents, soliciting funds wherewith to 
purchase for a certain member of the 
lower classes, a beaver hat, of the same 
make as those which the Seniors have. 
Now, the Seniors claim that they 
alone have a patent right to wear beav- 
ers, and any infringement on this pa- 
tent will be punished with the direst 
penalties of the law. 

— SENIOR speaking is absorbing our 
attention at present. All of us look 
forward to it with glowing expecta- 
tions, not unmixed, however, with 
some misgivings on the part of those 
directly concerned. We hope to see 
a large number of visitors, and promise 
that the occasion will be highly enjoy- 
able. An excellent band of music will 
be present, and all who come may ex- 
pect a good time. 

— We are glad to notice the pres- 
ence in our midst of Capt. Wm. Smith 
and family, recently of Wilmington. 
Capt. Smith has been appointed Super- 
intendent of the Raleigh & Gaston R. 
R., and expects to make his residence 
in Raleigh. We should be pleased to 
have him make Wake Forest his per- 
manent home. 

The exciting game of foot-ball is 
popular with the students now. A club 
has been organized and handsomely 
uniformed. They challenged the rest 
of the students to a match game, and 
the game was played. The result was 
a victory for the club, by a score of 5 
to 2. 



— The class of '83 has been or- 
ganized, and an election of officers 
held, resulting as follows: Pres., W. 
H. Osborne, Asheville, N. C; Sec, H. 
B. Folk, Jr., Brownsville, Tenn.; Treas., 
H. P. Markham, Durham, N. C. The 
class propose to have regular meetings, 
and thus strengthen by association 
the bonds uniting them as a class. 

— FOR the benefit of the Seniors and 
Juniors, we insert the following, taken 
from a leading fashion journal: " Silk 
hats, with bell crowns and very wide 
rolling brims are the correct thing." 

Improvement seems to be the or- 
der of the day at Wake Forest. We 
notice that lock-boxes have been put 
in the post-office, adding very much to 
its appearance, and decidedly more 
convenient for the students. This 
has also been recently made a money- 
order office. 

— And now the news reaches us that 
the Juniors too, have organized. The 
class is well officered by the following 
gentlemen : Pres., J. L. White, Shelby, 
N. C; V. P., C. L. Smith, Durham, 
N. C; Sec'y, Ivey G. Riddick, Wake 
Forest College, N. C; Treas., W. S. 
Royall, Charleston, S. C. They pro- 
pose to wear caps, as a badge of dis- 
tinction. It is with pleasure that we 
notice this commendable spirit mani- 
fested among both Seniors and Juniors, 
and trust that it will tend towards 
the cultivation of warmer friendships 
among the members of each class. The 
Seniors and Juniors of '82-' 3 will be 
models of enterprise, as well as of 
everything else, to their successors. 



— THE first Senior speaking of the 
present session will occur on the 27th 
of October. A few of the class have 
been excused, but there will be eight I 
or nine addresses. We look forward 
to the occasion with interest, and are 
confident that, if our friends accept 
our cordial invitation to be present, 
they will be in nowise disappointed. 

— THE Faculty have decided to give 
more attention to the matter of Elo- 
cution. Heretofore each student has 
been required to declaim in public once 
a term. The plan now is, that regular 
instruction in Elocution be given in 
the recitation-room two or three times 
a week. The work is all in the hands 
of one teacher. It is hoped that thus 
more efficiency and uniformity of in- 
struction will be secured. 

— We noted in our last issue the 
fact that Prof. Willou^hbv Reade was 
conducting a class in elocution here. 
The course extended through two 
weeks, and was of material benefit to 
all who attended. All who heard his 
lectures were impressed with his man- 
ner of teaching. Prof. Reade pos- 
sesses all the elements of a teacher — 
making the subject under discussion 
simple and interesting. The lectures 
closed on the 3rd inst.. and in the 
evening there was a contest for a 
medal, which Prof. Reade offered for 
the best rendition of some selection. 
The exercises began with a short ad- 
dress from Prof. Reade relative to the 
work he had attempted to do. Prof. 
Royall next spoke, complimenting 
Prof. Reade in the highest terms, and 
expressing to the audience what sig- 
nal success had attended all Prof. 
Reade's efforts. 

The judges were Ex-U. S. Senator 
Merrimon, Hon. F. H. Busbee, W. H. 
Pace, Esq., and Profs. Royall and Tav- 

The young gentlemen, thirteen in 
number, were briefly introduced by 
Prof. Reade. 

The first recitation was by Mr. L. 
L. Jenkins, his subject — ''The First 
Settler's Story." 

Second speaker, Mr. F. Reade. 
Subject : " Parrhasius." 

Next, " Marco Bozarris," by Mr. R. 
E. Folk. 

Mr. T. Dixon was next introduced, 
who delivered " Good News From 

The fifth speaker was Mr. J. C. C. 
Dunford. Subject : " McLain's Child." 

Then followed " Benardo del Car- 
pio," by Mr. I. G. Riddick. 

Seventh — " Paul Dombey," by Mr. 
B. D. Barker. 

Eighth — " Eugene Aram," by Mr. 
W. Reade. 

" The Fireman's Prayer," by Mr. Ht 
B. Folk, was next in order. 

The tenth speaker was Mr. J. F. 
Schenck. Subject: ''The Power of 

Eleventh — " The Last Hymn," by 
Miss Lydia Walters. 

Twelfth— "Mr. Perkins' Visit to 
the Dentist," by Mr. W. F. Marshall. 

Mr. T. Dixon was the last speaker. 
Subject: " How Ruby Played." 

The exercises were varied by the 
interspersion of several humorous se- 
lections by Prof. Reade. 

The judges at once retired, but ex- 
perienced some trouble in awarding 
the medal. Several ballots were taken 
before a decision could be arrived at. 
Amid intense excitement the judges 

EDITORIAL - In and About the College. 


filed out of an adjoining room, and 
Mr. Busbee announced the successful 
contestant to be Mr. T. Dixon. 

Senator Merrimon then addressed 
the audience on the subject of educa- 
tion — showing the relation of elocu- 
tion to education, &c. He spoke of 
general education and the work Wake 
Forest had done and was doing. He 
then in a few words presented the 

Several of the contestants are 
worthy of special mention. 

The judges awarded the second 
honor to Miss Lydia Walters. Her 
rendering of " The Last Hymn " was 
faultless, in our opinion. By the fas- 
cination of her voice and gesture she 
held her audience entranced from the 

Mr. H. B. Folk recited "The Fire- 
man's Prayer" in such a way as to 
thrill his hearers. His description of 
a conflagration was so naturally, hor- 
ridly portrayed as to obtain for him 
rounds of applause. 

The recitation of Mr. W. Reade was 
remarkable for its perfect action and 

Mr. Jenkins entered into the spirit 
of his piece, and had one of the most 
pleasing selections in the whole pro- 

The audience then dispersed, having 
enjoyed a most delightful evening. 

—Wake Forest College has at 
present more students than her 

rolls show for any previous fall term 
in her history. 

— Thirty-six of our students will 
be preachers. Of these 25 are aided 
by the Education Board. Two 
others, received by the Board, have 
not yet arrived. The work of Minis- 
terial Education was never so large, 
the expense per month being $300. 


It is with sad hearts we note the 
death of one of our fellow students, 
Alvis Pender Yates. He came to 
college at the beginning of the term, 
was taken sick, and after a short stay 
with us, returned to his home, where 
he died Sept. 29th, at the age of 20 
years. He was reared near Cary, Wake 
county, professed religion and con- 
nected himself with the Baptist church 
in 1876. He remained a consistent 
member till his death. He was a 
nephew of Dr. M. T. Yates. His death 
was that of the Christian, his hope 
of heaven was strong, and he had 
no doubt that he was on his way 
to the Better Land. He was noted 
for his honesty and piety, and through 
all his suffering was never heard to 
complain, but seemed perfectly re- 
signed to the will of God. We sym- 
pathize with his relatives and friends 
in their loss. 

" Friend after friend departs ; 

Who hath not lost a friend ? 
There is no union here of hearts 
That finds not here an end." 




— 79. Mr. J. T. J. Battle is in at- 
tendance upon medical lectures at - the 

— '79. We were betrayed into an er- 
ror in the last number. Rev. G. P. 
Hamrick is not at the Seminary. 

— '75. Prof. L. W. Bagley has re- 
signed his position in Murfreesboro 
College, and is merchandising in Scot- 
land Neck. 

— '78. W. E. Daniel, Esq., has been 
nominated as a candidate for the 
House of Representatives by his fel- 
low Democrats of Halifax county. 

— Dr. J. S. Bizzell, a former student 
of Wake Forest College, has gradu- 
ated at Baltimore Dental College, 
and is now quite a successful young 
dentist in La Grange, N. C. 

'81. Rev. W. T. Jones is a promis- 
ing young minister at Wilson, N. C, 
This modest brother, we learn, is mak- 
ing a favorable impression, and doing 
a successful work in his community. 

—'81. Rev. M. V. McDuffie, whose 
introductory sermon at the Flat River 
Association elicited so much admira- 
tion and favorable comment, has been 
chosen to do some more of the same 
kind of preaching at the next session 
of the Tar River Association. We 
are glad to note that he is both a ris- 
ing and a raising young minister. 

'80. We find the following in the 
News and Observer of Raleigh : " We 
are informed that J. N. Holding, Esq., 
this city, made his first appearance 
before the Supreme Court yesterday, 
in the complicated case of Stell vs. 

Barham. One of the oldest members 
of the bar says that his argument was 
learned and exhaustive, and would 
have done credit to any one. 

—Alumni Association. — You are 
wrong in one particular, Mr. Editor, 
in what you have to say in the 
August No. of the STUDENT. I 
am not chairman of the Special Com- 
mittee appointed by the Alumni Asso- 
ciation, at the last Commencement, to 
arrange for a more efficient organiza- 
tion of the Alumni of Wake Forest 
College ; but I am heart and hand for 
the movement. Prof. Poteat is chair- 
man, and I have been waiting for him 
to call a meeting of the Committee, or 
make a move. 

I am glad that the action of the As- 
sociation has engendered a good deal 
of interest in the matter. One good 
brother has written me, privately, upon 
the subject, making some suggestions 
which I give as a kind of " opening 
wedge," hoping they may call forth 
others, from several members of the 
Association. I let you have them 
without comment : 

" I. I think that membership should 
be confined strictly to the graduates of 
the College. It is true we have some 
very talented men who have been stu- 
dents of W. F. C, whom we would be 
glad to honor with membership, had 
they gone through at Wake Forest, or 
had they not gone to other schools 
and graduated. We must feel that the 
Alumni is an honored brotherhood, and 
in the reach of those only who aspire 
to membership through its one door — 
a diploma from Wake Forest College 

EDITORIAL — Wake Forest Alumni -Exchanges. 


" 2. I find that people appreciate 
that most that they pay for. I would, 
then, advise that every member be re- 
quired to pay or contribute annually 
to the support of the Association. 

" 3. I think, too, that the orator 
should be selected from those only 
who are in active communication with 
the Association. 

" 4. Immediately after the oration 
is delivered on Tuesday night, of Com- 
mencement week, a banquet should be 
held at one of the hotels, the expenses 
of which should be met by the Asso- 
ciation. This banquet should be a 
social reunion at which short talks 
should be made and the business of 
the Association transacted. 

" 5. All the annual addresses should 
be published and kept on file by the 

" The Association must have a pur- 
pose in view ; must have a thorough 
organization ; must have an active, live 
membership. Hope your committee 
will ^feel the responsibility of your 
trust and succeed in making wise sug- 

Your friend and brother, 

I cannot speak for the other mem- 
bers of the committee, but individu- 
ally I feel grateful for these " suggest- 
ions," and hope that others will feel 
free to do as this brother has done. 
Let us know the minds of the mem- 
bers and then your committee can 
make suggestions and act intelligently. 
I agree with the above in at least one 
thing : we must have a purpose in view. 

John E. Ray, 


— SOME editor has said that if he 
were called upon to suggest some 
method of refined torture to pun- 
ish his bitterest enemy, he could 
think of no punishment more severe 
than to set him at the task of writin? 
up a lot of exchanges. But we thi 
it is anything but a punishme. 
have to read some of our exch; 
Indeed, we deem it a pleasur< 
privilege. Some of the pa] 
well worthy of a careful perus; 
is with interest that we 
work on the exehanges. 

The first that we tab 
University Monthly, 

We noj 
in evj 



Freshman class. We would refer the 
editors to a wholesome article in a re- 
cent number of Harper s Weekly, by 
Rev. Charles F. Thwing. Greater 
care in proof-reading would also be a 
decided improvement. 

The Wm. Jewell Student, Wm. Jew- 
ell College, Liberty, Mo., is one of our 
most valued exchanges. As usual, it 
is full of good things, and the articles 
are all fine. Long live the Wm. Jew- 
ell Student ! 

The University Magazine, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, is before us, and 
attracts attention by its neat and tasty 
dress. We notice that a great amount 
of space is devoted to the discussion 
of matters relating to boat-clubs and 
athletic sports. But perhaps this is 
f natural, as these things absorb so 
"-^ntion. The " Extract from 

a Freshman's Letter Home" is capital. 
" Progress and the Pipe" is very credi- 
table. We have no more highly 
esteemed exchange than the Magazine, 
and always welcome it with peculiar 

The Critic for October 7 is before 
us, and as usual, is replete with sub- 
stantial, valuable articles. This paper 
deserves the eminent position which 
it holds among American journals, and 
we doubt that the lately organized 
English Critic wilh be able to surpass 

The majority of our exchanges have 
not put in their appearance yet. We 
suppose that the editors of the differ- 
ent college magazines have been de- 
layed in getting them out. In our 
next issue we hope to have a more ex- 
tended list. 



[From Sermons on 

Such a man is a boon to a whole 
generation, both the example of his 
industry, and by the light of his teach- 
ing. Even, to the very last, even in 
old age, in blindness, in solitude, he 
continued with indomitable energy the 
task of acquiring new knowledge, of 
adding another and another finish to 
the never-ending education of his ca- 
pacious mind ; becoming, as he said, 
when at the age of seventy-six he re- 
leased himself from the cares of his 
diocese — becoming a boy once again, 
but a boy still at school, still growing 
in wisdom and understanding. Hear 

Special Occasions.] 

it, laggards and sluggards of our laxer 
days ! hear it you who spend your 
leisure in the things, and the books 
that perish with the using ! hear and 
profit by the remembrance that there 
has been one among us to whom the 
word of knowledge came in all its 
force and beauty; to whom idleness, 
ignorance, and indifference were an 
intolerable burden ; to whom the ac- 
quisition of a new language or a new 
literature was as the annexation of a 
new dominion, or the invention of a 
new enjoyment ! 


All day, all night, I can hear the jar 

Of the loom of life, and near and far 

It thrills with its deep and muffled sound, 

As, tireless, the wheels go always round. 

Busily, ceaselessly, goes the loom, 

In the light of day and the midnight's gloom, 

And the wheels are turning early and late, 

And the woof is wound in the warp of fate. 

Click, click ! there's a thread of love woven in ; 

Click, click ! another of wrong and sin. 

What a checkered thing this life will be 

When we see it unrolled in eternity! 

When shall this wonderful web be done ? 

In a thousand years, perhaps, or one ; 

Or to-morrow ! Who knoweth? Not thou nor I ; 

But the wheels turn on and the shuttles fly. 

Ah, sad-eyed weavers, the years are slow, 
But each one is nearer the end, I know ; 
And soon the last thread shall be woven in — 
God grant it be love instead of sin. 
Are we spinners of good in this life-web — say ? 
Do we furnish the weaver a thread each day ? 
It were better, O my friends, to spin 
A beautiful thread than a thread of sin. 




These Goods are sold under an 

Absolute Guarantee 

That they are the Finest and PUREST 

goods upon the market; 
They ARE FREE from DRUGS and 

CHEMICALS of any kind; 
They consist of the Finest Tobacco and 

Purest Rice-Paper made. 

OUR SALES EXCEED the products 

of ALL leading manufactories combined. 

None Genuine without the trade-mark 
of the BULL. Take no other. 


Sole Manufacturers. Durham, N. C. 


Watch-laker and Jeweler, 


Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, &c. 


Orders by mail will receive prompt attention. 
With thanks for past patronage, and asking a 
continuance of same, I am, 
Very respectfully, 






fJt L7\ST^ 

n\ LI FETI ME^( 


Chicago ill.-©- 

<^9 Orange mass. { 



State Agent, 

STTT'n'C'Kinr'C AND OTHERS who wish 
A U 19 to lessen their hours of 

STUDY should send for our CIRCULARS of 

f BTp ff S VATf"? o TEACHERS! 

Our new 64 page catalogue of all the School and 
College Text Books published, now ready, contain- 
ing Retail and Teachers' prices. Copies mailed free 
to any one applying to Chas. De Silver & Sons, 
Publishers, (K) 1102 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Table of Contents. 

NOVEMBER, 1882. 



The Disadvantages Attending the Study and Practice of Law, .W. E. Daniel, Esq. 97 

Seven Miles Under Ground, Ed. M. Poteat. too 

Our Picnic Excursion, _ Rev. R. T. Vann. 104 

" I Must Go," 109 

How the other Fellow Fooled my Girl, Mars Hall, hi 

Visit to a Coal Mine, 112 

A. Pilgrimage to Mitchell's Peak, Ben E. Fit. 113 


A Ramble Among Relics, W. F. M. 119 

Outraged Freshmen _. E. S. A 121 

The Need of Recreation, H. B. F. 123 

Educational,.. 125 

Literary Gossip, 129 

Science Notes, _ 134 

In and About the College, 137 

Wake Forest Alumni, . 143 



We thank our friend?, and the public, for 
the very liberal patronage bestowed on us the 
past season, and we shall endeavor to merit 
a continuance of the same. 


has been selected with great care, and we only 
ask you to examine it as we feel sure you will 
be pleased. 

Students will find it to their advantage to 
examine onr stock of 

Gents' Furnishing (roods. 

Miles & Zeigler's celebrated shoes in all lines 
a specialty. Remember our motto : 

"The Best Goods for the Least Possible 

We deliver goods to any part of town free 
of charge. 


Very respectful^, 



Shelby Female College. 

Session begins September 20th, 1882, and closes 
June 21st, 1883. 

Board, washing, fuel, etc., and tuition in Col- 
lege Class, Fall Term, five scholastic months, 
to January 31st, 1883 $87 50 

The same in Preparatory Classes, to 

January 31s% 1883 82 5 J 

The same in Primary Classes 75 00 

Boarders furnish one pair of sheets, one pair 
pillow-slips, toilet soaps, table napkins and 
two bags for soiled clothes 

BUT Without special contract, payments re- 
quired in September. Deposits must be made 
for purchase of books, sheet-music and art 


Fall Term, Five Scholastic Months, to January 
31st, 1883. 

Primary Department, $12.50; Preparatory, 
$20 ; College, $25. Incidentals, to be paid with 
first month's tuition, $1. 

For particulars be sure to apply for circular. 

R. D. MALLARY, President, 






Blank Book Manufacturers, 


We have just received a lot of new type smd are 
now prepared to print 


In the best style at low rates. 

A FULL* LINE OF LEGAL BLANKS at $1 per 100. 

If you wish anything in the way of Printing, 
Binding or Blank Books, address, 


Cor. Salisbury & Hargett Sts., 

Raleigh, N. C. 



A Summer Vacation in Enroje. 


By JOHN E. RAY, A. M. 

This highly interesting volume of 
over 200 pages, with a number of rich 
illustrations of places and customs in 
Europe, is now ready, and is to be had 
at the following remarkably low fig- 
ures : 

Bound in Paper, 50 Cents. 
Bound in Cloth, - $1 00 

Mailed to any address upon receipt 
of the price, and 10 cents for postage. 
Address all orders to 


4— 3m Raleigh, N. C. 


November, 1882. 

Vol. 2. WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, N. C. No. 3. 



Senior Editor E. S. Alderman. 

Associate Editor. __H. B. Folk. 


Senior Editor W. F. Marshall. 

Associate Editor D. M. Austin. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all communications to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. 


It may seem presumptuous for one 
who has been at the Bar no longer 
than the writer of this article to 
attempt to mark and point out the 
disadvantages attending the study of 
the law as a science and its practice as 
a profession. However that may be, 
this is written for young men by one 
of them, and the labor performed 
would be crowned, if one difficulty 
should be removed or one misunder- 
standing corrected. This is a subject 
upon which the strongest minds, noted 
for their powers of analysis and re- 
search, and justly celebrated because 
of their legal acumen, have been 
brought to bear. Here it is intended 
to be written of as the profession 
which above all others exercises the 
most powerful and fascinating influ- 
ence upon an ambitious youth. It is 
not every one who undertakes the 
study of law, and concludes, probably 
from the advice of admiring friends, 
to devote his life to its practice, who 
has a clear conception of the difficul- 
ties which will meet him in the way. 

To any ambitious mind, the law pre- 
sents a congenial field, and for many 
reasons. One of the most prominent 
is, that to a successful lawyer, his pro- 
fession is a stepping-stone to advance- 
ment, and his success gives him a cer- 
tain prominence which the same order 
of merit in any other profession could 
not possibly confer. 

Many choose the profession of law 
without previous thought as to their 
fitness ; and later, when they cannot 
turn back, they find the struggle and 
search after its truths so tedious, its 
paths so rugged, that a large propor- 
tion drop out of ranks and fall by the 
wayside, failures. Some one has fitly 
remarked, that " the law is a jealous 
mistress ;" and it follows as a conse- 
quence, that he who would succeed 
must be a devoted student of its prin- 
ciples. I know it would appear bold 
if I should attempt to take up arms 
against the present manner of legal 
instruction, and I do not intend to 
mount to such heights of daring, for 
the law is too conservative. But this 



I do say, and without hesitation : it is 
hazardous and discouraging to place 
an inexperienced youth who has read 
a few books of Blackstone, some work 
on Equity, has handled once or twice 
an edition of Coke, and has about as 
much of an idea of Chitty as an idiot 
has of the kingdom of Heaven, into a 
court-room filled with experienced 
counsellors. Generally he is impressed 
with the idea that he knows the law ; 
and when, by force of circumstances, 
a retrospection is compelled, his igno- 
rance cannot fail to dishearten him. 

And here, he who is easily discour- 
aged, turns his back upon his chosen 
profession, believing that there is no 
open-sesame to its hidden treasures. 
I have often thought how many diffi- 
culties might be avoided if some way 
was found to apply theories and prin- 
ciples learned, before the student be- 
comes a lawyer. But in the length 
of time generally devoted to prep- 
aration for entrance into this pro. 
fession, that would be impossi- 

Again, one of the great disadvan- 
tages attending the study of law to 
young men is a want of previous prep- 
aration. A thorough education, I 
may say, is almost absolutely neces- 
sary to certain and continued success. 
How can any one expect to master 
and acquire a science whose elemen- 
tary principles constitute an erudite 
and difficult learning, without com- 
plete preparation in academical train- 
ing ? Its principles are capable of 
being proved with the certainty of 
mathematical demonstration, and rea- 
son amounting to precision is re- 
quired to separate argument from 
fallacy. In fact, the text-writers say 

that law is the perfection of reason, or, 
that which is not reason is not law. 

Universal experience teaches that 
he who is unprepared never rises, but 
is confined to the lower walks of the 
profession, and, excepting a few cases, 
unless he is a person of great enthu- 
siasm and indomitable energy, he never 
gets beyond " the courts have held," 
&c. ; or, as Blackstone aptly puts it, 
" ita lex scripta est" He can never 
hope to search after fundamental 
causes or arrive at conclusions drawn 
from the spirit of the law. Therefore 
I would advise every young man who 
intends to make the law his profession 
to prepare himself. In practice, he is 
an easy victim who has not put on his 
armor, and thorough preparation and 
continued study will place him upon 
a plane where he will have incalcula- 
ble advantages. Then, the books say, 
years of earnest and assiduous reading 
will make him a learned lawyer. 

Another disadvantage which comes 
to my mind, is the want of the power 
of application. When a young man 
is preparing and gaining an academi- 
cal education, he generally has a fixed 
and certain task to be done in a cer- 
tain time ; when he commences the 
practice of the law, the whole realm 
of legal literature lies like an ocean 
before him. He deludes himself with 
the thought, vain and deceptive it is, 
that he has a life-time to solve its 
mysteries and search its depths. In 
preparing a case to be heard, no one 
denies that it is interesting to pursue 
a line of thought which is applicable 
to the subject to be discussed, to 
search after principles which are em- 
bodied in your present labor, and to 


look for authorities for or against the 
position you have taken. It is con- 
trary to this, however, when you read 
with a purpose to familiarize yourself 
with cases and causes not in being, 
when you study with a view to make 
application at some future time, or, to 
sum it up, to be learned in the law. 
Then you will realize the task you 
have undertaken. And I take it, that 
here, rather than anywhere else, lies 
the reason why so many practitioners 
never rise above mediocrity. In 
theory they are better lawyers the day 
the Supreme Court passes in solemn 
judgment upon their knowledge of 
this science and their good moral 
character, than they are ever after- 
wards. Enough is picked up in a des- 
ultory way to carry them through the 
courts with ordinary success, but they 
never attain eminence, and the legal 
literature of their State or country is 
never enriched by their contributions 
and opinions. 

Every young lawyer, with some few 
exceptions, has to undergo, almost 
necessarily, a long and trying novi- 
tiate. In truth, for years after he 
commences his search for clients, he is 
a " briefless barrister." And this is 
according to the eternal fitness of 
things ; for there is no reason why 
there should not be a dearth of busi- 
ness in every young lawyer's office. 
If any person would stop and think a 
moment, he could not blame any man 
for refusing to place his affairs or busi- 
ness in the hands of him who has not 
been tried. He may be incompetent, 
and, sad to relate, he generally is for 
several years after his entrance into 
the profession. He has got together 
a few principles, such as the definition 

of an incorporeal hereditament, he 
can give you literally the words on 
which the decision in Shelley's case 
depends, and he can write a deed or 
draw a mortgage ; but he cannot pos 
sibly be supposed to be as skilled as 
those who have spent a life-time in 
the drudgery of an office. Generally, 
a lawyer is selected as every thing else : 
a man wants value received, and he 
is chosen according to ability and fit- 
ness. In the first struggles in this 
profession, he who expects a path 
covered with triumphs and thick with 
honors will find himself his worst 

There is the name of a great law- ' 
writer, whom I would mention with 
the reverence of a disciple and the 
veneration of an humble follower, who 
has made jurisprudence a tangible 
science by gathering together in a 
system that great mass of undigested 
learning compiled by Brocton, Glan- 
ville, Littleton, Coke, and others, who 
wrote upon the common law, to whom 
I would like to point as an example to 
those who are attempting to follow in 
his footsteps. I refer to Sir William 
Blackstone. It is related in his Me- 
moirs that he underwent a trying ex- 
perience ; that for fourteen years after 
his admittance to the Bar, he was only- 
engaged in two unimportant cases. 
Yet, possessed with an energy that 
made him conqueror over all obstacles, 
he has written a law-book which will 
live so long as the common law of the 
English people is studied. Those 
celebrated Commentaries have been 
compared to a firm, beaten road 
through a wild and almost impassable 

No one can expect to command 



from the beginning a large and lucra- 
tive practice. Much can be done in 
the young attorney's behalf by friends 
and the influences which they can 
exert ; but often he finds himself not 
so much appreciated as he thinks his 
talents deserve. It requires but one 
more step to force him to conclude 
that the profession is over-crowded ; 
and, of course, he seeks other and 
more congenial employment. Neces- 
sity generally furnishes the required 
force, and one more name, that might 
have been a Taney or a Marshall un- 
der other circumstances, is added to 
that long list of failures in life's great 

The law furnishes an arena for the 
display of talents, but no one can ex- 
pect to leap full-grown upon the sands 
and grapple with giants who are in- 
ured by long years to such contests. 
When they are so unequally matched, 
there can be but one termination. 

I would not think that I had done 
my duty, if, after naming a few of the 
disadvantages attending the study and 
practice of the law so far as young 
men are concerned, I did not offer 
some word of encouragement to those 
who may become lawyers. Success is 
sure to him who is true to himself; 
faithfulness will certainly be rewarded. 

When I think that in after years those 
who are young men now are to ad- 
minister justice between man and man 
and wear the ermine and expound the 
laws and constitution, probably some- 
thing may be said to remind them of 
the obligations which the law in its 
majesty imposes. Let every one so 
live that he may be able to undertake 
that obligation, no matter how exten- 
sive. The people's property, liberty, 
and lives depend to a great degree 
upon a pure and upright judiciary, 
and no greater misfortune can befall 
any country than for the law-expound- 
ing power to fall into corrupt hands. 
Whether as counsellor, advocate, or as 
judge, be true, faithful, consistent, 
honorable in the discharge of duty, 
unswerving in your attachment to 
right — a typical lawyer. 

At first the ways seem rugged ; but, 
as dangers generally diminish as they 
are approached, I am reminded of the 
words of Sir Edward Coke, that in 
themselves afford abiding consolation : 
"Albeit the student shall not at any 
one day, do what he can, reach to the 
full meaning of all that is laid down, 
yet let him no way discourage him- 
self, but proceed: for on some other 
day, in some other place, his doubts 
will probably be removed." 


In the wake of Baptist associations 
may be heard such expressions as, 
" That crowd of preachers ! — they kept 
everybody wide awake till twelve 
o'clock!" Crowds of preachers are 
notorious for their hilarity. Imagine 
a company of eight young "theo- 

logues" en route to one of the "seven 
wonders;" add to your picture an un- 
usual coloring of merriment, and you 
have the party, of whom the writer 
was one, who left Louisville May 8th, 
at 1:15 a. m., for Mammoth Cave. 
At five o'clock we were at a quiet 



town which endeavors to compensate 
for its lack of interesting features by 
the name it bears — Cave City. After 
a cup of coffee and some little skir- 
mishing with the proprietor of the 
hotel and stage line, we were stored 
away in an old-fashioned stage. Ca- 
pacity, twenty-five men — and " one 
more." A shout from the driver, and 
the happy party are off on the home- 
stretch for the cave, about ten miles 
distant. The forests fairly ring with 
shouts of laughter and bursts of elo- 
quence, until it is formally decided to 
reserve lung force and exclamations 
till there is a real demand for them. 

It was half past nine o'clock when 
we stepped out on the long veranda of 
Mammoth Cave Hotel. Of course 
under such circumstances patience is 
not expected of visitors, and could 
not be commended. The necessary 
changes of clothing are soon made, the 
flat, brimless caps are all fitted on, 
lanterns are furnished, the guide, "Old 
Mat," presents himself, and here we 
go, through the garden and down the 
hill behind the hotel. The writer was 
a little ambitious, perhaps selfish, to 
be the first to see the cave, and went 
ahead. At the foot of the hill we 
make a short turn to the right, and, 
as we stand before the great gaping 
mouth, we are facing north-east. A 
glance at the small perennial water- 
fall which pours over the trough of 
the upper lip, and is absorbed where 
it falls, and we hurry down the steps 
cut in the black soil to the place of 
final preparation for the journey. Here 
each man sees that his little tin lamp 
is lighted, and " Old Mat" takes occa- 
sion to give some general directions. 
" Young men, you mus' let me go befo', 

an' stop whenever I tell you." Single 
file we take up our line of march to 
be halted soon by a ponderous iron 
door. As we hurried through, one 
after the other, mine was the only 
lamp which failed to withstand the 
brisk breeze which all the time pours 
out there. 

The guide, without consulting a sin- 
gle one of our number, proceeds to 
lock us into this under-ground prison, 
takes the lead, and after a few paces 
begins to point out some of the many 
saltpetre vats which were used for 
making gunpowder for the " War of 
1812." A still distinct ox track, made 
at that time, suggested the wisdom of 
the resolution we had made in the 

But before going farther, let us en- 
deavor to gain some just conception 
of this strange formation. Imagine 
a root of forty feet in diameter and 
ten miles long, with many branches of 
almost equal size — imagine such a root 
pulled out of the earth without break- 
ing the soil; the cavity left is Mam- 
moth Cave. The very names — Gothic 
Chapel, Gothic Gallery, Church, Ro- 
tunda, Register Room, Star Chamber, 
etc., contribute largely to the miscon- 
ception so widely held. These so- 
called chambers or halls are only sec- 

• tions of the main or a branch cavern. 
Their actual appearance gives no sug- 
gestion whatever of different apart- 
ments, connected by narrow passages 
or separated from each other by thin 
walls. The features called " domes," 
as Shelby's Dome, Gorin's Dome, etc., 
are overhead and correspond to — are 
the counterparts of — the pits, as Bot- 
tomless Pit, etc. ; so you might call 

L them pits running upward. And, too, 



people invariably imagine numberless 
stalactites and stalagmites as hanging 
from above or growing up slowly from 
below ; so that when one sees the cave 
the first question he asks is, " Where 
are the glittering pendants?" Well, 
they are not there. I have been im- 
pressed with the overwrought pictures 
of Gothic Chapel, representing it as 
approached through a long avenue of 
obelisks; when, in fact, the " Old Post- 
oak," and the two which form the 
marriage altar are the only noticeable 
stalactites of the whole chamber or 
avenue. Do not understand the ob- 
ject here to be to rob the cave of that 
strange fascination which entices 
thousands into its greedy throat. The 
only aim is to give some right idea of 
what we may expect to see when we 
all go. 

But to resume our line of march. 
The narrow alley through which we 
enter opens into a spacious circular 
cavity called the Rotunda. A pack- 
age of a preparation of magnesium, 
with which "Old Mat" is well sup- 
plied, is lighted, and we get for the 
first time some idea of the vastness 
and darkness and vacancy of the 
strange depths into which we are 
plunging. Monuments, built of the 
loose stones that abound, to the dif- 
ferent States of the Union and to 
cities and countries " across the water" 
are on all sides, and are seen through- 
out the length of the cave, where they 
are practicable. The Church received 
its name from the circumstance that a 
woman named Vancott and Drs. 
Humphries and Breckinridge preached 
there. Just here we come to a branch 
of the main cave called Gothic Avenue, 
leading to Gothic Chapel and Regis- 

ter Room. Some of us thought it un- 
fair that those who had gone before 
us should have registered their names, 
while we were prohibited by law from 
doing so ; but " Fools' names like their 
faces" was suggested, and we were sat- 
isfied. The main cave continues about 
the same size (40 x 60 ft.), and seems to 
bend slowly toward the north until it 
makes an acute angle by turning 
sharply toward the west. Just before 
reaching Acute Angle we pass under 
Grand Arch — a magnificent arch-way, 
extending perhaps fifty yards. We 
selected this as the place for our monu- 
ment to the Seminary. Giant's Coffin, 
only a short distance from this point, 
is a huge stone 40 x 13 feet, and is so 
nearly like a real coffin that you find 
yourself well nigh induced to believe 
that you have found the cemetery of 
the children of Anak. Our attention 
is repeatedly called to the peculiar 
shapes made on the ceiling by the 
oxide of iron, such as Fat Girl, Ant- 
eater, Giant and Wife Smoking, etc. 
We are now walking slowly down the 
main cave, expecting every moment 
to be ushered into Star Chamber. 
" Stop, young men," in a tone that 
was now familiar, told us we were 
there. We delivered up our lamps and 
took seats on the long bench prepared 
for the purpose, and were commanded 
to look up. The guide then left us 
and went out of sight, but took a po- 
sition whence he could throw the re- 
flection of the lights upon the ceiling 
over our heads. We were more 
than a hundred feet under ground, 
perhaps three hundred ; but before we 
had been looking long, it required lit- 
tle effort, if any, to feel that we were 
gazing up into the still, deep heavens 



in the solemn night-time. A flaming 
comet off to the right only added to 
the naturalness of the scene, and we 
thought it complete when, by the skil- 
ful manipulation of his lights the guide 
cast a cloud over the whole view. But 
he was not through with his illusions. 
He bade us good-by and went out of 
sight — lights and all. I have never 
seen and felt Egyptian darkness but 
once. And still ! There was no cricket's 
chirp near at hand — no dog barked in 
the distance. The beat of our own 
hearts and the buzz of our own heads 
was all — yes, all that could be heard. 
An occasional low whisper from one of 
our number was a welcome reassurance 
of companionship. It was not till we 
saw a faint flush tinge the sky that we 
knew the design of our guide. Upon 
the wings of midnight a glorious morn 
had come. The conflict of appearance 
and reality in what we had seen made, 
as we turned away, a conflict of emo- 
tions in my breast. I was surprised, 
then awe-struck, then grateful, then 
adoring ; and with tearful resolve I 
said, " Boys, let's be better men." 

We now retrace our steps to Giant's 
Coffin, where we leave the main cave 
to the right, for that portion where 
pits and their corresponding domes 
most abound. This is the way to 
Echo River also, and is in many re- 
spects the most wonderful part of the 
cave. Through Deserted Chamber, 
and down Steps of Time, we come to 
Richardson's Spring. The cool draught 
renews our strength and we press on 
under Arch-way to Side-saddle Pit and 
Minerva's Dome. A glance at these, 
and we hurry on to what is more won- 
derful, Gorin's Dome. This is off the 
main branch, and is reached through a 

fissure or narrow cleft properly called 
Labyrinth. The dome has appropri- 
ated the name of its discoverer, and 
is, with the exception of Mammoth 
Dome, by far the most marvellous 
formation in the cave. Here the pit 
and dome make a continuous cavity, 
the one being directly over the other. 
The Labyrinth ends here ; and though 
the opening to the dome is natural, it 
seems to have been cut for the con- 
venience of visitors. The light is 
ready, and four of us at the time lean 
through the window to find that we 
can see neither top nor bottom. It has 
been formed by the percolation of the 
waters through the white limestone 
rock, and as each trickling streamlet 
has formed for itself its own little rill, 
the whole surface is fluted with mar- 
vellous regularity. Every feature joins 
the others to say, " The hand that 
made us is divine." 

Again we retrace our steps to Mi- 
nerva's Dome, and take up our ram- 
ble. Every one has heard of the 
" Bottomless Pit," If not, let him 
send for a missionary. Valley of Hu- 
mility, Scotchman's Trap, Fat Man's 
Misery, and Great Relief are likewise 

The names we begin to hear lead us 
to judge that we are approaching the 
Infernal Regions. Dead Sea is a deep 
mud-hole ! River Styx ! and where is 
the little ferryman? No splashing of 
his oars is heard, and we decide to 
cross on the Natural Bridge which 
spans the dark chasm. A little further 
on the swollen Lethe says, " Thus far 
shalt thou come and no farther," and 
we must stop our rambling. 

Although we fail to reach Echo 
River, we are now in that portion of 



the cave where every sound you make 
seems to have a deathless echo ; and 
here, on the bank of Lethe River, I 
learned the depth of meaning in those 
immortal songs, " In the sweet by and 
by" and " Shall we gather at the river?" 
Eight strong voices made the dark 
chasms ring with melody, and eight 
youthful hearts were buoyant with 
hope of the glory of Him whose power 
was so mightily portrayed in the awful 
majesty that surrounded them. 

On our return we took a different 
route, through Bacon Chamber and 
Bandit's Hall, and were surprised to 
find ourselves, after winding directly 
upward through Corkscrew, again in 
the main cave only a short distance 

from the door. Just below the little 
water-fall, by the light of mid-day, we 
ate a rustic meal, and before leaving 
for the stage the voice of humble 
prayer made us tender and grateful for 
the eyes to see and the hearts to ap- 
preciate the handiwork of God. In 
the language of another, at Mammoth 
Cave " the sense of vast vacancy, of 
awful silence, of dreadful, lonely dark- 
ness, strikes the heart with awe and 
impresses the mind by its utter intan- 
gibility. * * * It is not a place for 
thousands of lights, and the chattering 
merriment of excursionists with their 
flirtations and junketing, but for silent 
and full-hearted delight." 


We wanted to go somewhere, Cato 
and I ; nowhere in particular, but just 
somewhere to rest and see. Seaward, 
then, we naturally drifted. Mid Sep- 
tember was late for bathing, but fish- 
ing would be a capital substitute. But 
where to go? Where, indeed, but to 
Ocean View? With its magnificent 
sweep of bay and ocean, no scenery of 
its kind could be finer. Fishing and 
bathing were superb, and Norfolk, 
Baltimore, and Washington were in 
easy reach. Ocean View was clearly 
the place for us, and thitherward we 
set eager faces. Up the Chowan, up 
the Black Water, then down by rail to 
Norfolk. But Norfolk had a disap- 
pointment for us. Ocean View had 
closed, and no guests were received. 
"Well, let it close," we said. "It 
isn't much of a place anyhow. Cato 
and I have started somewhere." So 


we bought tickets to Baltimore and 
boarded our old friend, the Florida. 
The passengers were a goodly com- 
pany : merchants going for fall stocks, 
teachers looking for fresh air and pa- 
tience ; lawyers running up to learn 
"crooked ways" in Boston streets — 
ways, let us hope, before unknown — 
and leaving their brethren to " please 
his Honor" and. plague the jury. 
Within hearing was a son of Abraham 
according to the flesh and a son of 
Ananias according to the spirit. Out 
of his storehouse he brought forth 
things new — seldom any old. And 
after each fresh revelation he would 
smile a smile that involved his entire 
countenance and both ears. Hard by 
him sat another " Israelite indeed," 
but with unmistable traces of "guile." 
When the Norfolk Band were casting 
about, some years since, for new in- 


struments, this public-spirited citizen 
and patron of the arts of Pan pro- 
posed, I learn, to order from Paris and 
at a reasonable price for so fine an in- 
strument, " von pig, nice thrum, dot 
would pe worthy of de city of Norfolk." 
The Band gratefully accepted the of- 
fer ; but on going for the drum when 
informed of its distinguished arrivah 
they found it indeed of noble propor- 
tions, but it perversely and stubbornly 
refused to come out of the patriot's 
shop door! {Tableaux vivans. Curtain. 

While I have been doing up the pass- 
engers the steamer has stolen time, 
and almost unawares I am rolling over 
the ridges of Hampton Roads. Away 
round towards Cape Henry is an in- 
significant watering place called Ocean 
View ; some persons go there, I be- 
lieve. Out to the left, about the mouth 
of the James, lies New Port News, as 
if asleep in the misty twilight. A place 
this of little note — not even on Vir- 
' ginia's map — and heretofore unworthy 
of a place on my page. But the C. & 
O. Railroad has gone down to see 
what might be done there, and New 
Port News has resolved to let it know. 
And now long lines of wharfing ; long 
lines of railroad switches ; long lines 
of coal trains waiting for depots and 
storehouses that are hurrying to com- 
pletion ; tall grain elevators standing 
on made soil; imposing blocks of 
buildings, brick and wood, and orders 
from the Old Dominion Land Company 
for the erection of ten new brick, and 
twenty-six new wooden buildings — 
New Port News has a right to honor- 
able mention. She has kindled the 
jealousy of Norfolk. The mighty 
West is too attentive to the younger, 
and the older sister frowns. 


But New Port News has other in- 
terests. She first saw the " new de- 
parture" in naval warfare. She wit- 
nessed just opposite her beach the 
first conflict in all history between iron 
war-ships. One morning in March 
twenty years ago, the Merrimac 
steamed down from Norfolk into 
Hampton Roads, steered straight for 
the U. S. sloop of war Cumberland, 
and regardless of the iron stones that 
beat upon her plated roof, plowed 
through the hull of her helpless vic- 
tim. Then she withdrew, and, turn- 
ing upon the Congress, drove it ashore 
and destroyed it, and then returned 
leisurely to Norfolk. Next morning 
she came down again, and bore di- 
rectly towards the Minnesota. But 
on a sudden there slipped out from 
under the latter ship's lee what seemed 
a floating potato hill. It was Erics- 
son's Monitor. Then began the " war 
of the giants." Though of only nine 
hundred tons displacement, while that 
of the Merrimac was five thousand, 
she proved herself no unworthy foe- 
man. Three times the other tried to 
run her down ; three times her iron 
armor grated harshly against that of 
her huge antagonist, and thrice she 
glided unharmed from under that ter- 
rible death-beak. There was no vic- 
tory for either ship, but the Monitor's 
timely arrival had saved Fortress 
Monroe, and thus made the Peninsular 
Campaign possible. This is what New 
Port News saw. 

But I started not a warring but a 
picnicing, and the supper bell recalled 
me from the stirring scenes of '62. 

I had a theory that during trips like 
ours fleshly appetite yielded to the 
aesthetically elevating and spiritually 



sublimating romance of travel. Yes, 
I had formulated my theory before 
Oscar Wilde ever pressed American 
shores. But Cato's behavior that day 
at the dinner table had aroused serious 
apprehension for the safety of my 
theory. And a few moments' obser- 
vation of him while at supper con- 
firmed my worst fears. I speedily 
became willing to compromise by no- 
ting a colossal exception. But Cato 
was unrelenting. I detected naught 
of pity in his resolute eye. And when 
we left the table my theory looked 
like a new moon. 

A night ride up the bay is not rare 
to my readers. But such an one as 
we had is. The old Chesapeake was 
at its best. The wind was not noisy; 
it just made soft harmony with the 
low ripple of the waves. The moon 
was not garish ; she came out en- 
folded in a drapery of silver gauze, 
and looked gentle and womanly. The 
stars, outer guardians of the King's 
City, showered their glittering dia- 
monds upon the bosom of the bay. 
And while the proud steamer moved 
on stately and in serene majesty — 
moved on as if in conscious dignity — 
we sat in the hazy moonlight and 
watched the solemn stars, now in the 
vast blue deep above, now in the depths 
below ; we sat and watched and won- 
dered and dreamed, and heard the 
waves and breezes sing. This till 
eleven ; then heavy sleep till morning. 

The morning was rainy, and Balti- 
more, under a cloud, was not cheer- 
ing. But then we were not looking to 
Baltimore for cheer. You must know 
that we had settled on a place to go 
to. Yes, we would go to Baltimore 
and join the picnicers running up to 

the mountains. Penmar was our ob- 
jective. First class in geography : 
Where is Penmar ? I hope I shall not 
get an answer ; because Cato and I 
had to own that we hadn't so much as 
heard whether there was any Penmar. 
I hope so, too, because it is pleasant 
to tell folks what we know and they 
don't. I put Cato into the above 
statement because I feared you might 
think he knew and I didn't, and I was 
not willing to carry all the ignorance. 

Well, Penmar's name locates it. It 
stands on the Blue Ridge, and marks 
the boundary between Pennsylvania 
and Maryland ; hence its name. " But 
why not add the y" we suggested, 
"and thus marry Queen to Quaker?" 
Oh, that would make the name too 
long ! They would not even award 
Friend William his full claim on the 
alphabet, but forced him into a com- 
promise of seventy-five per cent. 
Americans are said to be careless of 
etymology in framing new words. I 
strongly suspect them of having named 
Penmar. But, anyhow, that was where 
Cato and I were going. Cato had never 
seen the mountains. It was delight- 
ful to tell him I had, and to look in- 
different about it. We had to stay in 
Baltimore only an hour and a half 
after the arrival of the steamer. To- 
gether with about a hundred others, 
we bought tickets " to Penmar and 
return" — (Parse return. Is this R. R. 
English, like " Lay over tickets?")— 
price, one dollar ; distance, seventy-one 

Our road was the Western Mary- 
land, and royal was the ride. It was 
fittingly termed by a correspondent of 
the Cincinnati Enquirer, " a short 
poem, like one of the ' Idyls of the 


King.' " Once out from under the 
smoke' and tunnels of Baltimore, the 
eye covers a billowy expanse of hill 
and slope, of mound and meadow, in- 
tersected by countless rivulets, that 
ever invite the happy cattle and fleecy 
sheep to drink, with never a word 
about bar bills. From out of the soft 
green meadow-lands rise groups of lit- 
tle mounts that look so young and 
fresh they seem to have been tum- 
bling about on the grassy swales, and 
to have just stood up to see the train 
go by. On either side stand farm- 
houses thick and thrifty looking, with 
barns generally larger and always red. 
But as we were whirled along, forget- 
ful of distance in the charm of ever- 
changing scenery, and noting only 
how much wilder the gorges grew, how 
much bolder the hills, we looked sud- 
denly away to right and left, and there 
not far off lay the long, black backs of 
the Blue Ridge, like ocean monsters 
breathing on the surface. And almost 
ere we were aware, we had circled the 
Horse-shoe Bend, and with a rush and 
a yell had gained the summit of the 

Our first important step on leaving 
the train was towards the eating-house, 
distant, theoretically, two hundred 
yards. But, practically, the distance 
is a varying quantity, depending on 
the size of one's valise. Cato thought 
half a mile a very moderate estimate ; 
he carried our valise. If one lives in 
Baltimore, or has friends there who 
will " snack" him for his picnic, per- 
haps he had better carry "rations." 
But if he has them to buy and lug 
round, he had better wait till he 
reaches Penmar; for he will find the 
table there furnished with all that he 


can wish of meats and desserts, and at 
a charge of fifty cents. This eating- 
house was erected by the Railroad 
Company, as were also the dancing 
hall and shooting gallery. These 
houses are all there is of Penmar; but 
their situation in the wild woods of 
the mountains is a romance in real life. 
And not the least attractive is the 
charming music discoursed by a Ger- 
man band that is employed by the 
Railroad Company, taken out from 
Baltimore every morning and returned 
at night, boarded and paid thirty dol- 
lars a day. But we were eager to visit 
High Rock. To us High Rock was 
Penmar. And we found any number 
of vehicles waiting to take us up and 
back for twenty-five cents. You will 
be surprised if you expected to be 
jolted up an ordinary mountain road. 
That same untiring Railroad Company 
has straightened and graded the way 
till it is probably straighter and 
smoother than any country road even 
in our eastern levels. It is simply an 
inclined plane two miles long. At the 
summit is one other trace of that en- 
terprising Railroad Company. Upon 
a mammoth mass of granite two thou- 
sand feet above tide-water, they have 
erected a three-story observatory that 
commands a view hardly surpassed 
the world over. The mountain side is 
nearly perpendicular for six hundred 
feet, and from this eagle eyrie you 
sweep at a glance the outlines of a 
miniature world, outspread over four 
thousand square miles, and guarded 
on the east and west by mountain 
walls. This is the far-famed Cumber- 
land Valley. Its amazing fertility is 
owing to the limestone vein that forms 
its soil. This is the same vein that 



makes Niagara Falls. The Genesee 
country, the finest in New York, the 
Harrisburg country, Pennsylvania's 
best, and the Shenandoah Valley, the 
garden of Virginia, all derive their 
richness from this bed of lime-rock. 
It furnishes material for the formation 
of Weirs' Cave, with its splendid stal- 
actites, and for the Natural Bridge 
near Lexington. The vein forks in 
Virginia, one part going out to give 
Kentucky her boasted " Blue Grass 
Region," the other into Tennessee as 
far as the Muscle Shoals, where it re- 
joins the first. Then proceeding south- 
west, it crops out from under the hills 
of Vicksburg, and is seen no more. 
As one beholds from High Rock the 
luxuriant harvest fields of that fair 
valley, one gets a better idea of the 
man whose savage hand could work 
such desolation there as to justify his 
heartless message to the War Depart- 
ment : " If a crow flies down the Val- 
ley now he must carry his own ra- 
tions !" 

But what historic scenes here crowd 
the ample view ! What terror, what 
amazement, once seized these happy 
vales 1 What awful thunders shook 
these granite hills! What ghastly 
flames scarred the blind face of night ! 
And this old Rock saw all, heard all, 
felt all these startling phenomena. It 
served as signal station alternately for 
Federals and Confederates in the 
Pennsylvania Campaign. What a tale 
it could unfold, could its dumb tongue 
be loosed ! It saw first in '62 the 
Southern flag borne northward by le- 
gions that had just faced and foiled 
the Union's proudest army. It saw 
Jackson's column sweep round towards 
Harper's Ferry, and heard his guns 

that bade Miles stand and deliver. It 
saw the capture of Lee's order of 
march, and then, saw long lines of blue 
hurrying through yon South Mountain 
pass, not twenty miles away — hurry- 
ing, in hope of crushing Lee before 
Jackson could return. It saw Hill's 
gray line swept from that pass by the 
heavy line of blue. It saw on that bald 
spot yonder, known as Red Hill, 
McClellan's headquarter's during the 
frightful carnage at Antietam. It saw 
that day breathless couriers on pant- 
ing steeds come to tell how Hooker 
had been driven from the field, and 
how Burnside's final charge had failed. 
It saw the thirty-five thousand hurl 
back the ninety thousand, and then lie 
down to sleep on the gory field. Then 
for a year the old Rock slept, unvexed 
by the voice of war. But in the early 
summer it was startled by the tramp 
of marching armies, and awoke to a 
splendid vision. It saw a hundred 
battle-flags unfurled to the soft June 
sun. It saw beneath those bonny flags 
the flower of Southern chivalry. Sev- 
enty thousand armed men in ragged 
gray, but with shining guns, bore on 
their bayonets a young nation's hope. 
The old Rock saw this dauntless host 
file slowly up the Valley towards 
Chambersburg, and then wind round 
the hills to the right and pass out of 
sight. Then once more it heard the 
noise of battle. Three awful days it 
waited and listened. Two nations 
likewise were waiting and listening 
and breathing hard. Three anxious 
days for History were those, for she 
saw an epoch at hand. On the third 
day a boding silence came, and then 
on a sudden four hundred cannon 
thundered, and the elements seemed 



to have entered the conflict. And the 
old Rock stood and trembled. Then 
for awhile the thunder ceased, and the 
eighteen thousand went down into the 
valley and up the hill and into the 
presence of death, and showed the 
world how heroes can die. And then 
the thunders died away, and the young 
nation's hope had withered. Slowly 
and sullenly, after a day of waiting, 
the host in ragged gray and with the 
shining guns marched back again into 
their own land, and the old Rock saw 
them no more. 

As I stood on this historic pile and 
recalled that terrible tragedy, it seemed 
like a frightful dream, whose terror 
shocks you into wakefulness. 

Far other visions greet the tourist 
to High Rock now. Sharpsburg is 
unvexed by approaching armies. Ha- 
gerstown, midway the valley, has for- 
gotten the terrible suspense of other 
years. Chambersburg, away to the 
north, no longer dreads the coming of 
Early's raiders. Gettysburg beholds 
what was " the field of blood" trans- 
formed into a " garden of the Lord." 
And the misty Alleghanies, floating 
on the far horizon, send back now no 
battle-sound, but only the music of 
the winds, or the voice of God in 

But our driver's hack was waiting 
to return, so we got in and shoved the 
horses ahead down to the hotel. An 
interesting specimen was that driver. 
Like ancient Miriam Lane, he was 
" good and garrulous." If you wanted 
to know anything, you didn't need to 
ask. You could ask if you wished ; 
he seemed delighted for you to do so. 
But that was a mere waste of time. 
Your quickest way was just to sit still 
and not bother Ferguson, and you 
soon had more knowledge than you 
could dispose of throughout your en- 
tire anatomy. After reaching the 
hotel we played croquet and got 
beaten, and then heard the Germans 
play and waited for the train. We had 
thought of spending a night or two at 
Penmar, but our accommodating Rail- 
road Company hasn't provided sleep- 
ing apartments; besides, Cato was not 
well. After a night in Baltimore, we 
sprung the question of going North. 
But on examination, we found Cato's 
purse burdened with nothing more 
than two copper cents and a Spanish 
dollar. Then we decided that the 
weather was not favorable for a North- 
ern trip, and took the shortest route 

"/ MUST GO." 

General Washington was remarka- 
ble for promptness. It is related that 
at a meeting of his military family, for 
a council of war, one of his aids-de- 
camp was tardy. They had been 
waiting some time for his arrival. 
When he came the general, watch in 

hand, remarked, with some severity, 
" Sir, you may waste your own time, 
but you have no right to waste ours." 

The officer began at once to excuse 
himself by throwing the blame upon 
his watch ; he alleged that it had gone 
wrong. The general replied, " Either 



you will have to get a better watch, or 
I shall have to procure a more punc- 
tual secretary." 

Without doubt, punctuality is one 
of man's best properties. By it for- 
tunes are obtained, reputation is sus- 
tained, the sick are eased of pain, and 
life is gained. But the lack of it causes 
the distress of families, wreck of trains, 
and loss of souls. 

But one of the most uncalled for 
falsehoods that a person ever told is 
to say, repeatedly, when he means to 
spend the day or night at his neigh- 
bor's house, "I must go." 

Why is it that persons, and es- 
pecially young men, indulge this un- 
reasonable habit ? Let us see. 

I . Is not the visitor only trying to as- 
certain whether he is a welcome guest? 
If so, he must be dull of perception, 
not observing the wish of his host the 
first time he says, " I must go." Cer- 
tainly the entertainment he is able to 
afford should serve as a test whether 
his further company is desirable or 
not. Perhaps he just means to keep 
up the conversation. If this be true, 
he has either made his visit too long 
or else he' has forgotten that polite- 
ness requires that the subjects of con- 
versation should be selected with refer- 
ence to the tastes of the company. 
That which is interesting to one may 
afford no pleasure to another* Be- 
sides, it is rude to inflict a disagreea- 
ble topic upon any one; and it is a 

mark of ignorance to talk, and chatter, 
and simper. The owl is more likely to 
be esteemed wise on account of his si- 
lence, than the parrot on account of 
his loquacity. 

2. But, in the meantime, is it not 
deception ? — trying to produce the im- 
pression that I ought to be at home to 
perform some work, which in my ab- 
sence remains untouched ; and indi- 
cate my industry by the use of the 
words "I must go." Remember, friend, 
that the frequency of this expression 
and the failure to do at once what 
seems to be so necessary only prove 
the reverse. 

3. He does not weigh his words, and 
furnishes testimony of his slothfulness. 

Damages : He not only loses the 
confidence and esteem of the persons 
whom he visits; but, while they are 
expecting him to leave every minute, 
they are, for no consideration, kept 
from their work waiting to tell him 
good-by. They are all gathered in the 
parlor or standing on the porch wish- 
ing to show their courtesy. The flag- 
ging chat goes on ; occasionally you 
hear him say, " I must go, I tell you I 
must," as if some one were holding 

Learn a lesson : When you visit your 
neighbor, stay as long as convenient 
for all concerned ; and when you are 
ready, get your hat, bid them good- 
by, and go. 



I stole a few days from my lectures and books 

To visit my home and my friends, 
But could not return till my daisy-eyed girl 

Had told me the " odds and the ends." 

" Mea lux" greeted me in her parlor so neat 
With a shower of welcomes and smiles, 

And went on to tell how the girls and the boys 
Succeeded in working their wiles. 

" But oh, let me tell you," she suddenly said, 

" How cruelly I have been fooled 
By trying to flirt with a fast little man 

In love pranks quite thoroughly schooled. 

" He fell on his knees and with tears in his eyes 
Besought me with such tenderness, 
That pity at last gained the poor fellow's cause — 
I could not help answering 'yes.' 

" That 1 yes ' was a forced one, and thinking of you 
I earnestly bade him depart, 
Forget that forced ' yes,' and never more dream 
He had the least place in my heart." 

" Miss M. R.," said I,«" it really seems now 
That you have completely fooled him." 

" Oh yes," she replied, " he remarked that himself, 
Then blubbered clear over the brim. 

" The letter he wrote me the very next day 
We now have the pleasure to read." 
Mirabile visu / Could it be so ! 
Oh my ! I was jolly indeed. 

" Thou angel, thou seraph," the letter began, 
" Reflect ! My dear M. R. divine, 
Oh ! slay me not thus, but consent to be true, 
And tell me that you will be mine. 

" When morning's sweet songsters their warblings begin 
I am sad, and I sigh and I weep 
To think thy sweet warblings I'll nevermore hear, 
And soon in my grave I must sleep. 



" My mind and my heart and my soul are all bent 
On leaving this heartless abode; 
The wine-cup shall dig me a drunkard's deep grave, 
Except thine heart's love is bestowed." 

" I took the blockhead as true to his word," 

My daisy-eyed lassie resumed, 
" And now he has fooled me ! — you don't understand ? 

Well, here's how I came to be doomed : 

" Of course I refused my heart's love to 4 bestow,' 
And just here the chap overruled me : 
His grave is uridug, his promise he broke ; 
So that is just how he has fooled me." 


A party, consisting of four college 
students, was stopping last vacation 
at a village, the home of one of the 
number. After indulging in such 
pleasures as sleeping until nine o'clock, 
bathing in a nice, clear stream, and 
eating fried chicken, as it is fried away 
from boarding houses, it was proposed 
to visit the coal mine near the place. 

All agree to go, and we are soon off 
for the mines. With umbrellas raised 
and dusters flying, we make quite a 
fierce looking crowd of pedestrians. 

We begin to discuss the question of 
going down into the shafts ; some are 
willing, others hesitate. It is finally 
decided to wait until we see the rope 
that draws up the cars, and ascertain 
whether we can trust such precious 
freight to its strength. 

We have the good luck to meet the 
mine boss, who is going home after 
making his day under ground ; but he 
very kindly offers to go back with us 
and show us around, and down, also, 
if we decide to go down. 

As we near the place a column of 
black sulphurous smoke is rising from 
the great furnace, and the clank of 
chains, rattle of cars, and the noise of 
escaping steam can be heard. Men, 
as black as the coal itself, are moving 
to and fro. 

Our hearts flutter with excitement. 
One of the number lags behind, hold- 
ing up his duster tail, and saying, 
" Boys ! boys ! I say let's not go too 
near." But our guide tells us to come 
on, there is no danger. 

As we approach the main shaft a 
car comes up freighted with coal and 
water, and the guide tells us now is the 
time to follow him, and we can go down 
into the bowels of old mother earth. 

" What !" says Sam, " go down 
there ? It's too dark for me." 

" But I will get a light," says the 
guide ; which he does by getting a 
little coffee pot, full of hog's oil, with 
a wick sticking out at the spout. This 
is the kind of lamp they use in the 
mines. The command is given, " Keep 



the cars still, men in the shaft." Down, 
down we go, our guide talking all the 
time, and pointing out the different 
layers or strata of slate, gravel, coal, 
and everything else he knew we could 
not see. We are brought to a halt by 
an exclamation from the rear from 
Sam : 

" Boys, wait ! Smoke here ! I — I — I 
can't s-s-see." He soon comes to us, 
his face as white in a coal mine as a 
sheet, his voice trembling, as he says : 
" Boys, you reckon I will ever see Miss 
E. again? And — and — and I've got 
my Sunday breeches muddy; let's not 
go any further." 

But we were determined to see the 
bottom of that hole ; so on we go, and 
bid Sam follow. 

Presently we see little lights in the 
distance, and hear the measured peck, 
peck, of the miners as they work their 
way slowly downwards. Sam is again 
heard from : 

" Boys, I say you had better stop ! 
This is no place for us, and I've got to 
preach to-morrow; no time to fool 
here. What are those things down 
there, any way ? Don't like to be so 
close to them !" 

Still we go down, down, until the 
bottom is reached. Sam is near us 
now, still holding up his pantaloons, 
and wondering if he would ever see 
Miss E. again. 

If the men are black on top of the 
ground, they are doubly so down here. 
We begin to cast anxious glances at 
the little coffee pot, and think, what 
if the thing were to go out ! We feel 
relieved when the guide signals for a 
car. But oh, how little we were as we 
drew up to let the thing pass ! Soon 
as it is still we get aboard, and look 
up for daylight. The signal is given, 
and up we go in less time than it takes 
to write it. Sam is shut up like a 
knife with the back-spring out, to save 
his head from the prop timbers. 

We arrived safe from the lower re- 
gions, with no desire to return soon. 
Sam sprang out and declared that that 
was his last trip into a coal mine, and 
if Miss E. lived in twenty miles he 
would go to see her, if he had to walk 
all the way, and have his pantaloons 
washed, to boot. 

We thanked our guide for his kind- 
ness, and departed, satisfied with the 
coal business, at least for this time. 


Our party was made up of a young 
minister and wife, three girls from the 
frog ponds of Duplin, a young gentle- 
man from the extreme east and my- 
self, an humble youth of sixteen sum- 

We left Asheville about eleven 
o'clock Monday morning. Our road 
led us along the banks of the Swanna- 


noa until it became so small one could 
almost jump across it. The scenery 
along the little river was indeed charm- 
ing, its borders being always fringed 
with overhanging willows, alders, and 

Toward one o'clock we halted at a 
cool spring by the roadside to eat din- 
ner. The feast was spread in the neat 



spring-house, and we "lit into those 
victuals like a thousand o' brick." 
Nothing like a rough-and-tumble 
mountain trip to whet up the appe- 

When about half through eating, a 
terrific report, seemingly right over my 
head, caused me to drop my chicken 
leg and spring toward the door. I 
think I ran over two or three of the 
weaker ones. I could form, at the 
moment, no distinct idea as to what 
had happened. I had never heard a 
cannon, but my first thought was that 
a whole brigade was upon us and had 
fired all their siege guns simultane- 
ously. My next thought was that the 
world had suddenly come to an un- 
timely end. Upon reaching the open 
air, however, I discovered to my joy 
that the world was still habitable. 
Just two hundred yards in front of us 
a huge live-oak tottered for a few sec. 
onds and fell with a crash. Lightning 
had torn it to pieces and set it on fire. 

That cloud had crept upon us with- 
out ten minutes' warning. This was 
our introduction to the customs of 
mountain thunder showers. After this 
I kept my eyes open, lest one of them 
should slip np and kill me unawares. 

After dinner I rode with one of the 
girls on the baggage rack at the rear 
end of the stage. What a good time 
we did have ! We were in the very 
best humor, and yet we jostled and 
knocked each other about shamefully. 
Unless you have travelled under simi- 
lar circumstances you cannot appreci- 
ate the situation. 

We reached the " Mountain House" 
about six o'clock, and after enjoying 
a hearty supper betook ourselves to 

slumber that we might be well pre- 
pared for the morrow's journey. 

In the morning, after considerable 
bustle and stir, our horses were all sad- 
dled and ready to start. Our provis- 
ions (could not be called lunch, for there 
were two or three whole hams included), 
according to custom, were emptied 
from the baskets into a long bag, which 
was strapped across the pack-horse to- 
gether with some pots, pans, &c. 

My indignation was aroused at this 
rough treatment of our supplies, but 
it soon cooled down upon learning 
that they must go thus, or not at all. 

All being ready, we plunged into a 
deep ravine through which dashed the 
clear trout stream and, led by two pro- 
fessional guides, began the long ascent. 

It was ten miles from the foot to. 
the Peak, and the only road was a path 
two feet wide. 

We had gone not more than a quar- 
ter of a mile before we were riding 
through the most luxuriant vegetable 
growth I have ever beheld. High 
above all else towered vast oaks, 
spruce pines, and chestnuts. Beneath 
these were the rank laurel and rhodo- 
dendron matted into impenetrable 
masses skirting and overhanging the 
narrow pathway. Beneath this still 
were the dense beds of ferns and wild 
flowers. Whole acres of soil had not 
seen the sun for ages. The sun was 
then high in the heavens and yet we 
were travelling in a deep twilight. Not 
a sound broke the stillness save the 
dashing water as it leapt from rock to 
rock. The light chatter of the jovial 
party was hushed in feelings of solem- 
nity and grandeur. Not a bird or liv- 
ing thing could be seen or heard. The 
horse's ironed hoof made no noise on 



the ground which was covered with 
the accumulated humus of centuries. 

But as we ascend the scene changes. 
The trees are lower and more scrubby, 
and the undergrowth dwarfed accord- 
ingly. Along the steepest places the 
path takes a zigzag course like the old- 
fashioned crooked fence. You could 
converse with one of the party who 
was, by the way he had to come, more 
than a quarter of a milefrom you. 

As we scrambled up one of these 
places, my attention was suddenly at- 
tracted to the rear by the noise of 
coffee-pots, pans, kettles, &c, ming- 
ling in the wildest confusion. I saw, to 
my horror, our pack-horse (carrying 
our provisions, you remember,) striv- 
ing with all his might to turn a som- 
mersault up grade. Yellow jackets 
had covered him, and were evidently 
troubling his mind. We had stirred 
up the little animals, but had packed 
all the mischief off on the pack-horse. 
I was much concerned for the safety 
of our provisions, but somehow felt 
no inclination to turn back and render 

Toward noon we reached an open 
field of some six or eight acres with a 
dilapidated ruin in the centre, which 
is called the Half-way House. 

We dismounted for a short rest, our 
guides telling us that if the clouds 
cleared away we would enjoy a mag- 
nificent view. But the mists were not 
very accommodating in this respect, 
for at the expiration of a half hour 
they were thicker than ever. 

In the meantime, however, I had 
witnessed a scene of surpassing sub- 
limity. It was the sight of the roll- 
ing clouds themselves. The pen of 
even a Ruskin would fail to give an ade- 

quate conception of this wonderful 
spectacle. Now and then the dense 
billows would break away for an in- 
stant, giving to the eager eye a glimpse 
of the beautiful world lying far be- 
neath. Then the restless columns 
would roll in and close up the unpro- 
tected point, and all would again be 
blank. Turning to my left I see, to 
my surprise, no clouds, but a huge 
pinnacle of the Blue Ridge looming 
up in dark grandeur seemingly but a 
stone's throw from us. Then a little 
cloud begins to creep up one of its 
ravines, and, as it ascends, grows 
larger and larger, till turning suddenly, 
it sweeps silently and grandly across 
the mountain side, and, in a moment, 
covering all, leaves the spectator 
amazed at its movements of magic. I 
shall never forget the mingled feelings 
of sublimity, awe, and wonder that 
thrilled me as I watched those fleet- 
ing vapors. 

Not far from this place and near the 
brink of a fearful precipice command- 
ing a most entrancing view, we dis- 
covered a broken tombstone which 
marks the resting place of a lovely 
maiden. She chose this lonely cliff, 
surrounded by Nature's masterpieces, 
as the spot where she wished to be 
buried, and her wish was observed. 

The soil of Black Mountain is liter- 
ally as black as ink — hence the name. 
The whole range is covered with a 
rich growth of dark green balsam, ap- 
pearing in the distance to throw a 
deep shadow over all. 

We stopped at a spring which is 
said to be the source of the Swannanoa 
river. I think this must be the coldest 
natural water in the world. It was 
the 15th of August, but it made your 


teeth chatter to drink even a small 

Upon reaching the dim track which 
leads into Yancey county, our guides 
hastened to improve the opportunity 
of repeating to us the melancholy 
story of Prof. Mitchell's death, which 
they attribute solely to his negligence 
in not employing guides. 

Prof. Mitchell in crossing this moun- 
tain, with which he was more familiar 
than any guide of the present day, 
was overtaken in a storm which caused 
him to seek shelter outside of the 
path. But when the storm had spent 
its fury it was dark, and he was lost. 
In wandering over the treacherous 
mountain side he stepped off a fright- 
ful precipice. After three days' search, 
his body was found here at the bottom 
of a pool of water. In the frantic 
effort to save himself, he had grasped 
a bush which was found in his hand 
pulled up by the roots. 

Guides always tell this story to ev- 
ery party that falls into their hands as 
a sort of defensive argument for their 
costly and worthless presence. 

We asked them where Mitchell was 
buried, and one replied : 

"Wal, sir, he wuz fust buried close 
to whar he got killed. They then tuk 
him to Asheville, and then tuk him up 
agin and buried him on top of the 
Peak what goes by his name." 

"Who did all that," I asked. 

" Wal Zeb Vance wuz the prerprie- 
ter of it." . 

" How did they convey the body 
over this narrow pathway ?" 

" Carried it on a sled pulled by a big 

After we turned Clingman's Peak 
we were then truly in the " Land of 

the Sky." It rains up there on an av- 
erage of more than every other day 
in the year. We were welcomed with 
a second edition of the flood. We 
were riding along in the sunshine and 
soon reached in our ascent a cloud 
so dense that one could not see fifty 
yards. About the time we reached 
the middle, the bottom fell out and I 
think we would have been compelled 
to swim had we remained in one place 
ten minutes. I have heard of wetting 
rains but was never in one till then. 
The very atmosphere seemed to be 
half water; it wet you wherever it 
touched ; and you know air can get 
next to a man in spite of overcoats 
and blankets. There was no thunder 
and lightning mixed with it — just rain 
in the raw. 

Vegetation too, had assumed an en- 
tirely different form here. The trees 
were all balsams, nothing but balsams, 
and these low and scrubby. The un- 
dergrowth was moss, and it took com- 
plete possession of everything. The 
chief variety was five or six inches 
long forming an unbroken carpet, soft 
and yielding as down. Also in some 
places among the moss ferns flourished 
luxuriantly with many curious speci- 
mens of wild flowers. Every rock, 
log, stump — everything, was covered 
with moss. What inviting little nooks 
could be found at every step ! What 
nice little carpeted ledges where you 
could seat your sweetheart and whis- 
per softly to her the old, old story. 
In such a place and surrounded thus 
by Nature she could not say " No." 

Up here we saw thousands upon 
thousands of snowbirds. This was a 
curious and interesting discovery to 
me. Instead of going north our snow- 



birds merely summer in the moun- 
tains, as most people of independence 

We reached the top of Mitchell's 
Peak about four. No glorious view 
about which we had dreamed greeted 
our vision. It was raining. 

We delayed but a few moments to 
look at the only object of interest 
there — Mitchell's grave. No monu- 
ment marks the spot, it is merely sur- 
rounded by a low rock wall. We then 
scrambled down the opposite side to 
find the famous cave in which we were 
to spend the night. My enthusiasm 
fell to zero when, instead of a great 
cavern with vaulted lofty roof, I saw 
merely a shelving rock jutting out 
from the side of the mountain under 
whose outer edge I could scarcely 
stand erect. 

A fire was soon lighted, coffee made, 
and the girls spread supper on a rock 
just under the cave. That supper was 
no humbug either. I don't think I 
ever enjoyed a meal more. Every 
individual tried to do his full duty and 

The clouds began to break away af- 
ter supper, and we climbed back to the 
summit with the hope of getting a 
view before sunset. 

We had waited in vain for some 
time, when I began skirmishing around 
the edges trying to stir up something 
of interest. I chose the tallest and 
roughest balsam standing near the top, 
and mounting it, immediately went 
into ecstacies over the magnificent 
scene my position commanded. I 
knew that it was another humbug, but 
the girls were just dying to see some- 
thing, and so became at once excited. 
They every one laid aside their dignity 

and climbed that jagged balsam with 
a heroism truly admirable. I laughed 
till I cried. 

We then returned to the cave and 
chatted merrily until dark. The young 
minister (who had been married but 
two months) took his little wife and 
stole back to the top to enjoy a moon- 
light view. Being of a quiet and 
batchelorly disposition, I deserted the 
remainder of the party to follow them. 
They stood off on a lofty rock and 
made love to each other again, while I 
moped around scraping up what little 
enjoyment I could under the circum- 

After the tender-hearted couple had 
billed and cooed considerably, they 
suddenly assailed me for a speech. 
They had heard I was a ranter, and 
wanted to see me perform. After the 
usual amount of hesitation, I yielded 
to their earnest entreaty. Mounted 
upon a rock pile not four feet from 
Mitchell's grave, I cast one glance 
around at the weird situation, and, 
stirred by the grandest emotions, re- 
cited the only regular declamation ever 
written, " It had been a day of triumph 
at Capua," &c. When I had finished, 
I was greeted by cheers from the whole 
party who had stolen upon me. So I 
can boast that I have declaimed 
"spartacus" from the highest stand- 
point east of the Rocky Mountains. 

We then returned to our fire, for 
the wind was cutting cold, notwith- 
standing thick overcoats. The atmos- 
phere was as cold as the average day 
in January. 

We then crawled under that cave 
and put ourselves in an attitude for 
slumber, but I reckon we didn't sleep 
much. We had on our clothes, 



were covered with two blankets each 
and had a log-heap fire at our feet, but 
I thought I should freeze before day. 
(Fifteenth day of August ! I felt as if 
we were in another world.) Then that 
fire was in such a nice position ! The 
smoke, in ascending, struck the outer 
edge of the rock, rolled back into the 
cave, passed through our lungs, and 
thence into the open air again. 

And then those old guides sat by the 
fire and drivelled and lied about bears 
and wolves, till a man was almost 
afraid to sleep any way, if such a thing 
had been possible. I went to raise 
up to see if my pistol was all right, 
forgetting the important fact that the 
ceiling (rock, too,) over my head was 
but two feet high. I tried to con- 
ceal the accident that followed, but it 
was discovered, and there was a laugh 
at my expense. 

This unsettled me. The deep foun- 
tains of my anger were broken up, and 

I rained the nine parts of speech in a 
style most derogatory to the glory of 
that cave. If no preachers or ladies 
had been present, there is no telling 
what would have happened. 

We had hoped to get a view the 
next morning, but that hope was de- 
ferred — deferred indefinitely, too. 
Next morning it rained. We got up 
in the rain, ate breakfast in the rain, 
started down in the rain / I hope my 
recollections of Black Mountain, as 
given here, are not dry — don't see how 
they can be, for I never think of it ex- 
cept as deluged with water. 

When we were half way down we 
halted, built a big raft, tied our horses 
behind it, and floated down to the 
hotel in style. We left our guides on 
the mountain side to drown. I think 
this statement must be correct, if my 
memory " serves me right." Since 
this trip, I have always felt more 
closely related to Noah. 

EDITORIAL— A Ramble Among Relics. 




A propensity for deranging the 
present and unceasingly prying into 
the future is a weakness that may en- 
title one to the appellation of meddler. 
Some people, and the number seems 
to be increasing, are fond of dwelling 
on the past and its memories, of know- 
ing what men have done in days gone 
by, and of seeing what they have left 
as treasures to posterity. One of the 
latter class, who has an intense, almost 
passionate, fondness for the antique, 
spent an evening recently in looking 
over the " quaint and curious volumes 
of forgotten lore," in the College Li- 
brary, and wishes to give others of 
similar turn of mind the result of his 
pleasant search. The volumes, "quaint 
and curious," are not very quaint or 
curious, but, such as they are, they are 
not entirely without interest. 

The first volume having an air of 
antiquity that attracts is entitled, 
Elice Hutteri Bib Ha Hebr., Chald., 
Greece, Latine, Germ., ItaL, Norimber- 
gce, 1599. This was no doubt going 
the rounds of reviewers and criticism 
while the Thirty Years War was in its 
state of germination and Queen Bess 
and Essex quarrelled in Britain. It 
really seems to be that old, and con- 
tains the Old Testament in the several 
languages named, which are arranged 
in parallel columns. How this ever 
came across the broad ocean and 
steered its course through the ages 
safe into W. F. College Library, is a 

subject on which we must be silent. 
Some desecrator of relics has very 
irreverently written on its fly-leaf, 
" Presented by Nemo," and that is all 
its aged pages tell us on the subject. 

The next is, Sacr Histor ; or, The 
Historical part of the Holy Scriptures 
of the New Testament. This revealed 
not to us the date of its issue, but is 
apparently much more ancient than 
the Polyglot Bible mentioned above. 
This solitary inscription is found on 
the cover inside, " Joshua Skinner, His 
Book, July the 27th, 1766." It tells 
no further tale of its wanderings. 

The third mention to be made of 
these relics is about Henry s Commen- 
tary, by Matthceus Henry, V. D. M., 
Seventh Edition, Edinburgh. Facing 
the title-page is a wood-cut (we guess) 
portrait of Mr. M. Henry, from which 
we learn that the book was " published 
May 15th, 1768, by John Wood." 
(Now we are sure it 's a " wood"-cut.) 
The preface, however, is dated "Ches- 
ter, October 2, 1706." Wonder if Mr. 
Henry ever dreamed that just one 
hundred years from that time his book 
would still retain the dew of its youth ? 
If he did, it 's a wonder, for we find 
inscribed in it the following quaintly 
written and sorrowful record, " Sally 
Dew wife of John Dew departed this 
Life on Sunday night the first day of 
June in the year of our Lord 1806. 

L. Dew. 

John Dew departed this Life on 
friday night about two hours before 



day on saterday in the month of febu- 
wary 22nd 181 1. 

Larry Dew." 

Of this set only Vols. I, 2, and 6 are 
preserved ; there is, however, a com- 
plete set of six volumes, larger in size 
than these, but of similar print, date, 
&c. In the latter is found the follow- 
ing : " Wilson Reed, his book, Octo- 
ber 12, 1816." Immediately under it 
in different writing : " Bought of the 
heirs of George Reed dec'd by Martin 
Ross." Further on: "Wm Reed, 
1773." Who is Martin Ross? 

The next is quite an ancient look- 
ing old father, but in good condition 
nevertheless. This is written entirely in 
Latin, with numerous quotations, how- 
ever, in Greek. Its title-page informs 
su that it is Augustini Stenchi Eu- 
gubini de Perenni Philosophia Libri X, 
and we have no good reason for doubt- 
ing this statement. This title-page is 
ornamented on its margin by various 
wood-cuts. On top we find the faces 
of " Aristoteles, Plato, Solomon Rex, 
Socrates, Pythagoras." On the left 
side are the following pairs : Aristides 
and Demosthenes — Lucianus and Plu- 
tarchus — Cicero and Quintilian — Plin- 
ius and A. Gellius — T. Livius and Sal- 
lustius. On the right : Homerus and 
Hesiodus — Euripides and Aristoph- 
anes — Theocritus and Pindarus — 
Vergilius and Horatius — Ovidius and 
Lucretius. At the bottom we behold 
the muses in total dishabile, except 
Melpomene, who has a harp, and Cal- 
liope. Enterpe has a triangle, Cleio 
draws the bow of her violin with cred- 
itable dexterity, while Terpsichore is 
equally happy with her guitar. A rill 
down the side of a mountain supplies 
a little square spring in the ground 

beside which the kneeling Homer is 
being crowned with a chaplet by Cal- 
liope. With her are also Thalia, Ura- 
nia, Polymnia, and Erato. 

Deeply stamped in the back on the 
outside is a representation of the cru- 
cifixion of the Savior, underneath 
which is the Latin, " Ecce agnus Dei 
qui tollit peccata mundi." The date 
of its publication is 1540. 

This queer title is found in the fifth : 

Printed at London 
by JOHN LEGGATT, Printer to the 

Vniversitie of Cambridge. 161 3." 

Where this came from we cannot 
tell. It contains in writing, seemingly 
as old as the book itself, this piece of 
information, " Fortitude abandoned 
what is man ! The above Inscription 
was engraved on a Plate and put on 
ye coffin of Chas. Crawford agreeable 
to his directions left in his will." After 
turning a leaf or two there appears 
the solitary " David Smith his book." 

The next book was once the prop- 
erty of D. W. Stone, and is Outlines of 
the Lectures on Chemistry, Mineralogy 
and Geology delivered at the University 
of North Carolina, for the use of stu- 
dents. Printed at Raleigh by J. Gales, 
1 8 19. It is interleaved with blank 
pages, many of which are filled with 
comments of various fcinds. Here is a 
sample taken from the page opposite 
Galvanism : " In the year 1 791 a very 
remarkably discovery was made by 
Dr. Galvani at Bologna. 

"He discovered that a frog dead 

EDITORIAL - Outraged Freshmen. 


and skinned is capable of having its 
muscles brought into action by means 
of electricity in exceeding small quan- 
tities." There are numbers of books 
having in them the name of David 
Stone, which are very ancient look- 
ing — Lexicons, editions of Pliny's Let- 
ters, Sallust, &c, one, two, or three 
hundred years old ; but we regret not 
having space for the names and dates 
even. The notice of a pamphlet pub- 
lished about 1791-2, inside of which 
was found a little slip telling us that 
"this is very valuable, 'worth its weight 
in gold,'" will close this sketch. It 
seems to be of a statistical nature, 
giving the number of Baptist churches 
in each State, counties in which they 
lie, churches in each county, according 
to their faith, distinguished as 6 Prin- 
ciple, 7th Day Baptists, etc. ; Associa- 
tions to which the churches belong, etc. 
It is somewhat mutilated. The fol- 
lowing from the preface it is hoped 
will explain itself: "I have been de- 
firous and have waited feveral years 
to fee a publication of the nature of 
the following. And though I was 
fenfible I could publifh nothing of the 
kind without the fatigue and expence 
of travelling over greateft part of the 
continent ; yet, at the requeft of many, 
I have been prevailed upon to make 
the tour of the Baptift Churches, to 
obtain the neceffary information. 
With a view to this I have travelled 
about 7000 miles, in about 18 months, 
chiefly on foot, and have vifited about 
215 Churches, and 15 Affociations. 
****** I appeal to the Searcher 
of hearts, that my principal defign is 
to make the Baptifts better acquainted 
with each other, that union may more 
generally obtain amongft them. I de- 

fign to open a correfpondence with 
the feveral Affociations, and Churches 
who do not affociate, that future ac- 
counts may be more compleat and 
correct than the prefent. 

John Asplund, a Sweed. 

Southampton county, Virginia, 
July, 14, 1791." 

It is labelled " Asplund's Register," 
and as we take one last " drowning 
look" at it, we can't help smiling at 
these pretty names of North Carolina 
churches in other days which we catch 
on the fly from its pages : " Skewarkey 
Creek, Martin co., Allegeter River, 
Hide co., Matrimony Creek, Rocking- 
ingham co." 


We look on the restricted rights, 
the oppression and tyranny of other 
lands, and no particular emotion is ex. 
cited. We forget them easily and 
pass them by without comment. The 
bondage of the Jews excites but little 
comment in proportion to the magni- 
tude of the oppression which at pres- 
ent they are undergoing. When acts 
of oppression approach our own doors 
we instinctively feel a livelier interest 
in them. There is one species of tyr- 
anny which has not only caused un- 
told evils in foreign lands, but is even 
now having a baleful influence on 
thousands in our own country. We 
refer to the shameful habit practised 
at most of the colleges of our land 
called hazing. 

It was transported from the English 
university, where for centuries it has 
raged without restraint ; and it seems 
from accounts that America is destined 
not to be far behind England in this 



dastardly practice. It has with us be- 
come an established custom. The 
presumption therefore is on the side 
of the evil, and it must stand till some 
sufficient reason is adduced against it; 
and we know that with us lies the onus 
probandi : yet we do not apprehend 
much difficulty in proving the estab- 
lished custom to be an unmitigated 
evil, and that a change would decidedly 
be for the better. 

In the first place, the practice is con- 
trary to Christianity. Nowhere does 
the Bible warrant the persecution of 
our fellows ; its teachings are solidly 
arrayed against it, and no man can in- 
dulge in the practice of hazing without 
breaking laws which should be held in 
the highest respect. It is antagonistic 
to the laws which govern society. The 
laws of civilization cry out against it. 
Suppose the practice were not confined 
to schools and colleges, in what a con- 
dition we would be ! Imagination is 
not capable of depicting scenes which 
would inevitably follow. 

"At Harvard College in the last 
century no Freshman was allowed to 
speak to a Senior with his hat on, or 
to have it on in a Senior's chamber, 
or in his own if a Senior be there; 
and every Freshman was obliged to 
serve as errand boy for any of his 
Seniors, graduates or undergraduates 
at any time, except in studying hours 
or after 9 o'clock in the evening." 

This is merely a case of downright 
imposition — the stronger exercising 
his power over the weaker. To a cer- 
tain extent the lower classes should 
pay due deference to the higher, but 
certainly not to the extent which we 
notice above and which requires boys 

of sensitive and refined dispositions 
to be made the drudges and slaves of 
the brutal " gentlemen of the higher 

The practice does not end here, for 
we have well authenticated accounts 
of kidnapping resulting in the inflic- 
tion of serious injury. 

Truly the condition of the boy in a 
low class at school is one of extreme 
hardship. He is at the mercy of ego- 
tistical Seniors, consequential Juniors, 
and coarse upstart Sophomores. He 
has not the protection which society 
offers every one else ; he has no alter- 
native but absolute submission to the 
wildest caprices of his merciless tor- 

We could cite instance after instance 
from reliable sources where boys have 
been permanently injured, and at 
places not many days journey hence. 
One instance particularly comes before 
us and we cannot forbear mentioning 
it. Several years ago a boy of some fif- 
teen or sixteen years matriculated at a 
college. He had been reared with the 
greatest care, and harshness and brutal 
treatment were to him as the sin and 
sorrow of the world to Prince Siddar- 
tha. He possessed a finely organized 
nervous system, moral courage of a 
high order, but was sadly deficient in an- 
imal courage. Thrown into the soci- 
ety of a set of college boys, "the 
roughest things in the universe," he 
lived in continual fear. They found 
out his weakness, and it seemed that 
on him their tyrannical impositions 
would know no end. Ways of torture 
were invented which could only have 
emanated from the ingenious brain of 
school boys intent on harassing to the 

EDITORIAL— The Need of Recreation, 123 

extent of their ability. In such a case 
one may rightly conjecture the result. 

In a short time his health and char- 
acter were destroyed, and his useful- 
ness spoiled for life. He who might 
have become a great, useful man, an 
ornament to society and a benefit to 
his race, sunk into shame and nonen- 

Such treatment is not uncommon ; 
we have not given an exceptional or 
overdrawn case. Just now numberless 
boys are suffering untold tortures, and 
hundreds are having their usefulness 
impaired for life by this bullying, tyran- 
nical spirit which pervades almost 
without exception, to a greater or less 
extent, the colleges of America. 

" Horse jockeys know that a highly 
nervous horse is utterly destroyed by 
harshness. A groom who tried to cure 
a shying horse by roughness and vio- 
lence would be discharged as a brute 
and a fool." And it is equally true 
with boys. You may break their 
spirit ; but the breaking kills. 

The primary cause of the evil may 
be found in the natural propensity of 
the strong to exercise his power over 
the weak. If we see in our every-day 
life a case of imposition, are not our 
sympathies enlisted at once in behalf 
of the sufferer ? Does not our man- 
hood cry out against the oppression of 
the weak and impotent? Hence the 
strangeness of the fact that so unchris- 
tianlike and cowardly a practice as haz- 
ing should ever have been permitted 
to assume such gigantic proportions 
by those to whom the education of 
young men is committed. 

Without doubt it is one of the most 

pernicious evils attaching to the col- 
leges of the day. 

We enter our feeble protest against 
it, and hope the last vestige of so dis- 
graceful a practice may disappear at 
an early day from the colleges of our 
land. Why not, as the upper classes 
at Lafayette College did, give the 
new-comers a dining instead of a haz- 
ing? Of all those who come in con- 
tact with the young gentlemen enjoy- 
ing the privileges of higher education, 
none have a better claim to a gener- 
ous and courteous reception than 
those lately come to receive along with 
them the polish and magnanimity 
which are the invariable accompani- 
ments of Christian culture. 


It is a fact, as patent as any axiom 
of mathematics, that whatever exists 
must have a basis on which to stand, a 
something which, although subordi- 
nate in itself, is necessary to the ex- 
istence of the whole. It is certain 
that no house can be built unless it 
have a foundation, a substructure, 
which has no independent virtue, but 
which is indispensable to the existence 
of the house. This is the relation be- 
tween the mind and the body, and 
bodily health is as essential to perfect 
mental activity as a solid foundation 
is to the handsome edifice. 

One of the greatest faults of Ameri- 
cans is their neglect of the physical 
system ; and, as a consequence, our 
strength and manhood suffer. We have 
yet much to learn from some of the 
nations of Europe, where a hardier 
manhood can be found, resulting from 
attention to nature's laws. Here, in 



our feverish pursuit of the " almighty 
dollar," our people are too negligent 
of health. They are too closely chained 
to the car of business, and devote too 
little of their time to out-door exercise. 
But the older states of Europe, taught 
by long centuries of experience, have 
learned the wisdom of resting. 

" Sana mens in sano cor pore' is a 
maxim which has lost none of its truth 
and force on account of its triteness. 
The inspired sage wrote, that " the 
glory of a young man is his strength," 
but now-a-days young men are too apt 
to forget this. Many rush into the 
shop at an early age, and drag out an 
existence behind the counter. And 
many students lose sight of the fact 
that sitting in a chair, poring over a 
book, and leaning over a desk cannot 
be the way to acquire the strength of 
body which is the glory of the young 

The growth and vigorous condition 
of every member of the body, as well 
as every faculty of the mind, depends 
on exercise. Energy is a necessary 
condition of life, and the measure of 
one's vitality is the measure of his 
working power. Absolute rest is found 
only in the grave. All the parts of the 
body perform their functions only by 
exercise, and if this is not taken, suf- 
fering will ensue. Nature is not 
mocked, and she is never over-merci- 
ful in administering chastisement. 

Taking exercise never interferes 

with our studies. Of course, it is al- 
together commendable for a student 
to pore over his books and bend over 
his desk, for study is the prime object 
of our coming here. But the mind 
should not be cultivated at the ex- 
pense of the body ; and it cannot be, 
for when the health fails, the mind in- 
variably loses power. And besides, 
we are in a better condition to study 
after exercising. The strain on the 
mind has been relieved, and we are 
ready to take up our duties with re- 
newed vigor. 

If we were to rest oftener from the 
wearing-out processes of every-day life, 
and if " dull care" were banished of- 
tener from our minds, there would be 
a decided improvement in the national 
health, and even the standard of na- 
tional morals would be elevated. This 
opposition or indifference to healthful 
recreations on the part of many of our 
people is hurtful in its tendency. Our 
noses are so closely held to the grind- 
stone of business, that some of us ap- 
pear to reckon the faculty of mirthful 
laughter among the lost arts. To man 
alone is given the power to laugh, and 
some persons would almost make you 
think that man, too, had never been 
so endowed. We have the authority 
of Holy Writ for saying that " there 
is a time to laugh," meaning not 
the sneering, cynical laughter of the 
misanthrope, but the mirthful out- 
pourings of a happy heart. 

EDITORIAL— Educational. 



— DURING 1880 266 students were 
graduated in theology, 3,501 in medi- 
cine, and 1,041 in law. 

—DURING the past year, donations 
to the amount of $406,000 were made 
to Harvard University. 

— PRINCETON Theological Seminary 
has sent 202 missionaries to foreign 

— The sum of $2,000,000 has been 
left to Boston University by Isaac 
Rich, to be paid ten years after his 

— The degree of LL. D. has been 
conferred by Hanover College upon 
Miss Mitchell, Ph. D., Professor of 
Astronomy, and Director of the Ob- 
servatory of Vassar College, 

— THE government of Austria has 
established a law making education 
compulsory, and all children will be 
obliged to attend school for eight 

— In San Francisco, Spanish is 
taught regularly in the schools. Span- 
ish is to that section of the country 
what German is to the Atlantic States, 
the most useful foreign tongue in 
commercial life. 

— The Yale College Faculty has 
declared that hereafter when Seniors 
or Sophomores injure a Freshman, the 
guilty parties shall be punished just as 
if they had injured a human being. 
— Exchange. 

— Dr. Barnas Sears, while pre- 
paring for college, earned his support 
by building stone walls in summerand 
teaching school in winter. 

— During the first year of his ad- 
ministration, Chancellor Sims, of Syr- 
acuse University, succeeded in adding 
$65,000 to the endowment fund of the 
University. The general finances, also, 
are now in a much better condition 
than before he took charge of his 

— In a recent issue we noted the 
fact that the trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi had decided to open 
the institution to women, on equal 
terms with men. There are now 13 
young ladies in attendance there, and 
a report says that their average class 
standing excels that of the young 

— It is said to be a fact that the 
teachers in the Pennsylvania public 
schools are paid such meagre salaries 
that it is a difficult matter to procure 
competent teachers. Of course, this 
does not apply to the public schools 
in the cities, where the teachers are 
liberally supported. 

— Prof. R. H. Garnett, has been 
called to the chair of Greek in George- 
town College, Georgetown, Ky., made 
vacant by the death of Prof. Thomas. 
Prof. Garnett graduated with the de- 
gree of M. A. at Richmond College, in 
June, and was called almost immedi- 
ately to his present position. 

— The trustees of Williams College 
voted to give to Prof. Hewitt, of Chi- 
cago, the chair of Ancient Languages, 
and to endow the professorship with 
the Garfield memorial fund, instead of 
using it to establish a chair for some 
leading political teacher, as it was first 



— There are at the Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary 112 students — 
more than it ever had before. Addi- 
tional buildings had to be rented in 
order to provide accommodations for 
the increased attendance. 

— An idea may be gained of the 
dimensions and importance of public 
school work when it is considered that 
an annual expenditure of more than 
$80,000,000 is involved, nearly 1,000,- 
000 of pupils are enrolled, and about 
300,000 teachers employed. 

— Prof. Wm. T. Harris, the dis- 
tinguished educational and philosophi- 
cal writer, delivers this year the New 
England Lectures on Pedagogy. The 
lectures are delivered on Saturdays in 
Wesleyan Hall, Boston, and w T ere be- 
gun on the 14th of October. 

— THERE is no possible excuse for 
lack of education now, for any one 
who desires an education can obtain 
it. The young lady or gentleman 
who does not become well informed, 
fails to make a proper use of the com- 
mon advantages for education. — Ex. 

— ALL history is against the theory 
that, if the young are taught what is 
right and the reasons why it is right, 
they will do what is right when they 
grow up. Such teaching is worthless 
unless it gets beyond the sphere of 
the intellect, and influences the forma- 
tion of character. — Herbert Spencer. 

It is the general impression that the 
Universities of Germany confer de- 
grees only on examination, but this is 
not always the case. True, it is the 
rule, but honorary degrees are occa- 
sionally conferred. They are confer- 
red, however, only on scholars of rec- 
ognized rank and ability. The Uni- 

versity of Wurzburg has recently con- 
ferred on Mr. Henry Fawcett the de- 
gree of Doctor of Political Economy. 

— The table of benefactions for 
1880 shows how unequally the colleges 
for men and women share in the gen- 
erous gifts of public-spirited friends. 
Out of $5,000,000 given to education- 
al institutions during the year over 
$2,000,000 were given to universities 
and colleges, and only about $92,000 
to colleges and seminaries exclusively 
for women. 

— " KENTUCKY has twenty univer- 
sities and colleges, seven schools of 
medicines, six theological schools, two 
law schools, and one agricultural and 
mechanical college, with several hun- 
dred grammar schools, academies, and 
colleges, each holding a high standard 
of education. With all these means 
of secondary education, her primary 
schools are confessedly poor. There 
are 250,000 illiterates in the State." 

— TORONTO University proposes to 
follow the lead of Columbia, Cornell, 
and other colleges of the United 
States, by introducing instruction in 
constitutional law and political econ- 
my. A system of fellowships is also 
proposed, the scheme providing for 
eight fellows — two in classics, one in 
mathemathics, one in physics, two in 
modern languages and two in natural 
sciences — to be elected by the faculty, 
from first-class honor graduates, and 
to receive perhaps $500 each for their 
assistance during the academic year. 
The surplus on hand and the annual 
income of the institution will provide 
for the fellowships, but the scientific 
appliances now needed will have to be 
furnished through public subscription. 

EDITORIAL- - -Educational. 


— The University of Edinburgh was 
incorporated by a charter which dates 
as far back as 1620. Its patronage is 
almost entirely Scotch, while a few 
English youth resort thither attracted 
by the fame of its professors and by 
the fact that the cost of living in Edin- 
burgh is smaller than in any other uni- 
versity town. The academic year be- 
gins the last of October and closes 
the first of April. During the last 
session 3,257 students were matricu- 

— THE Senior class at Columbia has 
adopted a series of resolutions ear- 
nestly protesting against co-education. 
The following is the principal resolu- 
tion : Resolved, That it is the fixed opin- 
ion and firm conviction of the Senior 
class of Columbia College that the co- 
education of the sexes is undesirable 
from an educational, as well as from a 
social and a moral standpoint, and that 
its introduction here would be a fatal 
blow to the future welfare and pros- 
perity of the institution. 

— My teachers were hidebound ped„ 
ants, without knowledge of man's nar 
ture, or of boy's ; or of ought save 
their lexicons and quarterly account 
books. How shall he give kindling in 
whose inward nature there is no live 
coal, but all is burnt out to a dead 
grammatical cinder ? The Hinter- 
schlag professors knew syntax enough, 
and of the human soul thus much : 
that it had a faculty called memory ^ 
and could be acted on through the 
muscular integument by application of 
birch rods. — T. Carlyle. 

— The table of business colleges for 
1880 shows upward of 3,000 girls at- 
tending, which is not the entire num- 
ber, because in many cases the sex of 

pupils is not reported. In 1880 there 
were 25,780 students in colleges for 
women, (more than double the num- 
ber reported ten years before,) and 
8,000 in colleges which admit both 
sexes. These, among many other 
facts which might be mentioned, indi- 
cate a strong probability that the num- 
ber of illiterate women has decreased 
since 1850. 

—Nearly 2,000 more young men 
were studying for the ministry in 1880 
than ten years previous, and 62 more 
schools for them have been heard 
from. In the number of such schools, 
which, however, is not always in pro- 
portion to the strength of the denomi- 
nation, the Roman Catholics and Bap- 
tists lead, each reporting 21 ; the Pres- 
byterians and Lutherans come next, 
each with 16 ; the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, 15; Methodist Episcopal, 
13; the Congregationalists, 11, and 14 
other denominations reporting from I 
to 5 schools each. Over 3,000 young 
men are studying law, nearly twice as 
many as in 1870, while the students in 
medicine, dentistry and pharmacy 
(about 14,000 more) have also nearly 

— As to matriculation at a German 
university, in no case within my 
knowledge has an American candidate 
been called upon to pass an examina- 
tion on the studies of the gymnasium. 
His college diploma has, in most cases, 
been enough to secure his admission 
to university privileges. The only ex- 
amination he has to look forward to is 
the final one for his degree. " An- 
nuals " are unknown. Allow me to 
re-state, in the following terms, the 
conditions upon which a graduate of 
an American college, who " reads a 



little German," can take a degree in a 
German university. (i) Familiarity 
with the language. (2) The success- 
ful accomplishment of an original in- 
vestigation in the student's specialty. 

(3) The presentation of a dissertation 
giving the results of this work (but not 
required, I believe, at Heidelburg). 

(4) A searching oral examination on 
the student's specialty and the 
branches subordinate to it. — John T. 
Stoddard, in Century. 

— One of the terrors of the New 
World arises from the trouble that is 
taken in American education with 
" elocution." A young American is 
able to orate as if he were Demos- 
thenes or Cicero ; but then, as the oc- 
casion for Olynthiacs and Philipics 
does not often arise in ordinary life, 
the effect of his display is painfully 
exaggerated and stagey. We do not 
want oratory, but the power of stating 
and arguing a case with simplicity and 
clearness. — Pall Mall Gazette. 

— THE approximate number of 
graduates at the New England colleges 
as shown by the lists of Seniors in the 
official catalogues, is as follows : Har- 
vard, 182 ; Yale, 154 ; Dartmouth, 72 ; 
Amherst, 65 ; Brown, 54; Williams, 45; 
Colby, 35 ; Trinity, 30; Bowdoin, 28 ; 
Bates, 26; Wesleyan, 56; Vermont, 
16 ; Boston University, 15 ; Tufts, 10 ; 
Middlebury, 1 1 ; Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, 35 ; (of whom only a 
dozen appear to be candidates for the 
bachelor's degree) ; Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, 24. This makes 
a total of 803. 

— Wisconsin expended upon pub- 
lic education last year $2,670,748, 
each pupil in the public schools cost- 
ing the State $7.67. The receipts of the 

private schools of the State were 
$70,488, and the expenditures $75,052. 
The annual report of the State Super- 
intendent advocates the kindergarten 
work, a gradual raising of teachers' 
qualifications and lessening of the 
number of the kinds of teachers' cer- 
tificates, the imposition of a State tax 
for the support of public schools, the 
making obligatory the township sys- 
tem, and the wider adoption of the 
graded system. Wisconsin has now 
5,843 public schools, under charge of 
7,065 teachers. 

— The government of Japan has re- 
solved on the establishment of 52,760 
primary schools. The whole empire 
is divided into eight collegiate depart- 
ments, with one college to each de- 
partment. Even children under six 
years of age will be compelled to at- 
tend the primary school. 

— How is Trinity College (N. C.) 
getting on? We should be glad to 
know that the clouds were clearing 
from its horizon ; but, as things stand 
now, we should not be greatly surprised 
to learn that it was crushed under its 
burden of debt. It seems that the 
Methodists, who are one of the lead- 
ing denominations in the State, might, 
if they would, come to its rescue and 
support. [Since the above was put in 
type we have been pained to learn the 
death of the President, Dr. Craven.] 

— Of 463 convicts in the Eastern 
Penitentiary of Pennsylvania, in 1880, 
only thirteen had attended High 
Schools, and of these eight had at- 
tended only one year; and but a sin- 
gle one as long as three years. Out 
of 571 inmates of the Western Peni- 
tentiary, only three are represented as 
possessing a superior education. Of 
the 2,307 persons convicted and sent 

EDITORIAL-Literary Gossip. 


to jail and work houses in 1879, on ly 
thirteen had received more than a mod- 
erate education ; and it is said that 
there was not a single college graduate 
among them. — Home Circle. 

— OUGHT we not to get rid of the 
term " free school"? Children who 
attend "free schools," as well as their 
parents, are apt to think little of them 
and the instruction which they pro- 
vide. They unconsciously argue thus : 
the school is free — costs nobody any- 
thing, and it is of no use to be par- 

ticular about attendance, etc. This, 
of course, is absurd, just as the epithet 
" free" applied to our public schools is 
erroneous and misleading. They are 
supported by a number of pockets, 
and everything connected with them 
costs money. At the proper time the 
children ought to be made acquainted 
with this fact, and then they ought to 
show their gratitude in their efforts to 
improve to the full the advantages of 
the school, and in any way possible in- 
crease its influence and usefulness. 


— It is estimated that nine out of 
ten English books pay for ink, paper 
and covering. 

— THE Century Company is publish- 
ing many of the poems and rhymes of 
St. Nicholas, with illustrations, in the 
Arabic language, retaining much of 
their melody and rhythm. 

"Henry Ward Beecher's Ser- 
mons" will be published hereafter in 
a weekly pamphlet edition by Fords, 
Howard & Hulbert. Four have al- 
ready appeared. 

— THE works of the famous physi- 
cian, Galen, which were supposed to 
be lost, are said to have been found at 
Salonica. They are in manuscript, 
date from the 15th century, and ap- 
pear to have covered, originally, 248 
sheets ; 144 are in good condition, 24 
are mutilated and worm-eaten, and 80 
are missing. 

— In a profusely illustrated article 
for the November Century, Mrs. Lucy 
M. Mitchell tells the story of the 

" Sculptures of the Great Pergamon 
Altar," which have been discovered in 
the last few years. The chief illustra- 
tion of the paper is a full-page copy 
of an ideal bronze head for which the 
British Museum is said to have paid 
nearly $50,000. 

— The announcement some time 
ago that Mr. Matthew Arnold would 
visit America, was hailed with delight 
by his many admirers in this country. 
We learn, however, he has been com- 
pelled to abandon his intention to 
visit us. 

— THE life of Garfield by Thayer, 
entitled From Log Cabin to White 
House, has proved to be a greater suc- 
cess in England than in America. It 
is exceedingly popular there, and a 
second edition has been called for. 

— The Atlantic has on hand a treat 
for its readers at the beginning of the 
year. It is a dramatic poem, " Mi- 
chael Angelo," by Longfellow. It was 
left completed in MS. by him. The 
publication of it begins with the Jan- 
uary number. 



— The author of The Light of Asia 
has a poem in press entitled Pearls of 
the Faith. It is written from the 
standpoint of an Indian Mussulman. 
This author "revels in a kingdom all 
his own" in this sort of writing, and 
we may reasonably expect a work 
above the ordinary. 

— Eras and Characters of History is 
the title of a new book by Rev. Wm. 
R. Williams, LL. D., of New York. 
It is published by the Harpers, and is 
spoken of in high terms by the re- 
views. It is a series of studies upon 
famous historical epochs and charac- 
ters, made with the main idea of 
demonstrating the fact that Christi- 
anity must disappoint the predictions 
of those who look for its ultimate 

— Prof. H^ckel publishes a letter 
which the late Chas. Darwin wrote 
after repeated entreaties to a young 
student at Jena. It is the most defin- 
ite statement of Darwin's attitude to- 
wards religion. It reads as follows : 

DoWN, June 5, 1879. 
Dr. Sir : I am much occupied, an 
old man, with bad health, and I have 
no time to answer your questions fully, 
even supposing that they admit of an- 
swer. Science has nothing to do with 
Christ, except so far as the habit of 
scientific observation makes a man 
careful in admitting evidence. As 
regards myself, I do not believe that 
any revelation has ever been made. In 
respect to a future life, every man 
must make his decision between con- 
tradictory and undetermined proba- 
bilities. I remain your well wisher, 
Charles Darwin. 

— Paul H. Hayne, our Southern 
poet, is a man of medium size — per- 
haps five and a half feet tall — with 
well proportioned figure, olive com- 
plexion, dark, penetrating brown eyes, 
and full, massive forehead. He has 
highly polished manners, cordial ad- 
dress, and so much natural eloquence 
in conversation as to remind one of 
the fact that he is a nephew of Robt. 
Hayne, Daniel Webster's famous op- 

— President Garfield, a short 
time before he was wounded, sent a 
pleasant message to William Black 
expressing his regret that the novelist 
had ended "MacLeod of Dare " so 
tragically. "There is tragedy enough 
in the world," said the man whose life 
was so soon to go out in frightful suf- 
fering heroically borne. This and 
much more concerning Mr. Black is 
related in a charming illustrated arti- 
cle which is to appear in the next 
number of Harper 's Magazine. 

— Mr. Hubert H. Bancroft has 
a "reference library" of 35,600 vol- 
umes, which he has recently placed in 
a fire-proof building in San Francisco 
built for the purpose. There are 
12,000 volumes in a single class of his 
shelved books, and the collection is 
one of great value. Mr. Bancroft made 
a handsome fortune as a bookseller 
and publisher, and is now about 50 
years old. His five volume history of 
The Native Races of the Pacific States 
is a mere preface to what is to follow, 
if he lives to complete his plan. Since 
1869 he has been working on a history 
of the Pacific States, and now has 
twelve assistants. He hopes soon to 
begin publishing his great work, at the 

EDITORIAL.— Literary Gossip. 


rate of three or four volumes a year. 
What he has thus far printed is con- 
sidered extremely valuable by compe- 
tent critics. 

— Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
who has been Parkman Prof, of Anat- 
omy in the medical school of Harvard 
for thirty-five years, has tendered his 
resignation in order that he may give 
himself more exclusively to literary 

— The editor of the Century thinks 
but little of Mr. Underwood's sketch 
of " Longfellow." In his opinion the 
writer has little dramatic power or ap- 
preciation of perspective in biography, 
and is not capable of discriminating 
criticism. It is of that class of whole- 
sale praise biographies which one could 
wish extinct. 

— THAT is a delightful sketch of 
Victor Hugo by M. Alphonse Daudet 
in the Century for November. The 
great poet is now about eighty years 
old, but remarkably well preserved 
and strong. M. Daudet declares that 
he never reads anything, will not take 
the time from writing. " Victor Hugo 
will give us all that he has." 

— On the 26th of October Prof. 
Tyndall unveiled on the Thames Em. 
bankment at Chelsea a statue of 
Thomas Carlyle. He expressed the 
wish that a similar memorial be raised 
at the same place in honor of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, " the loftiest, purest 
and most penetrating spirit that has 
shone in American literature, and the 
life-long friend of Carlyle." 

— We saw in the Baptist Courier, of 
S. C, a poem called the " Burial of 
Moses," with " For the Baptist Cou- 
rier " printed above. We thought we 

had another poet's effort to describe 
what nobody knows anything about ; 
but no, it was the familiar poem by 
Mrs. C. F. Alexander, word for word. 
That word " For the Baptist Courier" 
misled us ; such an expression us'ually 
means that what follows was written 
expressly for the paper publishing it. 

— In a late issue of Our Continent 
Prof. D. S. Jordan gives a thrilling ac- 
count of his ascent of the Matterhorn 
with a party quite large for that peril- 
ous journey. The Matterhorn is not so 
high as some other peaks of the Alps, 
as Mont Blanc, but it is the most per- 
pendicular mountain in Europe. Our 
head was not many degrees from 
swimming as we read of his standing 
on the summit — a platform two feet 
wide and twenty feet long — in the 
forming snow 14,835 feet above the 
sea, with no part of the earth visible 
but the narrow strip on which he stood. 

— The spiritual birth of one of 
Frances Ridley Havergal's finest 
poems, "Take my Life," is described 
as follows by this consecrated writer 
in one of her letters to a friend : 
"Perhaps you will be interested to 
know the origin of the consecration 
hymn, 'Take my Life.' I went for a 
little visit of five days. There were 
persons in the house, some uncon- 
verted and long prayed for ; some con- 
verted, but not rejoicing Christians. 
He gave me the prayer, 'Lord give me 
all in the house !' And he just did ! 
Before I left the house every one had 
got a blessing. The last night of my 
visit I was too happy to sleep, and 
passed most of the night in praise and 
renewal of my own consecration ; and 
these little couplets formed themselves 



and chimed in my heart one after an- 
other, till they finished with, ' Ever, 
Only, All for Thee.' " — Index. 

Anything is interesting connected 
with the greatest man of American 
letters. Mr. Emerson was averse 
especially in his later years to having 
his portrait taken in any way. An 
excellent photograph was, however, 
obtained by a little stratagem. His 
friend Dr. W. H. Furness, of Phila- 
delphia, was visiting, and met Samuel 
Bradford, treasurer of the Reading 
Railroad Company, the three having 
been school-fellows in boyhood. It 
was suggested that the three be pho- 
tographed in a group, and after some 
persuasion Mr. Emerson's scruples 
were overcome. The trio repaired to 
Gutekunst's, and while in position the 
shrewd artist levelled an extra camera 
at Mr. Emerson, and succeeded in 
getting a very good picture without 
the philosopher's knowing anything 
about it. Some time after copies of 
the photogragh were sent to Mr. 
Emerson, who did not find the least 
fault with the ruse which gave his 
friends a correct likeness of him as he 
appeared in his later life. 

— Mr. Frank Vincent, Jr., has 
just received an autograph letter from 
H. M. Norodom I., King of Cambodia, 
bestowing on him the decoration of 
the Royal Order of Cambodia, in token 
of his appreciation of Mr. Vincent's 
well-known book, The Land of the 
White Elephant. " We have had its 
contents read to us," says his Cambo- 
dian Majesty, " and found your voy- 
ages and description of the different 
countries through which you have 
travelled very interesting. Your "de- 
scription of Our Kingdom and of our 

manners and customs is quite exact. 
We thank you for your kind consid- 
eration." The letter, which is written 
in English, concludes with a cordial 
invitation for the author to return to 
Cambodia : " We shall be very happy 
to see you once more, and will do all 
in our power to aid and facilitate your 
voyages in Our Kingdom." The pa- 
per bears the royal arms stamped in 
high relief, the envelope the great sea] 
of the kingdom in beautifully em- 
bossed gilt-work. 

— After chronicling almost daily 
the names of eminent Englishmen 
who had joined the Longfellow Me- 
morial Committee, we record to-day 
the meeting which has decided to set 
the poet's bust in Westminster Abbey. 
Men of all professions have been 
chosen to places in the executive 
body, where archbishops foregather 
with editors of society journals, phi- 
lologists with political economists, 
statesmen with artists, the author of 
" Elaine " with the author of " Break- 
fast in Bed," the founder of the Rugby 
colony with the youthful husband of 
a benevolent baroness. Thus the 
movement has been lifted from the 
purely literary sphere, and the tribute 
is the tribute of an entire people. 
Indeed, the only attempts to belittle 
it have come from obscure men of 
letters, from petty verse-mongers like 
Mr. Coventry Patmore, whose still 
small voice has long been hushed* 
while Longfellow's note still sounds as 
clear as when it first was heard in the 
poetic choir. — N. Y. Herald. 

— The publisher of the Literary 
News recently offered prizes for the 
six most striking and characteristic 
sentences from Emerson's writings, 

EDITORIAL.— Literary Gossip. 


those four persons whose sentences 
were the most frequently quoted by 
all the competitors to have a prize. 
There were forty-nine competitors. 
The highest number of votes given to 
the same sentence was twenty-four. 
The following seven sentences received 
from twenty-four to eleven votes each 
in their order : 

I. "Character is higher than intel- 
lect. * * A great soul will be 
strong to live as well as to think." — 
The American Scholar. 

26. "His heart was as great as the 
world, but there was no room in 
it to hold the memory of a wrong." — 
On Lincoln. 

43. "The fountain of beauty is the 
heart, and every generous thought 
illustrates the walls of your chamber." 
Society and Solitude. 

48. "The ornament of a house is the 
friends who frequent it." — Essay on 
Domestic Life. 

10. " Nothing great was ever 
achieved without enthusiam." — Essay 
on Circles. 

7. "There is no beautifier of com- 
plexion, or form, or behavior, like the 
wish to scatter joy and not pain 
around us." — Essay on Behavior. 

54. "The finest and noblest ground 
on which people can live is truth ; the 
real with the real ; a ground on which 
nothing is assumed." — Essay on the 

— The publication of a series of 
original biographical handbooks, enti- 
tled "Eminent Women," is announced. 
They will be written entirely by wo- 
men, and we predict that this will be 
one of the most interesting series of 
books of the season. The first volumes 
include " George Eliot," " Emily 
Bronte," " George Sand," " Mary 
Lamb," and "Maria Edgeworth." 

— We quote from the Critic : "St. 
Nicholas is at the head of all periodi- 
cals designed for juvenile readers. 
Whether in letter-press or illustrations, 
it is unapproached by anything of the 
kind in existence." 

— "John Randolph " by Henry 
Adams, the new volume in the Ameri- 
can Statesmen series is out. The au- 
thor has little sympathy with Ran- 
dolph's character, and although he 
leaves him a picturesque figure in 
American politics, strips him of every 
thread of fictitious grandeur. 

— Very little is known of the poetry 
of Dickens beyond a song or two that 
occurs in the "Pickwick papers." He 
was author, however, of several poems, 
mostly humorous. Some consider one 
or two of his serious pieces the best. 
We give below one of his short poems, 
"The Loving Ballad of Lord Bate- 
man," one of the best things of its 
kind in the language. 

The child and the old man sat alone 

In the quiet, peaceful shade 
Of the old green boughs, that had richly grown 

In the deep thick forest glade. 
It was-a soft and pleasant sound, 

That rustling of the oak, 
And the gentle breeze played lightly round 

As thus the fair boy spoke : — 

"Dear father, what can honor be, 

Of which I hear men rave? 
Field, cell and cloister, land and sea, 

The tempest and the grave, 
It lives in all, 'tis sought in each, 

'Tis never heard or seen. 
Now tell me, father, I beseech, 

What can this honor mean ?" 

It is a name — a name, my child — 

It lived in other days, 
When men were rude, their passions wild, 

Their sport, thick battle frays ; 
When in armor bright the warrior bold 

Knelt to his lady's eyes — 
Beneath the abbey pavement old 

That warrior's dust now lies. 

The iron hearts of that old day 

Have mouldered in the grave, 
And chivalry has passed away 

With knights so true and brave ; 
The honor which to them was life 

Throbs in no bosom now — 
It only gilds the gambler's strife 

Or decks the worthless vow. 




By Alumni Editor. 

— UNLESS it takes more mental fac- 
ulty to construe a Universe than to 
cause it, to read the Book of Nature 
than to write it, we must more than 
ever look upon its sublime face as the 
living appeal of Thought to Thought. 
— Martineau. 

— Colored Stars. — It is a fact by 
no means new, but on that account 
hardly less interesting, that some of 
the stars are marked by colors that 
may be easily distinguished with a 
powerful telescope. Sir John Herschel 
describes a group of no stars near 
Kappa of the Southern Cross, the 
principal ones of which, scarcely of 
the eighth magnitude, exhibit the 
greatest diversity of colors. Two are 
red, two are green, one is bluish-white, 
and three others are pale blue. He 
declares that, when viewed through a 
telescope of sufficient power to reveal 
the colors, the group is an object ex- 
tremely brilliant and beautiful, the in- 
dividual stars having the aspect of ex- 
quisite jewels. 

— A Growing Youth. — Jean Con- 
doist has been brought to Paris as a 
medical curiosity from the Haute 
Caone. According to a medical con- 
tributor to a Parisian contemporary, 
this youth, aged 19, took a start on 
the 17th of May, 1881, being then six 
feet three inches high, and found one 
morning that he had grown an inch. 
Every week since then he has registered 
himself, and on the 14th of Septem- 
ber this human beanstalk had gained 
nearly five inches ; he grew five inches 
more before the 20th of January, 1882, 

and seven more before March 15, and 
he now stands 7 feet 10 inches. All 
this has been accompanied by great 
pains in the back, and he stoops con- 
siderably ; but since last June, it is 
his legs only that have grown, and his 
feet are already twenty-four inches 
long. — London Pall Mall Gazette. 

— The Children and Science. — 
In school the children are so much 
taken up with the three R's that the 
development of the observing faculty 
is all but entirely neglected. To re- 
serve the fascinating study of science 
for mature years entirely is unreason- 
able. It was in Switzerland that the 
idea of a Natural Science Association 
for children was first conceived ; but 
America has not been backward to 
follow the example, as the Agassiz 
Association shows. The growth of 
this organization may be seen in the 
rapid growth of the St. Nicholas 
branch, which was begun in Novem- 
ber, 1880, and now numbers 336 chap- 
ters and 3,816 members. Each issue 
of that magazine contains numerous 
reports of the work done in the chap- 
ters in the observation and collection 
of flowers, minerals, insects, etc. The 
advantages of such an association are 
obvious. The habit of keen and ac- 
curate observation is cultivated, a fund 
of useful facts is accumulated, and 
withal is secured the healthful amuse- 
ment of the children — " a happy com- 
bination of amusement and instruc- 
tion, without the usual aimlessness of 
the one and the irksomeness of the 

EDITORIAL Science Notes. 


— The first purely scientific periodi- 
cal published in America was estab- 
lished by Dr. Archibald Bruce. It 
bore the name, " American Mineral- 
ogical Journal," and the first number 
was published in 1810. It was well 
received at home and abroad ; but 
after a struggle of several years, it 
was given up on the publication of the 
fourth number. It is thought that, 
but for the failing health of its founder, 
it would have continued longer. 

—The True Home of the Horse. 
— When a student in Germany some 
twelve [now seventeen] years ago, I 
heard a world-renowned professor of 
zoology gravely inform his pupils that 
the horse was a gift of the Old World 
to the New, and was entirely unknown 
in America until introduced by the 
Spaniards. After the lecture, I asked 
him whether no earlier remains of 
horses had been found on this conti- 
nent, and was told in reply that the 
reports to that effect were too unsat- 
isfactory to be presented as facts in 
science. The remark led me, on my 
return, to examine the subject myself, 
and I have since unearthed, with my 
own hands, not less than thirty dis- 
tinct species of the horse tribe, in the 
tertiary deposits of the West alone; 
and it is now, I believe, generally ad- 
mitted that America is, after all, the 
true home of the horse. — Prof. O. C. 

— A Glacier on Sale. — The enor- 
mous glacier Fonor Svartisen, on the 
Senjen Island in Norway, which is the 
northernmost of its kind in Europe, 
will shortly, says Nature, be made the 
object of a remarkable enterprise. It 
appears that a number of speculative 

merchants in Bergen have obtained 
the right of cutting block ice for ex- 
port from its surface. Some blocks 
have already arrived at the latter place, 
and as the quaHty of the ice has been 
found to be good, large shipments may 
be expected. The glacier is about 120 
square miles, and as the distance from 
its border to the sea is only a couple 
of miles, the ice may be obtained very 
cheaply. A similar attempt to utilize 
the glacier Folgefonden was made 
some years ago, but failed, owing to 
the blocks in their downward course 
repeatedly breaking through the 
wooden bore or conductor in which 
they were slid down to the sea. — Sci- 
entific American. 

—Coral Animals. — It is imagined 
by many persons that polyps are me- 
chanical workers, and that, as the 
rock mason, they heap particles on 
particles with persevering industry 
until by their united labors the coral 
island or reef rises above the waves. 
They are spoken of as the minute 
toilers of the sea, and are supposed to 
construct each coral as bees build the 
honey-comb, or a colony of ants rear 
the ant-hill. The truth of the matter, 
however, is, that a polyp forms a 
structure of stone called coral, just as 
the higher animals form bone. The 
process in both cases is nothing more 
nor less than a simple animal secre- 
tion. Coral-making, therefore, is no 
more the result of labor than bone- 
making. Nor is the coral a collection 
of cells into which the little animals 
may retreat for safety any more than 
a man's skeleton is his house. Every 
part of the stony structure in most 
reef-making species is enclosed within 
the polyp, where it is secreted. 



— A Whale on Dry Land. — 
About the middle of last April a 
whale, sixty-two feet long and fifty- 
two tons in weight, was captured on 
the coast of Massachusetts, and has 
since that time been undergoing the 
process of embalming at Boston, with 
a view to a tour through the United 
States and Canada. There were used 
in the process of embalming 3,200 
pounds of arsenic, 20 barrels of plas- 
ter, and 80 barrels of sawdust, besides 
several thousand pounds of other 
materials of a preservative nature. 
The exhibition of this preserved mon- 
ster of the deep in far inland districts 
will be no insignificant instance of 
the far-reaching triumphs of modern 

— Sea-Serpents. — -Dr. Andrew 
Wilson's Facts and Fictions of Zoology 
contains an instructive essay on "The 
Sea-Serpents of Science." It is the 
more noteworthy because scientific 
people in general affect to discredit 
every sea-serpent story as the offspring 
of an excited imagination. We give 
the summary of his arguments in his 
own words : "Firstly, many of the 
tales of sea-serpents are amply veri- 
fied, when judged by the ordinary 
rules of evidence ; this conclusion be- 
ing especially supported by the want 
of any prima facie reason for prevari- 
cation. Secondly, laying aside appear- 
ances which can be proved to be de- 
ceptive and to be caused by inanimate 
objects or by unusual attitudes on the 
part of familiar animals, there remains 
a body of evidence only to be ex- 
plained on the hypothesis that certain 
gigantic marine animals, at present 
unfamiliar or unknown to science, do 
certainly exist. Thirdly, the existence 

of such animals is a fact perfectly con- 
sistent with scientific opinion and 
knowledge, and is most readily ex- 
plained by recognizing the fact of the 
occasional development of gigantic 
members of groups of marine animals 
already familiar to the naturalist." 

— The Plakat. — He is only a little 
fish from Siam, but, like some other 
little animals, compels attention by 
the force of his character. Perhaps 
there never was such a creature to 
fight, unless it be the English Stickle- 
back, whose belligerent propensities 
and warning colors forcibly bring him 
to mind. Indeed, so aggressive is he 
that the entertainment he affords has 
become in Siam a national pastime. 
The fishes are trained for the arena to 
go through regular battles. License 
to exhibit them brings no little reve- 
nue to the government every year. 
When one is alone and quiet there is 
about him nothing striking in form or 
color ; but let another be brought, and 
at once the fins are raised, the body 
shines with metalic lustre, and the 
projecting gill membrane adds grotes- 
queness to his general appearance. 
The battle is invariably kept up until 
one is killed or put to flight. When 
the heat of the conflict is past, he loses 
his dazzling and beautiful colors, and 
simmers down into the mass of his un- 
distinguished kin. 

"The Toad, Ugly and Venom- 
ous." — In olden times the toad was 
considered the very compendium of 
poison. It is related that two persons 
actually died from eating the leaf of a 
sage bush under which a toad had his 
home. Now, this is not quite true ; 
nor yet is the opposite true. The 
toad is "venomous " as Shakspeare 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


declares ; but doubtless the great poet's 
notion was an exaggerated one. In a 
recent issue of Knowledge, Arthur 
Stradling in answer to the question 
Are toads poisonous? says yes, but 
not in the way that is implied by the 
general acceptation of that term. If 
it is supposed that the bite of the toad 
is venomous, there could hardly be a 
greater mistake ; for it cannot be said 
to bite at all, inasmuch as it has no 
teeth. But the glands in its skin 
secret a milky fluid which is a corro- 
sive, or in some species a narcotic, 
poison. Except, however, in the case 
of small animals this acrid fluid has 

little more effect than local irritation. 
The secretion becomes profuse when 
the batrachian is angry. On a strong 
and healthy skin it produces no effect, 
but on a tender or abraded skin will 
cause extensive inflamation and ery- 
sipelas. But for this secretion, the 
poor toad would be an easy victim to 
his many enemies. When a cat in the 
search for frogs picks up by mistake a 
toad, she spits and foams at the mouth 
and is glad to release him. Snakes 
have been known after swallowing a 
toad immediately to reject him ; and 
they not unfrequently die as the result 
of their undiscriminating hunger. 


By Eu. Sr. Editor. 

— Bicycles! — Keep a lookout in 
front, or you are in danger of collid- 
ing with one at almost any moment. 

— It is much to be regretted that 
three of our students, Messrs. Red- 
fearn, R., Pope and Moore, have been, 
by reason of ill health, forced to retire 
from college for the present. 

— We expect to have several bound 
copies of the first volume of the STU- 
DENT at an early day. We have not 
yet succeeded in getting the requisite 
number of complete sets. Some of 
the issues are very limited, but we 
think we can shortly get enough for 
the end in view. 

— NEWELL, the itinerant photog- 
rapher, has again spread canvass in 
the village. We are informed by one 
of a " seraphic trio" that his lenses 
were shattered in the effort to photo- 

graph the group. He finally succeeded 
in getting the " heavenly expression" 
desired, and is again in photographing 

—We learn in a circumlocutory man- 
ner that one of the Editors and his 
chum took a foot-stroll for recreation 
out to the Falls and back a few nights 
ago, a distance of over fourteen miles, 
and that too after the close of regular 
church services. Wonder what they 
wanted to walk away out there for? 
Oh, Recreation ! how many potato 
patches are mutilated in thy name ! 

— The University (Penn.) Magazine 
closes thus a sensibly written piece of 
advice to "preps" : 

" But one point, aljvays, observe ! 
Never fail to take off your hat to the 
Senior. Always bow down before 
him, call him Sir, and lend him money 
when he asks for it. Maybe in the 
far-off future, for "the mills of the 



gods grind slowly,' you will become 
Seniors yourselves! Seniors! Rever- 
enced by the Freshmen, obeyed by the 
Sophomores, envied by the Juniors, 
and intensely admired by themselves." 

— OUR friends who kindly aided us 
in enlarging our subscription list dur- 
ing Fair week, will please accept thanks 
for their efforts in behalf of the STU- 
DENT. The premium of five dollars 
offered to the student obtaining the 
largest number of subscribers during 
that week has been awarded to Mr. 
W. S. Olive. We earnestly request 
our friends to aid us in extending our 

" Why doesn't the Student come ? 
It has been behindhand ever since 
this new corps of editors have had it 
in charge," says some kind reader, and 
perhaps thinks it a lazy corps. W T e 
assure you we are doing our best to 
gain the time lost in changing mana- 
gers, and we had well nigh accom- 
plished this in this issue, when the 
printers began to trifle with us in a 
manner really provoking. Bear with 
us and the printers. We are still de- 
termined to issue our journal on the 
first of the month. 

— The quarterly examinations are 
upon us. The studious young Cyrus 
is now kindly requested by his profes- 
sor to make a parade of the army of 
facts he has been gathering and ar- 
ranging in the various fields of study 
during the past quarter. Fellow stu- 
dents, one and all, you have our sym- 
pathies. May the Argus-eyed profes- 
sor in surveying the vast collection of 
paper forces find, as did the Cilician 
queen, a brilliancy and tact that shall 
be wonderfully well pleasing. 

— The Seniors had to have some- 
thing to distinguish them from the 
common herd, and have accordingly 
selected " beavers" for that purpose. 
When you behold for the first time his 
dignity standing under this new ap- 
purtenance of Seniority, it is simply 
a matter of impossibility to suppress 
the remark, " They suit as well as I 
expected." The Juniors have sim- 
mered down to a normal temperature 
after getting the regular Oxford col- 
lege cap, having a ginger-cake, dia- 
mond-shaped, covered-shingle, large- 
as-a-slate sort of brim attached to the 
top of the crown. Hope the mania 
for badges of distinction has now sub- 
sided for a time at least. 

— Two of our wood-nymphs report 
finding Maj. Coon's " beaver " in a fear- 
ful plight on the ground under "the 
hawthorn in the dale." It was faith- 
fully discharging its duty for its own 
end of his Seniorship, while the other 
end was kicking vigorously about in 
the matted boughs overhead, overfoot 
rather with him. It appears that 
"just to please the girls " he had en- 
deavored to climb that haw-tree and, 
losing his hold, was thus forced to as- 
sume rather hastily this inverted atti- 
tude, as his feet obstinately refused to 
take part in any such an informal de- 
scent. Hope the Maj. wont try to 
show off again till he becomes more 

— Rev. M. J. WlLLOUGHBY, for- 
merly a student here, was ordained to 
the full work of the gospel ministry 
by the church at this place Sunday 
evening, Nov. 12. The ordination 
sermon was preached by Rev. W. B. 
Royall from Isaiah 6 : 8, and the 

EDITORIAL -In and About the College. 


prayer made by Rev. Wm. Royall. 
Rev. Jas. S. Purefoy delivered the 
charge. The Bible was presented by 
Rev. G. P. Bostick. The chairman and 
other members of the examinating pres- 
bytery state that Bro. W. gave, in every 
respect, the most satisfactory evidences 
of being really called to the great and 
responsible work of preaching the gos- 
pel. May this young servant be en 
dowed with great power, and his labors 
be blessed with abundant fruitfulness. 

— COWS will be allowed to remain 
in the campus for the sake of grazing 
it. Students will not take this failure 
to exclude all cattle as an intention 
to disfigure our beautiful grass plots. 
The laws for protecting them from 
abuse are still in force ; and when a 
student unmercifully tramples upon 
the grass (as we have seen some do) 
simply because he thinks there is no 
law to fine him for it, he certainly de- 
serves to be excluded with the other 
noxious animals. Three calves graz- 
ing one plot and two students wan- 
tonly promenading on another, how 
many calves in all ? Answer, three 
and two equal fi — , but ask Prof. Mills 
about it. 

—To Impatient Young Men. — 
Don't be whining about not having a 
fair chance. Throw a sensible man 
out of a window and he'll fall on his 
feet, and ask the nearest way to his 
work. The more you have to begin 
with the less you will have in the end. 
Money you earn yourself is much 
brighter than any you get out of dead 
men's bags. A scant breakfast in the 
morning of life whets the appetite for 
a feast later in the day. He who has 
tated a sour apple will have the more 
relish for a sweet one. Your present 
want will make future prosperity all 
the sweeter. Eighteenpence has set 

up many a peddler in business, and he 
has turned it over until he has kept 
his carriage. As for the place you are 
cast in, don't find fault with that ; you 
need not be a horse because you were 
born in a stable. If a bull tossed a 
man of metal sky high, he would drop 
down into a good place. A hard work- 
ing young man with his wits about 
him will make money while others will 
do nothing but lose it. — Albany Jour- 

— " Wedding Bells" was the happy 
chorus that floated past us on the 
night of the 8th inst. The sweet and 
joyous strains came from Dr. Monta- 
gue's parlor. It was filled with a 
number of guests who greatly enjoyed 
a pleasant reception given in honor of 
the approaching marriage of his daugh- 
ter. The reception was spoken of, by 
those present, in the most complimen- 
tary terms. On this occasion, in very 
truth, "care hid its gloomy head," and 
the " wee sma hours" came all too soon. 
On the following morning precisely 
at nine o'clock, by Rev. Dr. J. D. Huf- 
ham, Mr. James H. Lawrence, of Scot- 
land Neck, was united in marriage to 
Miss Minnie Montague, the well known 
and highly accomplished daughter of 
Dr. H. W. Montague. 

The following were the attendants : 
Miss Zollie Montague, of Wake For- 
est, and Mr. W. H. Ragsdale, of Scot- 
land Neck ; Miss Mary Montague and 
Mr. E. Hilliard, of Wake Forest ; Miss 
Mary Polk, of Raleigh, and Mr. Lee 
Lawrence, of Norfolk, Va. ; Miss Mary 
Strickland and Mr. L. Y. Montague, 
of Wake Forest ; Miss Emma Gunter, 
of Durham, and Mr. B. F. Montague, of 
Raleigh ; Miss Lydia Walters and Mr. 
Marion Purefoy, of Wake Forest. The 
bridal couple immediately took the 



train for their home in Scotland Neck> 
and were accompanied as far as Wel- 
don by the Misses Montague and 
Misses Polk and Strickland and Messrs 
Hilliard, Purefoy and R. L. Brewer. 
A number of the bridegroom's 
friends from Scotland Neck met the 
party there ; all enjoyed a pleasant 
repast, and the happy pair, with the 
best wishes and warm congratulations 
of many admiring friends, kept on to 
their home. The remainder of the 
party returned to Wake Forest on 
the evening train, looking as if there 
had been "a feast of good things and 
a floiv of soul." 

The occasion was one of rare pleas- 
ure and will doubtless for years to 
come give pleasant recollections to all 
who participated. We hope to chron- 
icle a similar occasion in our next num- 

Senior Speaking.— This occasion 
comes unbidden. The class of '83 
on the 27th ult., made their debut, 
as their predecessors have done, 
more from respect to custom or 
to the dictum of " powers that be," 
than from any choice of their own. 
Want of space will not permit any ad- 
equate report of their speeches, even 
if our readers were patient enough to 
take, second-handed, what was not 
perfect at first ; but a short critical no- 
tice of each speaker may profit, if it 
do not please. 

Ed. S. Alderman, first speaker, with 
his subject " Sentirnentalism in ^Es- 
theticism," purposed to mark the dis- 
tinction between genuine and spurious 
?estheticism and to incite a disgust for 
the false and a taste for the true. In 
this he succeeded in winning the in- 
terest of his audience. The speech 

1 was well studied, and not without 
some originality. Want of continuity 
in delivery (only a temporary fault) 
caused well connected matter to ap- 
pear as fragmentary. 

C. G. Jones had " Something to live 
for," and by agreeable and earnest de- 
livery, pursuaded his audience that 
they also would do well to have such 
a motto. His speech wanted original- 
ity, and would have been different had 
he not read, with too tenacious a mem- 
ory, " Royal Path of Life," and some 
pithy parts of "Lucile." 

G. P. Bostick wants everybody to 
" Have a Purpose in Life." A laudable 
wish ; and right well did he show the 
desirableness of such a thing. The 
style and matter of his composition 
were unduly influenced by the work 
referred to above — a most tempting 
and fatal book in the hands of begin- 
ners with good memory. More think, 
ing would improve this gentleman's 
fluent speech. 

L. L. Jenkins greatly denounces 
" Fogyism" in its more incorrigible 
forms. It was an affected effort to 
amuse by fitting together disjointed 
materials, that showed too much puer- 
ility. His manner was quite good, 
and the speaker deserves to be com- 
mended for handling what he is sup- 
posed to understand. 

W. R. Walters, subject " Pres- 
cience." Yes! but indistinct enuncia 
tion prevented us from following him 
through " the shadows of coming 
events." The armor, we think, was 
rather heavy for a young soldier; but 
those who heard the speaker give him 
credit for having a speech of consider- 
able excellence, being both logical and 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


well written. More prescience wil^ 
lead the gentleman to exercise his 
gift for original speculation with the 
more visible and comprehensible. 

H. P. Markham, with " Victory" for 
his theme and aim, lessened his per- 
sonal victory by skirmishing too much 
on old battle grounds. Candor com- 
pels us to say that, while it was well 
put together, the speech was little 
more than a recitation of common- 
place historical matter. 

Thos. Dixon, with his thirst for in- 
novation, theorized on the old proverb, 
" Spare the rod and spoil the child." 
Despite an affected voice in the be. 
ginning, he gave another evidence of 
his magnetic power over an audience, 
and set the youthful ones, twitching 
under the triumphant belief that cor- 
poral punishment was wrong, in such a 
glee as only another use of the flagel- 
lating rod can allay. His idea was 
quite original, and put with pathos 
and humor. 

G. C. Briggs, in answer to the 
question, "Who shall govern ^Amer- 
ica?" had a well conceived idea of the 
subtle influence and tendencies of Ro- 
man Catholicism, and showed wisdom 
in treating such a subject at the pres- 
ent time. But his thought was en- 
tirely too heavily freighted with lan- 
guage. His manner was good. 

H. B. Folk, in a natural manner and 
racy style, showed us new features on 
" The Human Face Divine." With 
close study and 'keen insight, he veri- 
fied the truism that " It is not the 
finding of a thing, but the making 
something of it after it is found, that 
is of consequence." His speech was 
in one instance marred by indelicate 
humor, yet contained some beautiful 

sentiment. He were a cynic who would 
not like that effort. 

In so candid a criticism we would 
not be understood as intimating that 
the present class is in any way inferior. 
On the contrary, we believe that in 
ability and scholarship it compares 
favorably with any class that has gone 
out from the College. It possesses 
versatility of talent, and some prom- 
ises of rare distinction. To all, whether 
crowned or uncrowned, in victory or 
defeat, we say, Come again ! 

We should say that three of the 
class, much to their own gratification, 
and doubtless to that of the audience, 
were excused from speaking. 

— A monotonous thing indeed must 
have been the " spice of life" at our 
College fifty years ago. How great 
an abundance there was of that com- 
modity in and about the college in its 
earlier days way be judged from the 
following letter published in the Bib- 
lical Recorder of April I, 1835 : 
Wake Forest Institute, ) 
March 14th, 1835. j 

Brother Meredith; — Taking it for 
granted that you would be pleased to 
learn some of the particulars of our 
operations here, I have taken it upon 
myself to give you a brief detail of 
our internal movements and. I might 
say, eternal movements ; for never was 
a set of fellows kept so constantly on 
the go. I will begin at the dawn of 
day, when the loud peals of the bell 
arouse us from our sweet repose. We 
are allowed about fifteen minutes to 
dress ourselves and wash, when the 
bell summons us to prayers. At this 
second sound of the bell, the whole 
plantation seems alive with moving 
bodies ; a stream of students is seen 



pouring in from every direction, some, 
while on the way adjusting the defici- 
ences in their dress, which they had 
not time fully to arrange while in their 
rooms, some with vests wrong side out, 
some with eyes half open, and all in 
haste to reach the chapel in time to 
answer to their names. Prayers being 
over, just as the sun raises his head from 
behind the distant forest, the Virgil 
class, to which I belong, commences 
recitation. Other classes are reciting 
at the same time. At half past seven 
the bell rings for breakfast; a few 
minutes after which study hours com- 
mence. Every one is now kept at the 
top of his speed ; some in reciting, and 
others preparing for recitation, until 
twelve o'clock, when the bell an- 
nounces the dinner hour ; and almost 
immediately after this we start on the 
same mental race. This is kept up 
through all the classes until 3 o'clock, 
when the bell rings long and loud 
for the toils of the field. While the bell 
is ringing, the students assemble in 
the grove before the dwelling house ; 
some with axes, some with grubbing 
hoes, some with weeding hoes, and 
some empty-handed, all in a thick 
crowd. You must now imagine that 
you see Mr. Wait in one place, Mr. 
Armstrong in another, and Mr. Dock- 
ery in another. Mr. Dockery, though 
a student, frequently takes the lead of 
one company. Now the roll is called, 
when as the names are called off, the 
students take their appropriate sta- 
tions around their respective leaders^ 
axes with axes, hoes with hoes, and then 
we start, each one following his chief. 
Those with axes make for the woods, 
where they fell the sturdy oaks and 
divide them into rails ; the grubbers 

take to the field, and sweat with heavy 
blows over the roots and shrubs that 
have been encroaching upon the clear 
land. Those with weeding hoes find 
much variety in their employment ; 
sometimes they cut down cornstalks, 
sometimes they rake up leaves, and 
now you may see them in the barn 
yard piling up manure. We students 
engage in everything here that an 
honest farmer is not ashamed to do. 
If we should draw back from any- 
thing here that is called work we 
should feel that we had disgraced our- 
selves. Those who are empty-handed 
make up the fence and harden their 
shoulders under heavy rails. The fact 
is we are always busy — always ready 
for recitation and always ready for 
work. We are cheerful and happy, — 
merry in a joke, and hard to beat in a 
hearty laugh. We are sometimes tired 
when we quit work, but never so bad 
off that we cannot outstrip any com. 
mon fellow when the supper bell rings. 
I am attached to the mauling corps, 
and know but little about the other 
companies. Mr. Wait leads out our 
company, when we reach the woods 
our coats are laid off, and we set to 
with a good will and hard blows. Our 
chief sets the example, — 

"Nec non Aeneas opera inter talia primus 
Hortatur socios, paribusque accingitur armis." 

Blistered hands we consider here as 
scars of honor, and we show them with 
as much pride as Marius exhibited his 
scars to the wondering multitude. 
That you may form some idea of our 
executions, I will state that two of our 
corps yesterday mauled one hundred 
and twenty-seven rails in two hours 
and a half, and that the fence corps 
led on by Mr. Armstrong, in two eve- 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni. 


nings made a fence and staked it, near 
half a mile in length, and most of the 
rails were carried on the shoulders at 
least three hundred yards. You now see 
that we are not afraid of work — hard 
work. A little before sunset the bell 
calls us from the field, we enter the 
chapel for prayers, and immediately 
after take supper. We now have about 
half an hour for amusement, when the 
bell again calls to study. There is no 
place like Wake Forest at night. The 
stillness of the grave-yard possesses 
the whole outdoor establishment. It 
is now night — the pale face moon is 
shining beautifully, and all without is 
absolute solitude, — save when a soli- 

tary student is heard winding his way 
with a pitcher in his hand to the well 
- — soon again all is silence. O what a 
place for meditation ! — -how calm, how 
still, nothing but the gentle breeze 
stealing among the dead leaves as they 
hang upon the trees. But hark ! there 
sound the deep notes of the bell, — 'tis 
nine o'clock. Now listen — how soft 
and melodious are the tones of those 
flutes — how beautifully do they har- 
monize with those of the violin,— the 
sharp hissing sounds are from the dul- 
cimer. Moonlight and music ! — but 
enough. There's no place like Wake 
Forest ! Good night. 


—'80. Rev. B. H. Phillips has made 
arrangements for permanent residence 
in Reidsville. He will have charge of 
churches in the region adjacent. 

— '80. And at last the news has come 
that Mr. W. B. Waff has married one 
of the young ladies of Winston. The 
important event occurred on the 21st 
inst. Shameful that he did not let us 
know a word of it. Our kindest wishes 
attend him at every turn. 

— '80. H. Montague, Esq., was 
lately granted a letter of dismission 
from the Wake Forest Baptist church 
to join that at Wadesboro, N. C, 
where he has determined to open his 
office. He is a member of the special 
committee appointed at last Com- 
mencement on the interests of the 
Alumni Association. We hope to hear 
from him on this matter in our next 

— '56. We clip from the Charleston 
News and Courier of Oct. 31st the fol- 
lowing : 

"The Rev. L. H. Shuck, D. D., yes- 
terday closed his labors with the First 
Baptist Church of this city. His pas- 
torate, which began in 1869, extended 
through a period of thirteen years, 
and was the longest this church has 
had since the days of the Rev. Richard 
Furman, D. D., who died in 1825. 
Mr. Shuck has accepted the full charge 
of the Seamen's Bethel, under the pat- 
ronage of the Port Society as successor 
to the late Rev. W. B. Yates, whose as- 
sistant he had been for some time. 
This position is one of arduous labor 
and serious responsibility, and as the 
Port Society has had ample opportu- 
nity to judge of Mr. Shuck's zeal and 
efficiency, his selection is unquestion- 
ably a great compliment." 

— '75. The class of '75 will have two 
representatives in the next Legisla- 
ture—Mr. H. R. Scott in the Senate for 



Rockingham county, and Mr. J. Y. 
Phillips in the House for Stokes. This 
is Mr. Scott's second term. 

— 78. Of course Mr. W. E. Daniel 
did not expect election in Halifax, 
which gives so large a Republican 
majority. His nomination was, how- 
ever, a compliment deserved, and will 
probably increase his business. 

—'79. E. F. Aydlett, Esq., has law 
offices in Elizabeth City and Camden 
C. H. Though county-seats, they are 
only three or four miles distant. He 
is superintendent of public schools in 
Camden county. From a friend lately 
visiting in that section, we learn that 
he is doing a good business. 

— '52. Dr. John Mitchell, known 
and respected throughout North Caro- 
lina as " the beloved disciple," has ac- 
cepted the pastorate of the church at 
Asheville, made vacant by the resig- 
nation of Rev. A. C. Dixon. He will 
take charge in January. He was pas- 
tor of the same church during the 
years 1 875— ^79. A member of the 
church a portion of time tells us that 
" all denominations loved him," and 
that no objection to him was ever 
heard except the doubtful one on the 
part of other pastors that he paid 
freely friendly visits to the members 

of their congregations. He is still 
unmarried, but is said to enjoy being 
teased and talking about sweethearts. 

— '70. Rev. G. W. Greene, Princi- 
pal of Moravian Falls Academy, N. C, 
a full graduate of Wake Forest Col- 
lege and also of the Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary, is pastor of 
three Baptist churches and has charge 
of over one hundred scholars. He is 
one of the best laborers the Seminary 
has sent out. — Religions Herald. 

— Nowhere can it be seen more 
clearly how indispensable to the Bap- 
tists Wake Forest College is, than in 
their public meetings throughout the 
State. The men prominent as workers 
and speakers are all but invariably 
Wake Forest alumni. Take them away, 
and imagine the blank. We could not 
expect it to be otherwise. No boasting 
this, but the simple record of a fact for 
which the denomination at large is 
profoundly grateful. The rapid growth 
and development of the denomination 
necessitates constant and large addi. 
tions to this working force. The ad- 
ditions are to come out of the individ- 
ual churches ; and one of the special 
duties of every pastor is to find out 
and encourage the young men in his 
churches who ought to be in the Col- 

J^tows and J?fow Coastings, 



Corn, Cotton and Tobaeeo. 

W. B. DUNN, 

4— 12m Wake Forest College, N. C. 

Table of Contents. 

DECEMBER, 1882. 



War and the LateR evolution /EsCHYLUS. 146 

Seeing the Dark Side, B. L. Ank. 148 

Lights and Shadows in " Land of the Sky," O. S. Borne. 157 

A Vile Spectre, .... Novice. 164 


Halcyon Days, , W. F. M. 167 

Educational, 169 

Literary Gossip, 172 

Science Notes, 175 

In and About the College, _ _ , 179 

Wake Forest Alumni, _. 182 


Education Indispensable ;>T. H. Huxley. 185 

In the Forest, S. Reid. 186 

Life, Mrs. Barbauld. 187 

Good Company, ... Dr. Chas. Mackay. 187 

Deserted Good Words. 188 

Memory, James A. Garfield. 189 

Scraps, _ , 190 



We thank our friends, and the public, for 
the very liberal patronage bestowed on us the 
past season, and we shall endeavor to merit 
a continuance of the same. 


has been selected with great care, and we only 
ask you to examine it as we feel sure you will 
be pleased. 

Students will find it to their advantage to 
examine our stock of 

Gents' Furnishing Goods. 

Miles & ZeigWs celebrated shoes in all lines 
a specialty. Remember our motto : 

"The Best Goods for the Least Possible 

We deliver goods to any part of town free 
of charge. 


Very respectfully, 



Shelby Female College. 

Session begins September 20th, 1882, and closes 
June 21st, 1883. 

Board, washing, fu 1, etc.. and tuition in Col- 
lege Class, Fall Term, rive scholastic months, 
to January 31st, 1883 $87 50 

The same in Preparatory Cla«Sfs, to 

January 31s% 1S83 82 5 ) 

The same in Primary Classes 7o 00 

Boarders furnish one pair of sheets, one pair 
pillow-slips, toilet soaps, table napkins and 
two bags for soiled clothes 

Without, special contract, payments re- 
quired in September. Deposits must be made 
for purchase of books, sheet-music and art 


Fall Term, Five Scholastic Months, to January 
31st, 1883. 

Primary Department, $12 50; Preparatory ,» 
$20 ; College, $25. Incidentals, r<> be paid with 
first month's tuition, $1. 

For particulars be sure to apply for circular 

R. D. MALLARY, President, 





AND „ 

Blank Book Manufacturers, 

We have just received a lot of new type and are 
now prepared to print 


In the best style at low rates. 


If you wish anything in the way of Printing, 
Binding or Blank Books, address, 

Awards, broughton & co., 

Cor. Salisbury & Hargett Sts., 

Raleigh, N. C. 



A Sammer Vacation in Europe, 


By JOHN E. RAY, A. M. 

This highly interesting volume of 
over 200 pages, with a number of rich 
illustrations of places and customs in 
Europe, is now ready, and is to be had 
at the following remarkably low fig- 
ures : 

Bound in Paper, 50 Cents. 
Bound in Cloth, - $1 00 

Mailed to any address upon receipt 
of the price, and 10 cents for postage. 
Address all orders to 


4— 3m Raleigh, N. C. 


December, 1882, 




Senior Editor W. F. Marshall. 

Associate Editor D. M. Austin. 


Senior Editor E. S. Alderman. 

Associate Editor H. B. Folk. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all communications to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. 


That history repeats itself is mani- 
fest on taking a retrospective glance. 
Since the Christian Era, scarcely can 
we find a decade undisturbed by the 
clash of the sabre or the whistle of the 
bullet, the messenger of death. 

It is notable that wars of modern 
times are of shorter duration than 
those of ancient days. And why? 
Because the study of instruments and 
methods for the slaughter of man has 
been as much the work of science as 
the study of the planets, or of the 
science of medicine for the preserva- 
tion of life. The siege of ancient Troy, 
which lasted ten years, would to-day, 
as in the case of the recent bombard- 
ment of Alexandria, be terminated in 
so many weeks ; i. e., ten. Ironclads, 
equipped with hundred-pounders, 
would demolish a Troy or Alexandria 
more speedily than hundreds of 
wooden horses gorged with heroes. 
# When then we consider what vast 
mischief the inventors of gunpowder, 
of improved guns and other instru- 
ments of war have entailed upon the 
world, we are inclined to question 


whether it would not have been better 
for us had they never been born, al- 
though some would have us believe 
that improvement in the arts of war 
has lessened the horrors. And now, 
when civilization would seem almost 
to have reached its acme, another war 
must become the subject for the his- 
torian's pen. The strife between Eng- 
land and Egypt, which was active for 
about two months, has lately ended. 

England, like ancient Rome, has 
her finger in nearly every pie. Her 
treatment of Ireland has been like 
that of the Patricians to the Plebeians, 
in the embryonic state of Rome ; or, 
like that of " a big bull-dog to a little 
cur." And now we find that iron hand 
trying to yoke Egypt. 

Let us trace the cause, course, and 
result of the late Egyptian revolution, 
Egypt is a dependency of Turkey. In 
1863, Ismail Pascha became governor 
general; but with a greed like unto 
that of our monster third-term aspi- 
rant, he conceived the design of 
making himself king. He gained 
the sanction of the Sultan, with 



the stipulation that he would increase 
Egypt's tribute to Turkey, which be- 
came an extortionate sum. In addi- 
tion, on assuming kingly functions, he 
expended enormous sums of money 
on unproductive public works, on his 
palaces and on his harem. To meet 
these obligations, he had not only to 
gouge deeper into the treasury, but 
was forced to borrow money at a high 
rate of interest from England and 
France. * 

Then were planted the seeds which 
were to grow the thorns to stick into 
Egypt's side, and ultimately to ripen 
into an open rupture. Of course 
heavier taxes were imposed on the 
people] who were already writhing 
under the weight of the oppressor's 
heel. What wonder is it, then, that 
these evils, like bad blood in the sys- 
tem, should fester into a common 
sore ? 

In the course of time, Ismail being 
unable to meet the payments due the 
English and French bondholders, con- 
trollers were sent from England and 
France, into whose hands fell the purse- 
strings of the Egyptian government. 
The old saying is, " Money rules the 
world;" and again, " Wealth brings 
power." As the civil service fell into 
the hands of the English and French 
controllers, by degrees the government 
offices were all usurped by the Euro- 
peans ; and even the minor positions, 
for which they weare well salaried. 

Thus the tide of affairs flows on for 
some years, the king revelling in his 
harem, while foreigners, fleecing the 
people by all the intrigues peculiar to 
government officials, multiply and 
grow fat. At last, a short time ago, 
death claimed Ismail Pascha, and his 

son, the present Khedive, assumed his 

Now the curtain rises on a stage 
which discovers new characters and 
new scenes more decisive. Just here, 
we must keep in mind that Egypt had 
been, as a dependency of Turkey, gov- 
erned by Turkish rulers, while the 
population are Arabians. Well might 
our sympathies be enlisted for a peo- 
ple thus shackled. Can we wonder 
that they chafed under the harness? 
Their condition calls to our mind the 
days when the Israelites were held in 
bondage, in that same land, to the 
black-hearted Pharaoh. But I must 
not digress. 

There now appears on the stage a 
man who dreams of becoming a sec- 
ond Moses ; a man of comparative 
ability, an adroit statesman, and a sol- 
dier of strong calibre. Arabi Pascha 
is a self-made man, and by sheer force 
of merit, has won his way into the 
heaits of the people, and to the com- 
mand of the army. Fired with patri- 
otic feelings, akin to those which throb- 
bed in the breast of our Washington 
when fighting for the independence of 
the colonies, Arabi conceived the 
dazzling project of unyoking Egypt 
from foreign sway. His first move 
was a petition against the Turkish offi- 
cers ; and other demands followed. 
Upon the refusal of these demands, 
the Khedive's palace was surrounded 
by the army, and he was forced to 

Arabi then, dismissing'the ministers 
of the Khedive's ring, formed a new 
cabinet, making himself minister of 
war. He convoked the "Assembly of 
Notables," composed of the leading 
men of the various provinces, but only 



such as he thought favorable to the 
design of expelling the English and 
French controllers. Meanwhile, Eng- 
land and France are looking on with 
anxious eyes. But they take no deci- 
sive steps as yet. 

The next important event, and the 
one which hastened the crisis, was the 
discovery of an alleged conspiracy, in 
the month of April last, among the 
Circassian officers in the army, against 
Arabi. Forty of conspirators were 
apprehended and tried by a court- 
martial of his friends, who sentenced 
them to banishment into extreme 
Soudan, ''where the climate is so un- 
healthy that few exiles ever return." 

Upon the refusal of the Khedive to 
have this sentence executed in full, 
Arabi, seconded by the army, " the 
flower of Egypt," threatened to de- 
pose him. Now England and France 
strut out upon the arena and prepare 
to sustain the Khedive. They even 
handed over an ultimatum to the 
Khedive, ordering the banishment of 
Arabi himself. The feelings of the 
people growing warm, are fanned into 
a flame by Arabi. On June the nth, 
Arabi, with the army, denounced the 
government with its officers, and de- 
clared themselves enemies to fight to 
the bitter end. If they conquered they 
hoped to establish a government " of 
the people, for the people, and by the 
people" ; or, as was their cry, " Egypt 
for the Egyptians." 

Some tribes and soldiers thirsty 
beyond restraint for revenge, on that 
same day massacred a -large number 
of Europeans. Arabi proceeded to 
have the forts fortified. After a short 
time a dozen English ironclads an- 
chored at a respectful distance off the 

forts and volleyed their bombshells 
with deadly fire, dismantling all the 

The war has begun in earnest. The 
cloud, which in January seemed no 
larger than a man's hand, has made 
up into a storm which now thunders 
with- all its fury upon Alexandria, 
and the city is nearly levelled in ruins. 

Where is France at this juncture ? 
We would expect to hear the peal of 
her cannon too. No, she has grown 
lukewarm and withdrawn, leaving it 
all to England. " Her conduct on 
this occasion is like the boy who inci- 
ted another to join in fighting a com- 
mon enemy, and when the fight came 
on, ran behind the first fence and 
cried : " Go in, and thrash 'em sound, 
Bill ; I'm watchin' yer." With this, 
the principal maritime engagement, 
and several others on Egyptian soil, 
the forces of Arabi are growing dis- 

On the night of September the 12th, 
Arabi intrenched himself at Tel-el- 
Kebir, where he raised earthworks 
mounted with guns and surrounded 
with deep trenches. At Sir Carnet 
Wolseley's order the British forces, 
six miles away, broke camp and si- 
lently marched with solemn tread to 
the scene of bivouac of Arabi's troops. 
The runaway Egyptians, locked in 
slumber, were utterly routed. 

With this decisive victory, the war 
practically ended. It may appear to 
some that the Egyptian affairs, on 
that morning of defeat, were swamped. 
But many think that on that morning 
the sun rose to brighten a day which 
would be the dawn of their prosperity. 

Arabi Pascha escaped, but in course 
of time surrendered himself. He is 



now held, with other officers of his 
army, for trial as leaders of a rebellion. 
His is a lost cause, and we can no 
more censure his conduct than we can 
the late Irish uprisings against the 
landlords, or the rebellion of the Con- 
federates in '61. Some writers give 
disparaging accounts of him and his 
course, while others sympathize with 
him. But taking an impartial view of 
the condition of the people, of all their 
grievances and their relation to for- 
eign powers, who could condemn a 
spirit, with the colossal will, for un- 
dertaking to lead these people into a 
state of independence? Arabi has 
been denominated the Parnell of 
Egypt. These two men can well shake 
hands over their condition with re- 
spect to England, and over the blast- 
ing of their hopes and dreams. 

The saying uttered by our martyred 
Garfield, " After the battle of arms 
comes the battle of history," finds a 
place here ; and since " to the victor 
belong the spoils," the question now 
arises, What will England do with her 
new spoils? The following comes 

across the water: "In England a dis- 
position prevails to reap the fruits of 
the victory she won unaided, and to 
assume the suzerainty of the country 
with the control of the Suez Canal, 
and the right to garrison the two en- 
trances, and Ishmailia, the half-way 
station. It may be, however, that the 
antagonism of Russia and France will 
result in Egypt being made indepen- 
dent under a joint guarantee, as was 
done in the case of Belgium.". 

The opinion is given that this crisis 
in Egypt " is, in all probability, a link 
in the step of God's providence to 
carry out the restoration of the Jewish 
nationality," "and that the power lay 
much in England's hands to further 
this restoration ; so she is admonished 
to see her place on the page of 

As a severe storm in March often 
wipes out the cold tracks of winter 
and introduces spring, so may we hope 
that spring is dawning upon this hoary 
and reverend land, to whose inhabi- 
tants sweet freedom and advanced 
civilization are strangers. 


" Sweet are the uses of adversity." — As yon like it. 

Midnight on a steamboat plying the 
Mississippi River. The moon is shin- 
ing brilliantly, and casts weird, sombre 
shadows through the foliage along the 
banks. Save the constant puffing of 
the steamer, and the plashing of the 
water, as she holds on her course, all 
is still, and the night-hush rests in 
deep, mysterious silence on the mid- 

night air. 

But in the moonlight the 

figures of a man and woman may be 
discerned, as they are walking slowly 
on the deck. The moon hides her 
face behind a cloud, as though she has 
some premonition of the horrible scene 
about to ensue, and wishes to avoid 
it. Turning suddenly, the man gives 
the woman by his side a vigorous 
push, that sends her headlong into the 
black depths of the river below. There 



] s a shriek, and a heart-rending cry, as 
the treacherous waters close over her, 
and the boat speeds on her way as if 
no foul crime has polluted her deck. 
The deed is done at midnight, secure 
from human gaze, and the river tells 

no tales. 

# # * * # . * 

One spring afternoon, two young 
men were sauntering down the street 
in one of the large cities of a Gulf 
State. Their dress and general ap- 
pearance indicated that they belonged 
to the better class of society ; and their 
slow, careless gait betokened the fact 
that they were gentlemen of leisure. 
Robert Orden and Charles Weston 
were bosom friends, had recently grad- 
uated together from a prominent in- 
stitution of learning in the North, and 
the intimacy begun in boyhood had 
continued all through their college 
course. But like too many other 
youths of their class, they had never 
looked for a moment beyond the day 
of graduation. That was the acme of 
their expectations. This acme had 
finally been reached, and they began 
to realize the fact that they had only 
entered upon their career. But what 
should they do? Every occupation 
presented disadvantages. They con- 
cluded to wait for some pleasant 
employment to " turn up," imitating 
the example of the worthy Micawber. 
Meanwhile, they would have an easy 
time, and see the bright side of life. 
They had plenty of money, for Charles 
Weston's parents were extremely 
wealthy, and Robert Orden was in 
possession of the little sum of $20,000, 
left him at his father's death. 

As they were thus strolling along, a 
seedy-looking individual approached 

them, and in the usual manner of a 
tramp, asked them for some money. 
They sent him on his way rejoicing 
over the prospect of a good supper 
and a comfortable resting-place ; and 
having nothing of particular interest 
to claim their attention at the time, 
the tramp furnished them a theme for 

After they had commented on the 
hard lot of tramps, and had expressed 
a curiosity to know how so many of 
them obtained a subsistence, Robert 
amazed his companion by abruptly 
remarking: " Say, Charlie, seeing that 
tramp has suggested a new train of 
thought to me, and I have just about 
made up my mind to try that sort of 
a life awhile for myself." 

"Why, Bob," said his friend, "have 
your senses departed from you ? Do 
you really mean what you say?" 

" Certainly. Why shouldn't I ? I 
have plenty of money for the present, 
and no one but myself to look out for. 
And besides, I am longing for a bit of 
adventure. This dull, prosy way of 
spending my time doesn't suit my 

"I'll bet you $1,000 you wouldn't 
try it." 

"Agreed, by Jove!" exclaimed 

" Well, I am not the one to back 
out, so that's the bargain. What shall 
be the terms of the wager?" 

" For me to leave here to-morrow 
morning at 10, without any money, or 
anything of the kind, and reach New 
York the best way I can in four weeks 
exactly. We can leave our checks for 
th e amount with some third party, and 
then I am ready to be off. But come, 
the more I think about it, the more 




eager I am to start. Do you like the 
conditions ?" 

" Oh yes," said Charles ; and so the 
matter was settled. 

The next morning, promptly at the 
time agreed upon, they, together with 
a few other friends, assembled at the 
City Hall, whence the start was to be 
made. These friends had been told of 
Robert's foolish freak, as they deemed 
it, and had endeavored to persuade 
him to abandon his design, but he was 
firm. He was fascinated with the 
novelty of the undertaking. So, with 
nothing save the clothes^ he wore, he 
started on his long tramp. It was 
with some misgivings that Robert's 
friends said " Good-bye," for they 
knew the perilous nature of the enter- 
prise, but his cheerful flow of spirits 
gave them reassurance. 

Let us now leave them, and turn 
our attention to Robert Orden, as he 
wends his way along the crowded 
streets of the city. Although he had 
been very hopeful as he parted from - 
his friends, his spirits began to sink, as 
he realized more fully the long tramp 
before him. But he reasoned that it 
was foolish for him to entertain such 
thoughts. Suppose he should win, he 
would be $1,000 the richer, and the 
experience gained in the meantime 
would be invaluable to him, and he 
yearned for adventure. He had min- 
gled only with the gay and wealthy ; 
now he wished to see the darker side 
of the picture, to learn how the friend- 
less and poor dragged out their exist- 
ence. If he should fail to reach New 
York in four weeks, he would still 
have the benefit of the experience and 
adventure; and, besides, he cared very 
little about the money. 

After a short time, he began to feel 
hungry, and started into a shop to 
purchase some fruits, when he sud- 
denly recollected the painful fact that 
he had no money. This was the first 
unpleasant occurrence. As he walked 
along the street, he fancied the hurry- 
ing throng looked at him and saw he 
was a tramp. He quickened his pace, 
however, and determined to go with- 
out any dinner for that day, as he could 
not beg, though he knew this must 
soon be done. But his sensitive na- 
ture shrank from this, as one shrinks 
from something unpleasant, though 
knowing that it is inevitable. 

All the afternoon he trudged along, 
often on the point of giving up, but he 
nerved himself, and went forward. 
Towards dark he found himself near a 
small village, foot-sore and weary, and 
determined to ask for some supper, 
for the imperative demands of nature 
were about to overcome his sensitive- 
ness. He sauntered up to a small 
cottage, and his knock at the door 
was answered by a neat-looking 
woman. Though it cost him an effort 
to conquer his pride, he asked for 
something to eat in a very pleasant 
tone. The woman looked at him in 
utter surprise, evidently wondering 
how one of his appearance could be a 
tramp, but she said : " Very sorry we 
can't help you, but it is a custom of 
ours never to encourage tramps. So 
good- morning;" and she shut the door 
in his face. 

Poor Robert ! As he walked away, 
an overwhelming sense of desolation 
came over him. He then realized for 
the first time his insignificance, for 
heretofore he had thought of himself 
as an important factor in the world. 


But now these dreams were rudely dis- 
pelled. And Robert Orden is only 
the type of a wide-spread class of peo- 
ple. For a young man to realize that 
this earth would move along as se- 
renely without his presence, as it does 
with him, let him mingle with all 
classes of people. Just put your finger 
in the ocean ; withdraw it, and look 
for the hole. The world of living, 
moving men around you is the ocean, 
the hole is yourself. 

But Robert was too hungry to the- 
orize long in this style, so he deter- 
mined to try another house, and was 
successful this time. 

He knew that sooner or later he 
would have to become accustomed to 
hardships: he found a barn, and 
slept that night in the hay as sweetly 
as ever before. 

The next morning he procured 
breakfast in another part of the vil- 
lage, and the kind woman of the house, 
doubtless pitying the forlorn condition 
of the young tramp, gave him, in ad- 
dition, enough food for his next meal. 
For this Robert thanked her cordially, 
and started off with lighter spirits. 

But here was one day gone, and 
only twenty-five miles left behind. 
New York could not be reached in 
four weeks at that rate ; so he deter- 
mined to try to get a ride on some 
train. Taking the railroad track, he 
walked along, hoping that a north- 
bound train would pass that way very 
soon. After a walk of two hours, he 
reached a water-tank, and decided to 
wait there. He soon heard in the dis- 
tance the rumbling of wheels, then a 
whistle, and with a rush and a roar, a 
heavily loaded freight train drew up 


to the tank. This was his opportunity. 
He saw no empty car, but deter- 
mined to wait until the train started, 
then seize hold of the iron ladder at 
the end of a car, and stay there to pre- 
vent detection. In a short time the 
engine began to pufT and pull the 
heavy train along, and Robert jumped 
to the ladder, and holding on the best 
he could, managed to secure a com- 
fortable position. " Better than walk- 
ing," thought he, as the train whirled 
along past farms, over rivers, and 
through forests. Once his foot slip- 
ped, and down, down, under the crush- 
ing wheels he fancied he was falling ; 
but making a superhuman effort, he 
caught one of the lowest rounds of 
the ladder, and was saved, shudder- 
ing at the thought of the horrible 
death to whieh he had been so near. 
Ah, how many a poor fellow comes to 
his death under the cruel wheels ! A 
slip and a shriek! the train rushes on, 
crushing to jelly a human form, and 
the soul of the tramp is ushered into 
the presence of its Maker. Some one 
finds a mangled corpse ; a farce in the 
way of an inquest is held, and the 
body of the tramp is laid under the 
sod, unknelled, unsung, and ofttimes 

But Robert was aroused from this 
revery by the sudden stopping of the 
train at a small station. A big, burly 
brakeman came by, and seeing him, 
proceeded to pull him down, and was 
about to administer a kicking, when 
the conductor came up and ordered 
the brakeman to release him. Robert 
felt profoundly- grateful to the con- 
ductor, but longed for the strength 
and a good opportunity to thrash the 
brakeman. Soon the train moved off, 



and he was left to himself. It being 
now near nightfall, he concluded to 
try to get some supper, and a good 
barn where he might sleep for the 
night. He was fortunate enough in 
getting some cold food, and while 
wandering around, spied a fire near 
the railroad track, and proceeded in 
that direction, in the hope of rinding 
a resting place. He was gratified at 
seeing some men around the fire, whom 
he at once recognized as tramps. 
Hitherto, Robert had held himself 
aloof from the members of the fra- 
ternity whom he had encountered, but 
he was beginning to feel less and less 
aversion to them, and now walked up 
to the group of men without any hesi- 
tation. They received him with cor- 
diality, and invited him to partake of 
their supper, and though he had al- 
ready eaten, the cool night air whetted 
his appetite, and he partook of the 
humble fare with a relish. His com- 
panions asked him various questions, 
and looked at him with evident curi- 
osity, for his appearance was better 
than that of the members of their or- 
der whom they usually saw. Robert 
concealed the reason of his being a 
tramp, but told them he was on his 
way to New York. 

" Why, I'm on my way North, too," 
said a man in the group. " Suppose 
we go along together; I might help 
you some, too, for you don't look like 
one who had been on the path long.". 

Robert thanked him for his kind 
offer, and accepted it. He confessed 
that this was a new experience for 
him, but volunteered no more infor- 

In the morning he became better 
acquainted with his new friends, but 

after breakfast they separated, Robert 
and the man already mentioned going 
together. There was something un- 
der the rough exterior of the tramp 
that peculiarly interested Robert Or- 
den, and he felt drawn to him. This 
tie was strengthened when the tramp 
told the story of his life — of a happy 
home and a loving mother. He said 
he received a collegiate education, and 
had then secured an excellent situa- 
tion in a bank ; the affections of a lov- 
ing girl had been plighted to him, and 
with pride and joy he had looked for- 
ward to the day when she would be 
his bride. But the demon of gambling 
had entered his soul, and one night, in 
a moment of desperation, he staked 
some of his employer's money at the 
gaming-table, after losing all of his 
own. This, too, was lost, and detec- 
tion and ruin stared him in the face, 
for to replace the money was impossi- 
ble. He was convicted of theft and 
sentenced to State's prison. This 
blow almost killed his widowed mother, 
and in his dark hour of despair, she 
alone was faithful, for the maiden who 
had so fondly trusted him, now spurned 
him with contempt. As he spoke of 
his mother, the tears suffused his eyes, 
and his voice trembled with emotion. 
She died while he was in prison, and 
when his sentence expired, he dreaded 
to return to his old home, of which so 
many bitter memories haunted him ; 
and friendless and lone, he adopted 
this nomadic life, and for three years 
had been an outcast on the face of the 

" But," said the man, who had given 
his name as Alfred Hixford, " the re- 
collection of my mother is ever pres- 
ent with me, and as soon as I can, I 


intend to give up this wandering life, 
and engage in some useful occupation. 
If the spirits of loved ones who have 
died watch over us who are on earth, 
as I believe they do, my mother's 
spirit is grieved at my shiftless way of 

For several days they made their 
way along together, riding in cars 
whenever they could ; at other times 
walking, the attachment between them 
growing stronger by association. Rob- 
ert felt that Hixford's story of his life 
was true, for there was about him that 
influence which always accompanies 
sincerity. He grew more and more 
into sympathy with the unfortunate 
man, and under the threadbare gar- 
ments of the tramp, he discovered a 
true and noble heart. 

Hixford then proposed that they 
should leave the railroad and go across 
the country, for the train officers were 
becoming very strict and vigilant, and 
it was almost impossible to get a ride. 
He said that they would reach another 
railroad about a hundred miles dis- 
tant. They were now in the moun- 
tains, and the people in the farm- 
houses which they passed being very 
kind, there was little difficulty in 
obtaining food and shelter. The 
mountaineers were evidently more un- 
used to the sight of tramps than most 
of those with whom our travellers had 
dealt. Robert had now become ac- 
customed to walking, and with very 
little fatigue could walk a long dis- 
tance in a day. He was getting on 
famously ; for only a week of his time 
had expired, and he congratulated 
himself that he would reach New York 
before the appointed time, and win 
the wager. 


As they were walking along the 
mountain road one day, an uncouth- 
looking person, riding a fine bay horse, 
met them, and of him they inquired 
the direction to a village, which Hix^ 
ford said was not far distant. The 
information was given, and the man 
then ventured some further remarks, 
and finally said: "Ye look tired. 
Don't ye want ter buy a hoss? .Mine 
is a likely creetur, but I need the 
money, and I'd let ye have 'im cheap." 
Either would have been glad to buy 
the horse at the low price at which he 
was offered, but neither had any 
money. Finally, Hixford said he had 
a watch, which he had carried with 
him for some time, and though he was 
loth to part with it, he offered it to 
the man in exchange for the horse. 
This offer was readily accepted, and 
dismounting, the man took the watch 
and transferred the horse to our trav- 

" Now," said Hixford, "we will sell 
the horse in the village, and perhaps 
get enough money to carry us both to 
New York in proper style." 

Towards nightfall they reached a 
farm-house, and Hixford proposed 
that Robert should stop there and get 
supper, and, if possible, lodging, while 
he would go on to the village and sell 
the horse, and that Robert should join 
him there the next morning. The gen- 
erous farmer gave Robert a good sup- 
per, and also a place to sleep; and when 
Robert was about to be off the next 
morning, told him to wait and take 
breakfast with the family, and he 
would then carry him as far as the 
village in his wagon. The good-hearted 
housewife gave him a warm breakfast, 
and Robert thought he had never 



tasted so delicious food as she set 
before him. 

As they drove into the village, the 
shouts of men could be heard, and 
on approaching nearer they saw a 
crowd gathered, evidently under in- 
tense excitement. Soon they per- 
ceived the cause of it all, for a man in 
the crowd ascended a tree, threw a 
rope over a large limb, and quicker 
than the time it takes to describe it, 
a hundred strong hands seized hold 
of one end, and at the other a human 
form was dangling in mid air ! Robert 
and his companion were horror- 
stricken, but imagine the emotions of 
the former when he came near enough 
to recognize the murdered man as his 
friend Hixford! The explanation of 
his sad fate was easily made. A horse 
had been stolen from a neighboring 
farmer, and the horse which Hixford 
had offered for sale in the village was 
recognized as the one. He was a 
stranger, and circumstantial evidence 
was against him. In all the calendar 
of crime, Judge Lynch recognizes no 
blacker one than horse-stealing, and 
the doom of the luckless man was 
sealed as soon as the horse was recog- 
nized. His earnest assertions of his 
innocence, and the protestations of a 
few of the calmer men in the settle- 
ment were useless. When revenge 
and blind fury sway the minds of the 
mob, reason is of no avail. Thus the 
life of an innocent man was sacrificed 
to the passions of a mob, and the spirit 
of Alfred Hixford took its flight, let 
us hope, to join that of his gentle 
mother. His body was rudely cut 
down, and thrust into a shallow grave, 
and there, on the bleak hills, he " sleeps 
the sleep that knows no waking." 

As the tiger's thirst for blood is in- 
flamed by the tasting of one drop, so 
the insatiate fury of the mob could 
not be appeased by the sacrifice of one 
life. Report had said that two men 
had been seen with the horse. Here 
was another stranger. Robert was 
roughly dragged from the wagon, and 
before the farmer could say anything, 
the rope was around his neck, and 
soon, instead of one, there would have 
been two corpses hanging from that 
tree. But the farmer was the most in- 
fluential man in the settlement, and 
when his voice was heard, the fury of 
the mob was checked. He told them 
that Robert was innocent, and ordered 
them to release him. Sullenly they 
obeyed. But for the farmer's timely 
interference, there would have been 
another neglected grave on that bleak 
hillside. But the kind farmer told 
Robert that it was not safe for him to 
remain ; so he started off, after bidding 
his benefactor farewell with heart-felt 
gratitude. As he passed out of 
the village, he took a last, lingering 
look at the body of his friend, and 
could not restrain the tears as he 
thought of this sad end of a sad life. 

He trudged along with a heavy 
heart, for the events of the morning 
had deeply affected him. What changes 
had he passed through during the 
short time since he commenced his 
tramp ! That careless indifference had 
now disappeared ; now he could sym- 
pathize with the poor and friendless 
in their miseries, for he had seen some- 
thing of the dark side of human life. 

As night came on, he found himself 
alone on a mountain road, without 
food or shelter ; and, in his despair, he 
almost wished he had shared the fate 



of his friend. Cheerless and supper- 
less, he slept that night by the road- 
side, a stone for his pillow, and the 
open sky for a covering; but the next 
morning he found a house, and was 
given a good breakfast. 

On the second day he reached the 
railroad, and boarded the first north- 
bound freight train. Finding a box- 
car partially filled with bars of iron, he 
clambered into that to escape detec- 
tion ; and as the train moved along, 
being exhausted, he fell asleep. How 
long he slept, he knew not. A sense 
of pressure upon his chest awakened 
him, and he realized his situation. He 
had gone to sleep in the rear part of 
the car, and while the train was as- 
cending a steep grade, the heavy iron 
had moved towards him. He strove 
to release himself, but could not, for 
the iron already held him fast. The 
pressure grew more intense. He could 
hear the engine slowly toiling up the 
long mountain grade. Would it never 
reach the top? Harder and harder 
pressed the ponderous mass, and he 
knew he was being crushed to death ; 
and death in such a form ! Sharp 
pains began to shoot along his quiv- 
ering nerves ; his brain grew sick and 
dizzy ; a horrible blackness overspread 
everything; he fainted, and knew no 
more. But the train was by this time 
at the top of the grade, and the weighty 
iron moved toward the front end of 
the car, and released Robert ; none too 
soon, however, for in a short time he 
would have been past help. When 
the crushing pressure was relieved, he 
regained consciousness, and as soon as 
possible freed himself from his peril- 
ous position, though much bruised by 
the weight of the iron upon him. 

No special incident occurred for 
two days longer, and at the end of 
that time he found himself in a busy, 
bustling city. Forlorn and weary, he 
wended his way to the depot of one 
of the railroads leading out of the city, 
in the hope of finding a way to ride. 
Among the throng waiting for the 
passenger train, almost due, he noticed 
especially a lovely young woman, ac- 
companied by a man of handsome ap- 
pearance, but in whose eyes there 
lurked a treacherous gleam. Robert 
wondered why he noticed these two 
persons so particularly. Though he 
could not account for his interest in 
them, he found himself looking at 
them when he could do so without be- 
ing observed. In the crowd he noticed 
a boy dressed in tattered clothes, who 
also seemed to be watching the couple 
with the keen eye of a hawk. Soon 
the train rolled up to the depot. There 
was a rush, and Robert noticed the 
lady and her escort going on board 
with the throng. But just as she was 
ascending the steps, a small package 
rolled from her hand and fell to the 
platform. In an instant Robert had 
picked it up, and restored it to the 
owner with a graceful bow. She 
smiled, and spoke her thanks. Robert 
thought he had never heard such a 
voice from human lips. The train 
rolled off, carrying her with it, and he 
was left alone to his thoughts. But 
that face was photographed upon his 
memory. He tried to forget her; for 
why should he be thinking about a 
stranger, whom he expected never to 
see again, even if she did have a sweet 
face? But the more he tried to shake 
off this feeling, the more it clung to 
him, and despite all his efforts, visions 


of that lovely face floated before 

Turning around, he saw the boy 
whom he had noticed in the throng a 
short time before. A few casual 
remarks on either side led to a con- 
versation, in the course of which Rob- 
ert found out that the boy's name was 
Jack, and that he was a tramp, on his 
way to New York. Jack said he was 
at the depot in hopes of stealing a ride 
on a freight train. When Robert told 
him his destination, the boy suggested 
that they should go along together ; 
" for," said he, " you will find that I 
know more about tramping than you 
think, though I do look young." 

Robert wondered what had led one 
apparently so youthful to adopt the 
vagabond's life. He perceived a gen- 
tleness in him altogether foreign to 
•the average tramp, and this gentleness 
soon won Robert to him. 

In a short time they succeeded in 
boarding a north-bound freight train, 
and the boy proved to be quite an 
adept at escaping the notice of the 
train officers. 

" Tell me, Jack," said Robert, after 
they were comfortably settled in an 
empty car, and were being carried 
along at a rapid rate, " how long are 
you going to stay in New York, and 
where did you come from last?" 

" I'll stay there as long as I can get 
anything to eat, I reckon, and then I'll 
move on somewhere else. I've been 
down South lately." 

" But why are you going as far as 
New York without stopping on the 
way t 

" Oh, that's a good place," was the 
off-hand reply. 

" Where do you spend most of your 

" 'Most anywhere. Just wherever it 
suits me best." 

" Do you like the tramp life, Jack? 
Don't you intend to give it up some 
time?" asked Robert. 

" I don't like it very much. Maybe 
I'll quit it some time, but not now;" 
and Robert thought he could detect a 
change in the boy's countenance. 

"Jack," Robert said, after a mo- 
ment's pause, " you saw that lovely 
young lady and the man with her in 
the station a short time ago. Do you 
know anything about them, or where 
they are going now ?" 

" Yes, I saw them. They are going 
to New York. I know something 
about them, for I've often seen them 
both before. But there is something 
very sad to me connected with every 
thought of them, and I know you will 
spare my feelings, and not insist on 
my telling you about them." 

Robert's delicacy prevented his 
making any more inquiries, though his 
curiosity was greatly increased now, 
and he felt a greater desire than ever 
to know something of this girl, whose 
image was so indelibly fixed upon his 
mind. Evidently? there was some 
mystery connected with the girl and 
the man ; for what had caused the 
tremor in the. boy's voice, and the 
shade of sadness on his face, as he 
spoke of them ? 

" But," continued Jack, " some day 
I will tell you all about them, and 
then you will understand" — 

That sentence was never finished. 
Scarcely had the words fallen from 
his lips, when there was a sudden 
shock and a crash, and then the terri- 



ble truth flashed upon them — there 
had been a collision. The freight on 
which they were had been run into 
by a passenger train. Robert found 
himself pinned under the heavy debris, 
unable to move. His strenuous efforts 
availed nothing. He looked around for 
Jack, but could not see him. Help- 
less, and with a deadening pain, he 
was doomed to lie still, and hear the 
agonizing screams of mothers and 
wives, and the piteous moans of the 
wounded and dying. Soon little 
tongues of flame began to burst 
forth from the wreck, and he knew 

the debris was on fire. The flames 
grew larger and came nearer to him. 
Horror of horrors! Roasted alive! 
To lie still, unable to move, and let 
the flames devour him ! With almost 
superhuman effort, Robert attempted 
to free himself again, but in vain; for 
the heavy timber held him fast. Nearer 
and nearer crept the flames, until he 
could feel their hot breath fan his face. 
Can nothing save him ? Nature could 
endure the terrible strain no longer, 
and he swooned away. 

(To be continued^) 


Oh ! there is sweetness in the mountain air, 
And life, that bloated ease can never hope to 
share. — Byron. 

" The author," says James Russell 
Lowell, " should consider how largely 
the art of writing consists in knowing 
what to leave in the inkstand." This 
remark contains wisdom with respect 
to description of natural "scenery, as 
well as the more doubtful work of 
metaphysical speculation. Heeding 
this caution, I should leave untouched 
a score of the most attractive places 
in the sky-land scenery of our State, 
becoming so interesting to the South- 
ern people ; for it were presumption 
in me to add another pen-stroke to 
such natural beauties as have already 
been drawn by more skilful hands. 
For attempting the present sketch, 
however, I offer no apology, and would 
claim the novelty of the objects with 
which it has to deal, for the most part, 
as my chief recommendation. 

A party of ladies and gentlemen, 
some from rural quietude and some 
from the bustling town, we went 
through the county of Haywood and 
up the eastern branch of Pigeon River 
a number of miles, and made our ren- 
dezvous at Rock House Farm, which 
connects the upper extremity of the 
beautiful Pigeon Valley with the wild 
mountains that surround the river's 
source. The estate embraces some 
four thousand acres lying in the valley 
and skirting the mountain sides. The 
residence is a plain log cottage, ten- 
anted by rude, unlettered occupants, 
but not without manifest traits of hu- 
man kindness. The farm takes its 
name from Rock House, a huge, pro- 
jecting rock somewhat house-like, 
which stands near the roadside, and 
offers the hunter and sportsman shel- 
ter from storm and rain. 

After a night's repose, one party 
that was intent on sight-seeing, as well 



as on angling for the famous trout, 
decided to go the first day to Shin- 
ing Rock, on the mountain top some 
six miles away. A narrow pathway 
made by stock rangers leads up the 
ascent, and is bordered by ferns so 
beautiful and luxuriant as to lend un- 
wonted charms to pedestrian travel. 
The soil, fertile as the valley of the 
Mississippi, sustains a growth of forest 
trees as fine as can be found in the 
Southern States. One notable poplar 
that was hollow had fallen. I went into 
the trunk and stood erect in the cavity, 
leaving still, I suppose, a foot of the 
hull both above and below me. 

Climbing the mountain for six long 
miles, with but few places where one 
could find safe repose, was a Hercu- 
lean task. Honor to the heroism of 
ladies who make the attempt ! Those 
who have made the ascent have cause 
for self-congratulation ; for only a few 
of their sex have performed that ex- 
ploit during the last century. An oc- 
casional look down into the gorge be- 
low and eastward toward the majestic 
Pisgah gave inspiration for renewed 
strides upward. We had made about 
two miles up Roland's Ridge when we 
came to Maple Spring, with its cold 
and sparkling water gurgling out from 
beneath a stately tree whose name it 
bore, ,and shaded by overhanging 
boughs. One of the party, a bright- 
faced, blue-eyed maiden, here re- 
marked with no little naivete, that she 
seemed to be getting blind from fa- 
tigue. A fit place it was for nymph 
and naiad; and it was not unnatural 
that Cupid, too, should lurk there on 
such an occasion, and seek to exert 
his blinding influences upon more than 
one victim. 

Under the guiding of our cicerone 
we at length reached Old Butte, on 
whose treeless and grass-covered sum- 
mit a sumptuous dinner was spread ; 
but for our eyes nature had provided 
a greater feast. From the ridge-like 
top there projects out over a deep 
chasm below a huge and rugged mass 
of sandstone that gives the scene a 
striking resemblance to the well-known 
Caesar's Head. The general view is 
incomparably grand. A short dis- 
tance away stands, like a sentinel, the 
conical-shaped Cold Mountain, and on 
the opposite side the great Pigeon 
Balsam, that darkens the very atmos- 
phere with its ebon-like forest of firs. 
Toward the northeast rises the cloud- 
capped Pisgah in superlative dignity, 
and still further on in the hazy dis- 
tance the imperial Black, glorying in 
his pre-eminence and dominion. Far 
in the east is seen the Blue Ridge, 
dimly marking the line between 
heaven and earth. Across a miniature 
world of mountains, in the northwest, 
rises the Great Smoky Range, that 
draws the boundary of the State- 
From here, also, some three miles 
away, we see the Devil's Looking- 
Glass, a massive, perpendicular slab of 
gray granite, over which pours a thin 
sheet of water that makes the reflec- 
tion like a mirror. An uncongenial 
place, one would think this, for old 
Satan to see himself, a place where 
the glory and majesty of the Almighty 
are seen, where everything, dipped in 
the empyrean, looks more celestial 
than earthly. It seems that his Sa- 
tanic Majesty would blush to see him- 
self amid such glory, and flee as he did 
from the celestial mount after his de- 
feat. But, alas! he sometimes sees 



himself in the most etherial places and 
looks at his image in mirrors that were 
thought to reflect only the imperson- 
ation of Beauty and Innocence. To 
the right, and a little beyond this, is 
St. John's Rock, a grand perpendicu- 
lar precipice which makes a real Tar- 
peian Rock. This would be a fit 
place for Satan, after getting a 
glimpse of his ugliness in the Looking. 
Glass, to leap off into the eternal 
abyss. To the left of St. John's Rock 
a few yards a white looking shaft pro- 
jects upward like a monument. It 
seems a kind of mausoleum erected by 
nature over the Tarpeian slain that 
were supposed to have been victim, 
ized in earlier periods of geological 
formation. The sublimity of this 
scene was intensified and rendered un- 
utterable from the circumstance that, 
just as we saw it, on the mountain top 
was settling a dark cloud, below which 
the sun was shining in full lustre upon 
the rock. No poet's pen or painter's 
brush could give any adequate de- 
scription of the enrapturing scene. 
Nor could one look on such magnifi- 
cence without feeling 

— "the wild blood start 
In its mystic vein." 

From this place we proceeded down 
a gentle slope and over a beautiful 
plateau, sparsely set with trees and 
covered with a luxuriant grass of very 
fine texture, some twelve inches high, 
till we reached a thickly grown forest 
of firs. Though mid-day, it was like 
passing through the shades of ap- 
proaching night. The darkened at- 
mosphere produced a sense of gloom- 
An exquisitely tender touch of melan- 
choly put the spirit of man in com- 

munion with nature. Not a bird note 
or any other sound waved in the air. 
Now and then was seen an occasional 
sign where old bruin had left his im- 
press. Everything was fringed and 
tapestried and overspread with moss, 
till our walking was like gentle foot- 
steps on velvet carpeting. Such utter 
profusion of moss, in texture, variety, 
and different shades of color, I never 
saw before. More than half a dozen 
species were observed, varying in color 
from that of the darkest green to that 
of the dusty miller, and in kind from 
the softest plush to long, vine-like 
specimens. I saw a young lady 
gather a piece a yard long, the same 
size from one end to the other, having 
smaller branches shooting out at every 
few inches, and make it into a beauti- 
ful wreath around her neck and 
shoulders. Old logs that have lain for 
half a century are literally covered up 
with moss; tree-roots above ground 
are wrapped in the same drapery, till 
they make a scene more picturesque 
than imagination can weave. We had 
not gone far in this forest of firs and 
moss-covered region till we came to 
Balsam Spring, with its ice-cold water 
filling an elliptical basin four by six 
feet and eighteen inches deep. The 
Spring, too, is imbedded in moss ; the 
bottom is inlaid and the sides most 
elegantly fringed. This entire region 
is encrusted with a heavy layer of 
humus a foot deep, that would enrich 
many sandy acres of the East. 

Hence we continue to our des- 
tination and ultimate height, reach- 
ing it through a pathway overarched 
with laurel — that fit emblem of glory — 
which compels us to bow meekly to 



dame Nature. From the shades of 
such a clustering growth of rhododen- 
dra we emerge into the sun-light on 
the naked summit, and see Shining 
Rock gleaming in the distance. How 
resplendent in glory ! It were no more 
possible to picture the scene than to 
paint the sunbeams themselves. We 
approach and look on a sight of which 
our imagination had formed only a 
faint conception. Shining Rock on 
the very summit of the mountain by 
the same name, is a massive ledge of 
quartz, of marble whiteness, inclining 
to the west and overlooking the im- 
mense gorge through which flows the 
head-water of the western branch of 
Pigeon. A gigantic ledge of white 
flint untouched by forest trees of any 
kind, lying in sublime isolation some 
six thousand feet in elevation, now 
glittering in the sun beams, and now 
brushed by a fleecy cloud, presents a 
spectacle unrivalled in earthly splen- 
dor. Lost in rapture, one imagines 
himself standing on a spur of the Ap- 
penines, in the midst of the marble 
mines of Carrara, where the quarry- 
man goes up hundreds and thousands 
of feet into the sky after material for 
statuary and palaces. The main ledge 
is broken and separated into three 
great masses. The whole rock is more 
or less shattered by lightning strokes, 
till great blocks are broken off and 
rolled down into the chasm below. 
When broken the surface is flecked 
and shows a beautiful metallic lustre. 
Much of the rock has seams in it, 
through which electric currents 
passed long before the red man's ar- 
row was pointed with the broken frag- 
ments. It has stood the battling of 
the elements for ages, and will still 

endure till the last trump of the arch- 
angel shall sound. 

The most interesting feature is the 
Monumental House, a real " poem in 
stone," which forms part of the highest 
one of the three great stone blocks. 
In architectural likeness it is fashioned 
somewhat on the Hudson River villa 
style. The south side is some thirty 
feet in perpendicular height, and about 
the same in length, cut smooth as if 
it had been done with the chisel. The 
front shows the outlines of a house in 
admirable distinctness. A handsome 
balcony, with solid balustrade at one 
end, adorns the front. A well bal- 
anced observatory rises over the cen- 
tre, near which and a little below pro- 
jects up a plain-cut chimney-flue. Just 
back of the main body of the house 
stand two large square blocks, like 
rooms separated from the main one, 
and from each other by straight nar- 
row corridors deftly made. These 
have one side in line with the main 
structure. The whole design and fin- 
ish show Nature to be no mean archi- 
tect, and she may have constructed 
this as a residence for some sylvan 
race prior to the advent of man. 

From the fact that few observers 
had hitherto visited this place, the 
present writer was first to dis- 
cover and give " local habitation and a 
name " to Monumental House, and it is 
to be supposed that for other eyes there 
yet hide undetected beauties. Though 
it was under a mid-summer sun, yet 
the surface of the rock remained cold 
as an iceberg. And as I sat on a little 
open veranda of this unique edifice 
and held an umbrella over one whose 
flushed cheek keeps my heart warm 
yet, her eyes grew more lustrous as 



she glanced at me and then, pointing 
a few yards away to a flat, moss-coated 
rock, shaded by a beautiful balsam, 
said : " I can imagine that I see there 
a pretty maiden sitting in careless 
mood, whiling away the hour reading 

Viewed under different aspects, this 
rocky scene affords perpetual delight. 
In some places the surface of the rock 
is encrusted with a slight coating of 
weather stain, through which hundreds 
of small spots still remain white, and 
at a short distance present the ap- 
pearance of a sprinkle of snow-flakes 
on a brown soil. Sated with beauty 
of her form and with love for Nature's 
self, we began the long descent, which 
added little novelty to what we had 
seen, but was made more romantic by 
the occasion of a heavy rain-storm that 
did violence to the poetic fires that 
were enkindled, and sent us saturated 
to our shelter. 

To rise early is no part of my creed. 
Not all the witchery that can be 
wrought by poetry itself into the most 
transcendent sun-rise could tempt me 
up to see it. But yielding the point 
for once only (I hope no one in the 
future will call this into plea as a prec- 
edent), I arose and joined the party 
betimes on the next morning, for a 
full day's service in another sport. 
As if displeased by the irreverence of 
thrusting ourselves into her presence 
at such an unexpected hour, the morn- 
ing looked on us with a disdainful 
frown. The entire valley was wrapped 
in heavy fog. But it was pleasing, 
even thus soon, to stand by the river, 
voicing " music of many waters," and 
see the gray mist rise from the surface 
and float away from the approaching 

| sun ; or to scare from his secret covert 
j the wild bird that rose with the mist 
I and shook from his crest the early 
| dew. 

Fishing tackle all arranged, we sal- 
j lied out to test the whims of fortune 
| in what still to our untried hopes had 
the greatest fascination — angling for 
| mountain trout. "A good place to 
I fish" is what we sought. But some 
one interrupted to quote Mark Twain 
as saying, that you can find a good 
place to fish anywhere, but the secret 
lies in finding a good place to catch 
'cm. Such a place is Crawford's Creek, 
a leaping, laughing streamlet that 
pours its waters down, down over a 
hundred cascades, to join the on-rush- 
ing current of the river; and thither 
we went. Along . this stream we 
walked enchanted by sounds too mu- 
sical to be wedded even to poetry. 
The entire alcove was filled with these 
reverberations, not loud and boister- 
ous, but struck on more tuneful keys. 
Truly it is not the roar of Niagara,, giv- 
ing out continuous peals from one great 
central orchestra, that charms us most ; 
but the commingling of varied notes — 
the gentle rill, the babbling cascade, 
the less pretentious cataract, all struck 
on different keys that blend into har- 
mony — these fill the soul with a sooth- 
ing, sweeter music. Such was the per- 
petual anthem whose strains filled the 
amphitheatre of nature, and by respon- 
sive effect set to music feelings of the 
human soul. Beside such a stream, 
shaded though it was by fir and 
spruce and birch, was no place for the 
lute-tones of lovers, though the heart 
were moved to rapturous inspirations; 
for musical as were the sounds from 
nature, they were not soft enough to 



admit these under-tones of beguiling 

Sound was not alone to charm. Va- 
rieties and delicacies of scenery were 
there to please the eye as well. Saunt- 
ering on we would pass shaded nooks 
where the surface of the stream was 
darkened by overhanging foliage, and 
then to sun-lit pools where shining 
pebbles gleamed at the bottom and 
wily troutlets performed their singular 
gyrations. Now we looked on the 
gentler flow of a pent-up rivulet, and 
now on the silvery spray of a dashing 
cascade. While the brook itself is the 
purest, most crystal-like water in which 
sun-beams were ever bent, yet the op- 
tical effect varies with the changes of 
light and shade. 

To beguile from their limpid ele- 
ment the unwary fish was our chief 
object now. I should not call them 
unwary, either ; for this unique speci- 
men of swimming excitement is the 
shyest and most artful of the finny 
tribe, evading often the most cunning 
devices of the skilled angler. Its shyness 
is well known from the fact that it re- 
tires before the advances of civilization 
and lives only in the freshest streams 
undefiled by the use of man. Mod- 
elled in elegant shape, bedecked with 
rich colored settings and iridescent 
hues, it is no less a thing of beauty 
than an embodiment of the archness 
of its tribe. If you want to catch this 
fish, you need not go to the brook in a 
boisterous way and thrust in a big, 
rusty hook, swung to a heavy pole. 
A knowledge of its nature and habits 
will lead you to get a delicate line and 
tackle, with an artificial fly of fantastic 
colors attached, and dance this decep- j 
tive " bait " along on the surface ; for ! 

this variety of fish, unlike many of its 
order, but very like some of the human 
kind, is caught immediately on the 
surface. The excitement of this sport 
is intense ; and the physiognomist 
could find something to interest him 
as he watched the face light up with 
joy and anxiety when the playful trout 
darted for the fly, and then take on a 
subdued look of disappointment and 
self-accusation as the triumphant little 
trickster would escape. After getting 
into the " mysteries of the gentle 
craft," I doubt if old Izaak Walton 
himself, the " philosopher of the rod," 
ever found a keener sense of pleasure 
in plying his favorite sport than we. 

The cunning required for catching 
this wily fish suggested very naturally 
that such devices might succeed bet- 
ter in taking in the shy of the human 
species. A certain youth in the party 
was set on fishing for the latter kind, 
and he was not insensible to such a 
hint from the trickery of other crafts. 
The impulse was quickened when 
he found himself alone with the shy 
maiden in a secluded spot that afforded 
a fit place for an angel to make love. 
She was indeed a Lilian, shy, yet 
sweetly tempting, and looked as if, 
to this moment, she 

" Had never felt the stir of nestled love, 

Her lips ne'er known the spasm of love's kiss." 

Were it not for fear of marring the 
picture as it comes now before my 
mind, I would sketch it here to satisfy 
the curious. I may venture only to 
draw away the curtain and let the 
reader take a glimpse at them sitting 
together on a moss-covered rock, with 
boughs of spruce dangling about their 
heads and the limpid, babbling brook 
at their feet, singing as it went to lady- 


like ferns that fringed its borders and 
looked at their own graceful forms in 
the glassy water ; while above them 
the wheel of a picturesque old mill 
hummed an accompaniment to the 
melody of the stream. What was 
said — well, I am not authorized to 

Our " angling days" and sight-seeing 
amid the handiwork of nature over, 
our party dispersed, retaining what we 
had seen as pictures on the walls of 
memory to hang till "the dome of 
thought and palace of the soul " shall 
crumble away. And if, as one sup- 
poses of Fra Angelico, the transcripts 
of his heavenly vision which covered 
the walls of his cell faded not from 
his inward eye when the emaciated 
body returned to dust, we may hope 
that in another state these pictures 
that so delighted us here shall reap- 
pear as immortal mementoes of that 
beauty which we were permitted to 
see here below. 


Coming from where Nature paraded 
herself in savage grandeur undisturbed 
by the mutilating hand of art, save 
only to meet the ruder wants of man, 
I went again to view the gentler scenes 
that make Fernihurst the queen pic- 
ture of landscape beauty in " Land of 
the Sky." Twenty minutes' drive from 
Asheville will take you to a slight 
eminence, whence the eye may feast 
till satiate on Nature's lovelier form, 
and if willing to put away superficial 
habits, the spirit, enkindled by subtler 
fires, may enter into mysteries that 
conceal themselves from the vulgar 
gaze. Looking toward sunset from 
the front of a handsome brick resi- 


dence, finished in Queen Anne style, 
the view encompassed is one full of 
intensest beauty. Stretching out from 
you as you stand under a summer's 
sun are green meadows grazed by lazy 
herds and traversed by careless wind- 
ings of the placid French Broad, dis- 
guised in sleepy mood, before it awakes 
in passing the unmarked line where 
it becomes the Racing River.* The 
Swannanoa, like a serpent with sil- 
vered folds winding under clustering 
trees and interlacing vines, thus giving 
to the scene the additional feature of 
an artificially grown hedgerow, glides 
into the larger river with a graceful 
curve. Undulating surface waves back- 
ward from the eye till outlined more 
strongly in green-crested hillocks. 
Small mountains arise and grow less 
distinct as vision sweeps on to survey 
massive peaks and gigantic ledges, 
which make for a picture so exquis- 
itely wrought a background of solemn 
and imposing grandeur. 

As the expression of the human face 
changes with the moods of the mind, so 
Nature's charms vary under different 
aspects. I had seen this spot before, 
but not in such a dress as on the pres- 
ent occasion. Without wishing to 
seem gaudy, Nature had clothed her- 
self in her most gorgeous apparel, as 
if to win the love and admiration of 
the beholder by beauty of spirit ex- 
pressed more perfectly in beauty of 

So sweet, so enchanting was the 
charm of beauty, too subtle to be un- 
derstood, that no true lover could 

*The upper part of the French Broad where the 
flow is gentle was called in the Cherokee tongue, 
Agi-qua, Sleeping Water ; and the lower part, be- 
cause of its impetuosity, was named Tahke-ostee, 
Racing Waters. 



stand in its presence without be- 
ing too deeply moved to repress his 
feelings, and yet too deeply impressed 
to utter the word that speaks the soul. 
If you would see and feel all the witch- 
ery of beauty that can be wrought into 
one picture by the mistress of enchant- 
ment, go to Fernihurst, as I did, when 
the evening sky was half obscured by 
clouds, and see the shadows fall on 
mountain slopes or shade the surface 
of the stream, while sunbeams, sent 
through broken windows of cloud, were 
like golden arrows shot obliquely over 
hill and green and dimpled waves. As 
the sun glided down to rest beyond the 
crest of isolated peaks and gave to their 
lengthened shadows a darker hue, 
through the gate-ways of the uneven 
range, it sent back a flood of glory 
gilding the valley with streams of pure 
gold. To contrast with the light of 
the valley and the blue of shaded 

mountains, white mists arose from be- 
low and lay like glaciers on the dim- 
ples of higher slopes. It were difficult 
to conceive another spot of earth com- 
bining all the elements of beauty in 
such rare perfection. And it were not 
possible to say whether the enchant- 
ment is due to clear blue sky or floating 
cloud ; to shadows of loftier peaks or 
gilding sunbeams ; to the lonely tree 
in verdant fields or stately forests 
growing dim in distance ; to winding 
stream or undulating mead ; to gentle 
hillocks or majestic peaks: but the 
interweaving of all, sustained in match- 
less repose, leaves no one to doubt the 
sweet, though mysterious, effect of 
tangible beauty on the intangible soul. 
The scene is one that needs only to be 
transferred to canvass by the pencil of 
a Turner to make it, in the utmost 
perfectibility, " a thing of beauty and 
a joy forever." 


There is a little spectre lurking in 
every part of the inhabited globe. He 
is often seen, but seldom noticed. He 
assumes different sizes and aspects, 
usually seems pleasant and unassum- 
ing. His eyes are expressive, though 
somewhat downcast ; and his voice is 
very soft and low, yet full of tender- 
ness. He softly approaches the little 
child, and endeavors to ingratiate him- 
self into its favor as soon as it reaches 

This spirit always has an abundant 
supply of suggestions, which he pro- 
poses freely to any who will receive 
them ; and he offers them, too, at a 
time when, to accept them, seems to 

be the best that can be done. When 
the child has broken a cup and is fear- 
ing the punishment of its mother, he 
is ready to suggest a falsehood ; and 
when the mischievous boy has broken 
a glass, the spectre suggests some 
means of attributing the act to another. 
He does not stop with the child and 
boy. As the young man starts out in 
life, the spirit offers himself as^a con- 
stant companion, promising to guide 
him and help him out of all difficul- 
ties. He tells him that he may take 
his dram, that he may leave false im- 
pressions, that he may gamble, that he 
may go with bad company, that he 
may keep late hours, that he may live 


beyond his means. Now he becomes 
more daring : the young man is allowed 
to drink to the full, to stake his em- 
ployer's money, to express his senti- 
ments with oaths, to grasp the pistol 
and take the life of his comrade. Then 
this hideous spectre presents himself 
in his true character, showing the 
young man that for a companion he 
had chosen " a wolf in sheep's cloth- 
ing." The young man is taken to 
prison, and there the monster leaves 
him, awaiting the day of his execution. 
Ah, young man ! he can serve you no 
longer. When he first threw around 
you the wreath of flowers and prom- 
. ised to be your friend, little did you 
think that he was forging chains with 
which to drag your soul down to hell. 

Neither does he slight the young 
lady. He offers himself as a very con- 
venient, and even necessary compan- 
ion for her also, promising her much 
innocent fun and amusement ; for he 
knows very well how to deal with the 
finer sensibilities of her nature. He 
praises her beauty, the gracefulness of 
her form and movements, her waving 
hair and sparkling eyes, and he en- 
courages her into all the amusements 
of the day. She must follow the fash- 
ions, regardless of whatever of pain, 
deformity, and suffering may be the 
consequence. She is privileged to co- 
quet as much as she pleases, and when 
conscience would remind her that she 
is trifling with the most sacred gift of 
God, except the soul and salvation, 
and what a wreck she may make of 
some one's life, he whispers, " Only a 
little innocent fun." The lady enters 
again the circle of pleasure-seekers, 
forgetting the discarded lover who has 
fallen under the burden of a wounded 

I spirit, and has resorted, perhaps, to 
| the cup for temporary relief. 

The first account we have of this 
j spectre is recorded in the third chap- 
! ter of Genesis. There, in the beauti- 
I ful garden of Eden, he made his first 

appearance ; since then he has trav- 
i elled over the entire world, and now 

lives in all its parts. His range reaches 
j from ocean to ocean, and from pole to 
i pole ; no place too cold or too hot for 

him, but wherever man goes the spec- 
i tre goes. He seems to know every- 
I body, and just when to make his ap- 
I proach. 

But oh, the trouble he causes ! He 
leads an individual into things for 
I which his conscience lashes him with- 
! out mercy ; his mind is confused, his 
j brow burns, and his heart throbs vio- 
lently ; his physical energy is ex- 
I hausted, his spirits are worn out, and 
at last he lies beneath the sod, soon to 
be forgotten. 


He enters the family circle, and 
! where peace and harmony, love and 
congeniality were wont to dwell, he 
breaks up the harmony of husband 
and wife, separates father and son, 
mother and daughter, and destroys 
| the love of brother and sister. Conten- 
| tions arise from which come strifes and 
blows, and we see, instead of a peace- 
ful, quiet, happy home, a lodging place 
for sorrow and misery. 

He mingles with the society of a 
community and leaves there a trail of 
disaster, as plainly visible as blood 
upon snow. He reduces the strongest 
ties of friendship to enmity, makes the 
best of friends the bitterest of ene- 
mies, separates true lovers, scatters 
false reports, furnishes gossip for tat- 
tlers, and alienates neighbors. 



He makes his way into our public 
institutions and exhibits his wicked 
qualities there. The effects of his in- 
fluence may be plainly seen, and with- 
out close observation we know that 
these are his dwelling places. 

He figures prominently also in the 
government of nations. Instead of a 
strict compliance with the laws, and 
loyalty to authority, the subjects are 
endeavoring to violate and evade the 
laws by every hook and crook. Prom- 
ises have become of none effect, bonds 
and mortgages have to be used, and 
that with much care. Bolts and bars 
and locks are resorted to, and yet our 
country is filled with court-houses, 
prisons, and penitentiaries. Our citi- 
zens are divided into parties and fac- 
tions, which are continually striving 
for the supremacy. Oh, for shame! 
that in our great free nation we should 
be bound by this vicious, meddlesome 

Fellow-students, it will be expected 
of us to take the lead in the affairs of 
the communities in which we reside ; 

and I have no doubt that many of you 
while reading the life of some great 
general have felt your hearts burn 
within you for a Rubicon to cross, or 
some Alpine cliffs to climb that your 
names might be written high upon the 
pinnacle of fame. If so, here is a foe. 
Arise, call upon your friends and 
neighbors to help you crush this mon- 
ster; and if you shall lead an army 
against him and drive him forever from 
our shores, you will be a greater gen- 
eral than Caesar or Hannibal. 

Will you, then, dear readers, join 
the army for the overthrow of this 
atrocious spirit ? If we cannot rid 
ourselves entirely of his degrading in- 
fluence, we may, by united effort, so 
weaken it that coming generations 
will not have to suffer as we have. 

And would you know the name of 
this vile spectre ? Is it murder ? Is 
.it gambling?. Is it thieving? Is it 
swearing? Is it drinking? Is it evil 
habit ? No ; none of these alone, but 
the prime originator of them all — DE- 

EDITORIAL— Halcyon Days. 




Among the many beautiful fables 
related in old classic writ, it would, 
perhaps, be vain to search for one 
more pleasing or interesting just now 
than that touching story of the origin 
of what are called Halcyon Days. 

The souls of Ceyx and Halcyone, 
young husband and wife, had melted 
into each other with all the fervency 
of wedded love. The beautiful girl 
felt that no man was so perfect, so 
handsome, so worthy of the purest 
affections of her youthful heart, as the 
husband propitious heaven had made 
her own ; and she clung to him with 
the trust and devotion of truest woman- 
hood. And Ceyx in return bestowed 
upon his faultless bride, the idol of his 
bosom, the warmest and most un- 
wavering love of a noble manhood. 

Thus confident and happy in each 
other's love, the course of their life is 
as smooth and peaceful as the surface 
of a mountain-guarded lake, where 
every ripple has been lulled to rest 
beneath its silvery coverlid of moon- 
beams. The gods look down upon 
them with smiles, and are proud to 
behold among their creatures such 
mutual and unblemished loyalty be- 
tween man and wife. Now, Ceyx, while 
on a voyage across the sea, is ship- 
wrecked in a ruthless storm, and his 
lifeless body washed ashore by the 
waves. Halcyone, finding the pale 
corpse, is wild with agony, and her 
heart breaks with grief that her be- 
loved Ceyx is no more. Feeling that 

life has no further charms for her, she 
plunges headlong into the ocean to 
share the fate of her drowned husband. 
The gods, exceedingly moved by this 
touching deed and the sad fate of their 
loving pair, converted them both into 
birds, which, from this circumstance, 
take the name of Halcyons. The two 
weeks, then, in which these birds build 
their nests are called in memory of the 
devoted and hapless wife " halcyon 
days," during which the seas, lit fama 
est, restrain their high leaping billows, 
their roughness subsides into unbro- 
ken tranquility, and they observe these 
days as a period of rest in sacred re- 
membrance of lamented Halcyone and 
her ill-starred husband. Through all 
the ages, the season in which stern 
ocean's surges cease to roll, has been 
known as halcyon days ; so that in 
halcyon fancy finds a fascinating beauty 
that oftentimes renders it a happy 
substitute for the less romantic peace- 
ful, or quiet. 

We learn from naturalists that these 
birds build their nests during the seven 
days before and seven after the longest 
night and shortest day of the year; 
and so this present is the time of the 
halcyon days — the rest days, sporting 
days of the year. Since last the hal- 
cyon has built her nest, another spring 
has brought forth its songs and its 
flowers, another summer has come 
with its freight of fruits, another au- 
tumn has poured freely into the store- 
houses and granaries of man its treas- 
ures of plenty, and another winter 
finds us in the midst of unmeasured 



blessings, both as individuals and as a 

The leaves have budded forth, have 
served the tree in its growth, have ful- 
filled their mission, and their work is 
done. Nature has now ceased from 
her year of toil. The winds of the 
summer tempest that rolled destruc- 
tion and terror over land and sea, now 
give place to the light treading steeds 
of winter that so gently bear their 
snowflake burdens to the earth in 
weaving a spotless burial robe for the 
old year. The lightning's glare that 
plowed its way through night's liquid 
darkness, and with riving arrows shat- 
tered to the heart tall mountain oaks, 
will now find a meeker counterpart in 
the soft, soothing starbeams of a quiet 
winter's night. Loud roaring thun- 
der-peal that burst from summer's 
storm, shaking old earth to the centre 
while its very heart fluttered in fright, 
is, at the bidding of nature's Master, 
hushed in these halcyon days, and soon 
over hill and vale will echo and re-echo 
in chorus gay cosey-wrapped maiden's 
merry laugh and sound of sleigh-bells 
ringing across the snow. We are now 
between the end of one year's work 
and the beginning of another — the 
time of retrospect and prospect. 

If, on viewing the course of the past 
year, it be seen that success has in 
every way crowned our efforts ; that 
plans have been well laid, well execu- 
ted ; that abundant fruits of our labors 
have been reaped ; that every work 
has been fully done and every vow 
kept — then, indeed, these halcyon days 
are days for congratulation, rejoicing, 

thanksgiving, and rest. But if peni- 
tent and sorrowful, one sees that the 
waves of the sea just crossed are strewn 
with the wrecks of broken promises 
and unkept vows, that well laid plans 
have not been executed, that golden 
opportunities have been recklessly 
wasted, that the past year of his life is 
a failure — then these halcyon days are 
so many voices bidding him weep 
not for the past that comes not again, 
and warning him to profit by expe- 
rience and make of it a golden capital 
to aid him in bettering the future. 
And if looking back, one find that 
many longed-for joys have eluded his 
anxious grasp, that sorrow has been 
his lot, that every honest effort in his 
noblest work has been counteracted, 
that the cruel strokes of misfortune 
have lashed the sea into fury and 
wrecked his highest purposes, and dis- 
covers at last all his brightest hopes 
and, loftiest aspirations cast ashore by 
the blighting storm ; then let not such 
a one despair, but take courage and 
strengthen his soul in these quiet days 
that tell us that God, who doeth all 
things well, smiles upon a holy zeal 
wedded to the execution of a noble 
purpose ; and though upon the stormy 
sea of the past, both have. been wrecked 
and lie broken upon its shores, He 
can convert them into a new zeal and 
a new purpose, stronger, nobler, bet- 
ter, that, halcyon-like, can with lusty, 
vigorous stroke, beat off from its pin- 
ions the heavy mists of the maddened 
sea and rise high above ocean's fury, 
where no cruel storm can dash and 
wreck, and no wild wave engulf. 

EDITORIAL— Educational. 



— " Shorter College (Female), 
Rome, Ga., opens with 135 pupils, and 
still they come." 

— The census returns show that the 
most illiterate population of the Uni- 
ted States is that of New Mexico. 
Sixty per cent, are unable to read. 

— Since 1865 the people of the 
North have sent in individual contri- 
butions over a million dollars a year 
for the aid of education in the South. 

— The Johns Hopkins University 
has the largest attendance this fall 
that has been known during its his- 
tory. The new laboratory will be 
ready for use next term. 

— Of the ten universities of Prussia 
Bonn is the youngest. In its present 
organization it dates back to 18 18, 
when Frederick William III. signed 
the order for its location and opening. 

— It is calculated by experts in so- 
cial science that education in any given 
community can eradicate 96 per cent, 
of pauperism and 50 per cent, of crime. 
Note in this the high interest yielded 
by public appropriations to the cause 
of education. 

— THE lamented Jas. Thomas, jr., 
of Richmond, Va., who died a few 
weeks ago, was a worthy Baptist and 
a warm friend of education. He gave 
liberally to Richmond College, and 
frequently aided, though in a quiet 
way, worthy young men in their ef- 
forts to get an education. 

— A few years ago the Commissioner 
of Education made some inquiries of 
large employers in the centres of labor 
as to the productiveness of laborers-in 

all branches of industry. This is the 
general result of his investigation : The 
laborer with a common school educa- 
tion will, on the average, produce 25 
per cent, more than the illiterate ; 
with an academic education he will 
produce 50 per cent, more ; and with 
a collegiate education, 100 per cent, 

— North Carolina makes a darker 
showing in illiteracy than any State or 
Territory in the Union, except New 
Mexico ; and, according to census re- 
turns, it is growing still worse. Blush- 
ing over it is not what we want. Mind 
and heart, tongue and pen and purse 
must be concentrated in immediate 
and earnest work, or the stain and the 
night will linger still. 

— It is said that the money collected 
at the M. E. Conference in session at 
Raleigh, for the proposed Anglo- 
Chinese University, is probably the 
largest sum ever realized on any simi- 
lar occasion in this State. It is be- 
lieved that quite a number of poor 
ministers gave as much as one-fourth 
of their salaries. One man gave his 
college medal. 

— Hon. W. C. DePaw makes an 
enormous offer to Asbury University 
at Greencastle, Ind., on condition that 
$100,000 be raised, 100 acres of land 
purchased, and three small colleges of 
the State be merged into the Univer- 
sity. He has already given $50,000 to 
this institution, besides founding De- 
Paw College at New Albany. Would 
not some " merging " greatly aid the 
cause of female education in our 
State ? 



— At their recent State Conference 
the Methodists of North Carolina 
raised in cash and pledges over $4,000 
of the debt of Trinity College; the 
remaining $2,000 are to be raised by 
the churches. 

— The Freshman Class at Brown 
University numbers 81. Prof. Hark- 
ness, of the Chair of Greek, has re- 
turned from a trip to England and 
Germany on an inspection tour among 
the universities. 

— The Southern States have over 
five millions of children of school age, 
and raise annually for their education 
ten millions of dollars. The rest of 
the Union has ten millions of children 
of school age, and raises annually for 
their education sixty millions of dol- 
lars — three times as much for each 
child as the South. 

— " There is said to be a great fall- 
ing off in the number of students in 
the Cornell University, at Ithaca, 
N. Y. This is not to be wondered at. 
That school has, in taking pains to be 
non-sectarian, swung so far toward be- 
ing non-religious, and has, through an 
influential portion of its faculty, done 
so much to encourage utter religious 
unbelief, that parents, knowing the 
value of religious restraints, if not of 
religious ideals and inspirations,gravely 
doubt the safety of sending their boys 
to such a place."— St. Louis Presbyte- 

— In the year 1870 London allowed 
200,000 children to be entirely without 
school facilities. Since that time, how- 
ever, there has been a revolution on 
the subject of public schools, and now 
they are springing up in even the 
poorest quarters of the great city. 
The movement was not without influ- 

ential and bitter opposition. The 
Church authorities resisted the estab- 
lishment of any but Church schools, 
and the Tory leaders have never been 
in sympathy with popular education. 
But so marked has been the revolu- 
tion that The Spectator, which has 
sided with the opposition, is forced to 
admit the improvement in London's 
elementary education, not only as re- 
gards the quality of the instruction 
given, but also the number of those 
who receive it. 

— In the editorial department of 
the October Century is an article enti- 
tled " The Young South." The note- 
worthy thing about it is its suggestion 
that some of the surplus wealth of the 
North might be most profitably ex- 
pended for the endowment of schools 
and colleges in the South for the 
whites as well as the blacks. This is a 
hopeful sign. Besides this, there are 
two remarks which are worthy of quo- 
tation in this place. 1. "Any one 
who will visit the Southern colleges 
and schools will find in them a gener- 
ation of students, alert, vigorous, 
manly, and tremendously in earnest." 
2. " A race of exceptional moral earn- 
estness and mental vigor is now grow- 
ing up in the South, and it is sure to 
be heard from. If the young fellows 
in Northern colleges expect to hold 
their own in the competition for lead- 
ership, they must devote less of their 
resources to base-ball and rowing and 
champagne suppers, and ' come down 
to business.' " 

— The London School Board em" 
braces within its sphere various duties 
that do not belong to our own boards. 
It has its industrial and its sewing 


schools — it tried even a swimming 
school — its committees of examination 
and revision ; its excellent officials and 
members, who are all highly cultiva- 
ted and educated men. The zeal for 
education has spread overall England. 
Since 1870 $100,000,000, it was stated 
at the Social Science Congress recent- 
ly, have been expended in building 
school-houses in England and Wales 
alone. The number of certificated 
teachers has risen from 12,027 to 33,- 
562, the average attendance at the 
schools from 1,878,684 in 1870 to 4,- 
389,633 in 1 88 1. This progress in ele- 
mentary education is unequalled in 
any other age or nation. Mr. Hast- 
ings, the president-of the Social Science 
Congress, relates the growth of educa- 
tion in his own city of Worcester. In 
1 87 1, he says, there were at least one 
thousand children at Worcester " run- 
ning wild in the streets," and who 
never entered a school. Now, he con- 
tinues, there are not forty-three, and 
of these many were properly excused. 
This he thinks good progress. " But," 
he adds, " it lags behind what I saw 
in Boston when, ten years ago, I vis- 
ited the United States." We trust 
Boston still retains its pre-eminence in 
educational affairs. — Harper s Weekly. 

— PERHAPS no institution has tried 
the elective system more extensively 
than Cornell ; and we are informed 
that the tendency is to decrease the 
elective and increase the regular sys- 
tem, as a result of trial. In a care- 
fully guarded elective system during 
the Junior and Senior years, with such 
oversight of individuals as the Profes- 
sors shall deem necessary, lies doubt- 
less the safe mean between two ex- 

Educaiiona,!. 171 

tremes. For a college curriculum that 
is all license and no law, nothing said 
by Dr. Crosby could be too severe. 
One more quotation, on the subject 
of college athletics, is too good read- 
ing and sound sense to be lost : 

" The only other mistake common 
to our colleges to which I will now re- 
fer is the fostering of boat-clubs and 
ball-clubs. That young men should 
in time of relaxation go out on the 
green and have a game of ball, or 
should go down to the river and have 
a row, is most natural and commenda- 
ble, but that they should form clubs for 
training and spend months in the pro- 
cess, and have grand public contests 
before thousands all over the country, 
and attract the professional " rough" 
with their betting and drinking to the 
grand show, in all of which study is 
neglected and must be neglected, is an 
abomination of the first order. It is a 
shame that college presidents are ac- 
tually promoters of this demoralizing 
system. It would seem as if those 
worthies thought that colleges were 
instituted to collect a crowd of young 
'bloods' that they might have 'a high 
time.' No wonder so many young 
men cannot go to college, because all 
this high living is so costly. If they 
refuse to pay the class taxes for all 
sorts of foolery, they are shoved aside 
as mean fellows, and this ostracism 
very few can bear. It costs a student 
at Yale or Harvard from $1,200 to 
$2,000 a year if he is going to be in 
full rapport with his class. It becomes 
college trustees to see that these ex- 
pensive habits, so inimical to all true 
study, are prohibited, and that Profes- 
sors and students give heed to the 
important work for which the college 



was created. What we want is a quad 
rennium of careful mental training in 
all the faculties of the mind, coupled 
with an introduction into the princi- 
ples and relations of the various de- 
partments of knowledge, all of which 
is to be prescribed by the instructor 
and the studies diligently pursued 
without distraction from any external 
source, the student becoming so far 

master of the subjects studied that he 
can clearly state what he knows. In 
order to get back to this course of 
duty we must avoid following the 
guidance of two very worthless guides, 
the callow youth who are to be instruc- 
ted, and the shallow newspapers that 
do not know the difference between a 
college and a circus." — Examiner. 


—HON. S. S. Cox is the author of 
two companion books, Arctic Sun- 
beams and Orient Sunbeams, which are 
described as delightful books of travel. 

— FOR entertainment combined with 
valuable information, there is, in our 
humble judgment, no better monthly 
than The Eclectic. 

— The Naval War of 1812, by Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, is said to be about the 
only accurate account we have of what 
was actually done by our navy in 181 2. 
It is published by G. P. Putnam's 

— A book in which all North Caro- 
linians must certainly be interested is 
in course of preparation. It is Poets 
and Poetry of North Carolina. Dr. E. 
W. Pugh, of Windsor, Bertie county, 
the author of " Cecil Afton," is the 
editor. Pie is aided by Mrs. M. B. 
Clark and Miss Cameron, but asks aid 
from any others who can furnish it. 

— THE following lines are the high- 
est English in the world. They are a 
led-pencil inscription written by some 
c4imber in a little hut built by the 


Swiss Alpen Club on the slope of 
Mt. Matterhorn : 

" Little Mat Horner 
Sat in a corner, 

And vowed he wouldn't be climbed ; 
We tried it you know, 
But found so much snow, 

We very politely declined." 

— One of the most desirable books 
recently published is Paul H. Hayne's 
complete works. It is elegantly bound, 
and altogether is one of the best books 
for a present we have seen. Margaret 
J. Preston furnishes a short biography, 
and no one could have been found 
better qualified to perform the task. 
We may be partial, for we feel that he 
is " our poet." Every Southron should 
have a copy. As a poet, we like him. 
As a man, he commands our highest 
respect. The Boston Post says of him, 
" Hayne is a songster of a southern 
grove, and he sings in his leafy bower, 
because he was attuned to sing. If 
his notes reach beyond his sylvan hall 
and fall upon ears without its walls 
and plaudits of approval come in re- 
turn, he trills responsively a grateful 
melody and resumes his solo, as he 
would had no encore greeted him." 

EDITORIAL— Literary dossip. 


Few know the life story of Paul Ham- 
ilton Hayne. And we hope his labor 
may meet with substantial apprecia- 
tion among his countrymen. D. La- 
throp & Co., Boston, Mass., Publishers. 

— Mr. George W. Cable, of New 
Orleans, who within a few years has 
achieved celebrity in literature, ha s 
been engaged to deliver a course of 
six lectures before the Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, during the 
month of March next. The lectures 
will treat of the relations of literature 
to modern society. 

— A bit of personal gossip from the 
correspondence of Miss Mitford, just 
published by the Harpers, gives an 
amusing version of a conversation be- 
tween Jas. T. Fields and Carlyle con- 
cerning Washington : " So, sir, ye're 
an American," quoth the self-sufficient 
Scotchman. Mr. Fields assented. 
" Ah, that's a wretched nation of your 
ain. Its all wrong. It always has 
been wrong from the vera beginning. 
That grete mon of yours — George," 
(did any one under the sun ever dream 
of calling Washington George before ?) 
" your grete mon George was a mon- 
strous bore, and wants taking down a 
few hundred pegs." " Really, Mr. 
Carlyle," replied Mr. Fields, " you are 
the last man in the world from whom 
I should have expected such an ob- 
servation. Look at your own book 
on Cromwell ! What was Washington 
but Cromwell without his personal 
ambition and without his fanaticism ?" 
" Eh, sir," responded Carlyle, "George 
had neither ambition nor religion, nor 
any good quality under the sun — 
George was just Oliver with all the 
juice squeezed out." 

—Mr. J. T. Trowbridge tells this 
good story against himself : " The 
tax-collector called upon me last 
spring, and in course of conversation 
asked me what I did for a living. I 
said I wrote, and after having to ex- 
plain to him that I was nither a book- 
keeper nor a copyist, I told him I wrote 
books. i Pshaw, now,' said he, ■ I want 
to know ! Wa-al, it's kind 'o curious, 
I never heard 'o that. Got any of 'em 
about yer ? ' I said I had some of 
them in the house, but didn't keep a 
very large supply on hand. 1 Well, 
you can git 'em, I s'pose,' was the next 
remark. I said I could, and he gave 
me an order on the spot. ' Send me 
down the handsomest copy you've got.' 
said he, 'and I'll pay you for it. If 
we've got a man that kin write, I'll do 
my duty by him.' " 

— " Robinson Crusoe " gains rath- 
er than loses by time, and one of the 
latest stories of its power is told by 
Mr. R* L. Stevenson in an English 
paper: — A friend of his, a Welsh 
blacksmith, was twenty-five years old, 
and could neither read nor write, when 
he heard a chapter of " Robinson Cru- 
soe" read aloud in a farm-kitchen. Up 
to that moment he had sat content, 
huddled in his* ignorance ; but he left 
that farm another man. There were 
day-dreams, it appeared, divine day- 
dreams, written and printed and bound, 
and to be bought for money and en- 
joyed at pleasure. Down he sat that 
day, painfully learned to read Welsh, 
and returned to borrow the book. It 
had been lost, nor could he find an- 
other copy but one that was in Eng- 
lish. Down he sat once more, learned 
English, and at length, with entire de- 
light, read " Robinson." 



— THOSE who have had the pleasure 
of reading Mr. Edwin Arnold's new 
poem on Islam, now in press, say that 
it equals, if not surpasses, The Light 
of Asia, in dramatic power. 

— Mr. HOWELL'S extraordinary 
critical remarks in the late number of 
The Century about Dickens and Thack- 
eray as compared with the school of 
Mr. James and himself, have called 
out quite a storm of remonstrance and 
objurgation on all hands, especially in 
England, where to attack Thackeray 
is like breaking the Sixth Command- 
ment. Mr. Howells protests that he 
has been misunderstood ! 

— Of the many novels now suing 
for public patronage on our soil, none 
has excited bolder assertions and more 
contradictory opinions than A Mod- 
ern Hagar, by a woman whose nom 
de plume is Charles M. Clay. The 
leading critical journal of the eountry 
would persuade you to believe that it 
is " the American novel " for which the 
literary world has long been waiting ; 
telling you that it is essentially a novel 
in which the author has interwoven 
slavery, military life on the plains, the 
treatment of the red man with its re- 
flex action, war, political conventions, 
social life in New York and Washing- 
ton, love, capital punishment, and 
what not — all written in the clever spir- 
it of an American citizen ! Another 
journal, perhaps not inferior, tells us 
that " the book is ill-digested, ill-writ- 
ten, ill-planned, and ill-everything-else. 
Yet there are possibilities in it of 
which, had the most been made, a 
good book might have been made." 
Who is right ? Nous verrons. 

— Longfellow's study remains 
just as he left it. Not a book 
nor piece of furniture has been 
moved. The gates to the grounds of 
his old home are always open to the 
visitor, but within the house the be- 
reaved family are secure from intru- 
sion, and their life goes on as it did 
before his death, save for the great 
void that never can be filled. The 
poet's grave at Mount Auburn is only 
marked by the flower wreaths daily 
placed upon it by loving hands. 

— Miss Caroline Fox, in her 
Memories of Old Friends, tells of a 
certain Professor Air, who was so shy 
that he never looked a person in the 
face. A friend remarked to him : 

" Have you ever observed Miss s 

eyes? They have the principle of 
double refraction." " Dear me, that 
is very odd," said the philosopher. 
" I should like to see that ; do you 
think that I might call? " He did so, 
and at the end of the visit begged per- 
mission to call again to see her eyes 
in a better light. He, however, found 
it a problem which would take a life- 
time to study — and he married 

— Mr. John H. Wheeler, the 
North Carolina historian, died in 
Washington on the 8th inst. The 
Congressmen from North Carolina 
held a meeting in his honor and 
adopted suitable resolutions. He left 
in manuscript historical matter per- 
taining to the State which ought to 
be preserved. He was buried in 
the city cemetery with Masonic hon 

EDITORIAL- Soimee Notes. 


— Prof. Clifford, whose articles 
in the FortJiigJitly Review excited so j 
much attention six or seven years ago, 
died at the age of thirty-four. In this 
short period he won a wide reputation, 
not only as a mathematician of the j 
first order, but also as a writer in 
science, religion, and ethics. Exciting j 
work, done under pressure of time of 
his own imposing, was the chief cause I 

of his premature decline. He wrote for 
the Review mentioned a paper on The 
Unseen Universe which filled eighteen 
of its double-column pages, all at a 
single sitting, that lasted from a quar- 
ter to ten in the evening till nine the 
following morning. How strange that 
with all his sense he lacked that addi- 
tional grain which would have re- 
strained him from such recklessness! 


By Alumni Editor 

Atheistic Scientists. 

There is a sort of men whose faith is all 

In their five fingers, and what fingering brings, 

With all beyond of wondrous great and small, 
Unnamed, uncounted in their tale of things ; 

A race of blinkards, who peruse the case 
And shell of life, but feel no soi l behind, 

And in the marshalled world can find a place 
For all things, only not the marshalling Mind, 
is strange, 'tis sad ; and yet why blame the mole 
For channelling earth ? — such earthy things are 
they ; 

E'en let them muster forth in blank array, 
Frames with no pictures, pictures with no soul. 
I, while this daedal dome o'erspans the sod, 
Will own the builder's hand, and worship God. 

—Prof. J. S. Blackie. 

— The Princeton College Sci- 
entific Expedition. — The scientific 
expedition which left Princeton, June 
26, secured twenty-two hundred 
pounds of valuable fossils, which have 
been classified and added to the col- 
lege museum. The collections were 
made in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Da- 

— Cruls' Comet.— The great comet 
of 1882 was the most magnificent 
which has visited our system since 
1858. Some eminent astronomers 

think it the same as appeared in 1880, 
while others suppose it to be a differ- 
ent one pursuing nearly the same or- 
bit. Its tail stretches in length some 
17 or 18 degrees. It is known as Cruls' 
comet because he was supposed to be 
the first who discovered it. He has 
charge of the observatory at Rio, and 
made the discovery on the 14th of 
September. But recent advices re- 
ceived at the Harvard observatory 
show that Dr. B. A. Gould, of Cordova, 
S. Am., who discovered that of 1880, 
discovered this at least five days be- 
fore Cruls at Rio. It is probable, 
therefore, that our great visitor will 
hereafter be known as Gould's comet 
of '82. 

— The Yellowstone National 
Park. — There is probably not another 
region on the globe of equal extent 
which contains so many natural won- 
ders. It is about seventy-five miles 
square, and lies in the northwest cor- 
ner of the Territory of Wyoming. It 
is particularly famous for the great 
number of its geysers and the Canon 



of the Yellowstone. Prof. Dana esti- 
mates that of these hot, spouting 
springs there are at least 10,000, and 
when the section is thoroughly ex- 
plored the number known will, per- 
haps, be doubled. When quiet they 
are like large cups filled with the purest 
water, and on the inside adorned with 
brilliantly colored jewels. They are 
subject to eruptions, during which wa- 
ter and steam are thrown to the height 
of two or three hundred feet. One is 
known as the Old Faithful, because 
an eruption in it may be counted on 
every sixty-five minutes. The geyser 
mounds themselves are beautiful, but 
the section in which they abound is 
quite barren. This latter fact in part 
induced Congress in 1872 to set it 
apart as a public park. The Yellow- 
stone Canon is a tremendous gorge, 
through which the river flows. Its 
perpendicular walls, 2,000 feet high, 
come down to the water's edge, and 
are a marvellous illustration of the 
enormous erosive power of water act- 
ing through long ages. Hotels are 
being erected in the park, and it is 
thought that their proprietors will 
have some influence in checking the 
vandalism of visitors who do not hesi- 
tate to mar the beauty of the geysers 
to get specimens. 

— Gossamer Spiders. — We might 
have called them " flying spiders," for 
they do fly, but on the wings of the 
wind. Sometimes the air is full of 
them ; it looks as if they were rained 
down. When there is a gentle breeze 
abroad they may be seen on lake or 
river, skimming along the smooth sur- 
face, leaving a wake as a tiny boat. 
But how do they thus fly and sail ? 
Prof. C. A. Young shall answer : " In 

sunny weather the little creatures, 
standing on their heads, project from 
their spinnerets fine filaments of gos- 
samer, which are caught by the breeze 
and float off into the air, though still 
attached to the spider. When she 
perceives that the thread is long 
enough, and the pull of the wind suf- 
ficient, she releases her hold and flies 
away on her gossamer like a witch on 
her broomstick; by watching her 
chance, and letting go only when the 
breeze is favorable, she is carried to 
her desired haven." The gossamer is 
a sort of balloon, and by winding it in 
and so diminishing its extent, the 
spider is enabled to descend. But the 
gossamer is not lighter than air; why 
should it ascend ? Partly because, 
having absorbed the rays of the sun, 
it acts as an independent source of 
heat generating an ascending current 
of air in its neighborhood ; but mainly 
because the thread itself and its sur- 
rounding envelope of air are heated 
by the sun's rays, and being thus ex- 
panded, are lighter than the same bulk 
of the cooler air around, for the air 
receives but little heat from the rays 
of the sun passing through it. If this 
be the true explanation, the little spi- 
ders have to stay at home on cloudy 
days, and if a violent wind overtakes 
them when they are abroad they are 
invariably wrecked. This accords with 
the fact that they are seen only when 
the sun shines and gentle breezes blow. 

— Who was the Fist MAN?-Prof. 
Grant Allen, who always writes what 
is readable, published in the Fort- 
nightly Review an essay which has 
been copied in the Popular Science 
Monthly and the Eclectic for Novem- 
ber. Its heading is, Who was Primi- 


tive Man ? though after a while he tells 
us that, if we accept the theory of ev- 
olution, there never was a first man. 
By that he means to say, that it is im- 
possible to find a point in the process 
of development on which you can put 
your finger and say, " Here the man- 
like ape became a complete man." He 
prefaces his discussion of the evidences 
of man's ancestry by the statement 
that the number of undoubted "human 
bones of the earliest period is all but 
absolutely nil," and that the "few du- 
bious and suspected bodily remains 
which we possess, presumably of that 
age, are for the most part mere broken 
fragments." Yet from so narrow a 
basis of inference, together with the 
analogy of gradual development in 
other groups of animals, he draws us 
the portrait of " the real primitive 
man." This is it : He " apparently 
took to the low-lying and open plains, 
perhaps hid in caves, and, though 
probably still in part frugivorous, eked 
out his livelihood by hunting. We 
may not unjustifiably picture him to 
ourselves as a tall and hairy creature, 
more or less erect, but with a slouch- 
ing gait, black-faced and whiskered, 
with prominent prognathous muzzle 
and large pointed canine teeth, those 
of each jaw fitting into an interspace 
in the opposite row. These teeth, as 
Mr. Darwin suggests, were used in the 
combats of the males. His forehead 
was no doubt low and retreating, with 
bony bosses underlying the shaggy 
eyebrows, which gave him a fierce 
expression, something like that of the 
gorilla. But already, in all likelihood, 
he had learned to walk habitually 
erect." Ah ! reader, boast no more of 
"good family" and "honored blood." 

-Science Notes. 177 

Transits of Venus. — It is likely 
that for no previous scientific event 
was made so extensive and costly prep- 
aration as for the transit of Venus 
on the 6th inst. It was an event of unu- 
sual interest, on account of the necessity 
of settling the sun's parallax and there- 
by determining accurately his distance 
from the earth, which is the base-line 
of all celestial measurements, and fur- 
ther, because a similar opportunity to 
do this important work would not 
occur again till the year 2004. Quite 
a number of the gazers were 
disappointed, in part, on account 
of the intervention of clouds, but 
ample observations were made to 
secure all the scientific results contem- 
plated. The following bit of history, 
from the Scientific American, will prove 
interesting : 

" Astronomical annals record the ob- 
servation of only four transits of Ve- 
nus : those of 1639, 1761, 1769 and 
1874. Kepler was the first astrono- 
mer to predict that a transit would 
occur in 163 1. But it passed unob- 
served, and his tables were so inaccu- 
rate that he failed to detect the transit 
that would take place in 1639. This 
too would have passed unobserved had 
it not been for the enterprise and en- 
thusiasm of a young Englishman, the 
curate of a church in the north of 
England. Jeremiah Horrox, though 
only eighteen years of age, had mas- 
tered all known astronomical problems. 
He discovered that Kepler's tables 
indicated a near approach of a transit 
of Venus. The hope that he might 
witness the wonderful sight took pos- 
session of his imagination, and day and 
night he studied the tables of Kepler 
until he discovered an inaccuracy in 



the calculations. He worked out a ta- 
ble for himself, and predicted a transit 
for 1639. He revealed the secret to 
an intimate friend, and they, keeping 
their own counsel patiently waited for 
the advent of the time that would 
verify the prediction. At last the 
great day arrived. It was Sunday, 
and bright, cool, and clear. The young 
astronomer sat in a darkened room, 
with the sun's image reflected through 
a small telescope upon a white screen, 
over which the planet must pass as a 
round dark spot if his calculations 
were correct. 

Such was his extreme conscientious- 
ness, that he left his watch when the 
church bell rang, to fulfil what he con- 
sidered a higher duty. But his patient 
labor was rewarded. On his return 
from service, he discovered on the 
luminous image of the sun, the tiny 
black sphere that marked the passage 
of Venus across his disc, and thus won 
the honor of being the observer of the 
first transit ever seen by mortal eye. 

A new interest was roused in as- 
tronomy by the report of the great" 
event. During the interval between 
this and the next transit of 1761, 
science made rapid progress. Transits 
of Venus were, however, considered 
only as astronomical curiosities, until 
in 1677, Halley, while observing a 
transit of Mercury, discovered their 
scientific import as a means of deter- 
mining the sun's distance." 

Excommunicated Animals.— Dur- 
ing the Middle Ages animals were 
treated very differently from what 
they are now. That is, they were 

I treated as though they could reason, 
and were held responsible and pun- 
j ished if they commited crime. We 
I learn from history some curious facts 
about this. Thus in 11 20 the Bishop 
of Laon issued a letter of excommuni- 
cation against the caterpillars and field- 
mice ; and to defend these animals and 
plead between them and the farmers a 
I lawyer was appointed under Francis I. 
, In 1543 the consuls and aldermen of 
Grenoble published a decree demand- 
j ing the excommunication of the snails 
i and caterpillars; in 1585 the Grand 
Vicar of Valencia ordered the cater- 
! pillars, with which the country was in- 
fested, to evacuate his diocese ; and 
in 1587 an action in court was brought 
against insects which were ravaging a 
field, and they were condemned. Just 
think of a sentence like this, actually 
pronounced July 9, 15 16, by an officer 
at Troyes, France : ' Having heard the 
I parties, and granting the request of 
i the inhabitants of Villenove, we ad- 
j monish the caterpillars to retire within 
I six days ; and in case they do not 
! comply, we pronounce them accursed 
and excommunicated.' Imagine snails, 
mice, and caterpillars caring what the 
Church did about them so long as they 
were let alone ! A French historian 
has taken the trouble to collect eighty 
sentences of death and excommunica- 
tion that were pronounced between 
1 1 20 and 1 741 against every species of 
animals, from the ass to the grasshop- 
per. Nowadays we do not go after a 
lawyer or judge or priest when the 
i grasshopper becomes a ' burden in the 
I land,' but just go after the grasshop- 
| per. — Examiner. 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 



By Eu. Sr. Editor. 

— Prof. Taylor is unremitting in 
his endowment work. Sorry he has 
to be away so much ; we miss him. 

— Rev. J. B. Boone, Dr. Nelson, 
and several other friends paid us a 
short visit recently. 

— THERE are no public exercises at 
all on the programme for Christmas. 
This of course implies immense enjoy- 
ment otherwise. 

— The church at this place has elect- 
ed for its pastor Rev. W. B. Royall. 
He accepts ; and a church in which so 
many lives are modelled is fortunate 
in securing such a model man for its 

— A certain Junior and others who 
were once new-ish, have been exceed- 
ingly Green-ish since the Convention. 

— W. R. Hunter, the " independ- 
ent" Sunday School lecturer, spent a 
few days with the children recently. 

— Next Senior Speaking occurs 
Friday evening, Dec. 22. The girls will 
be coming home then. Yes, come 
every one, and bring your room-mate. 
Wake Forest is without a peer in giv- 
ing Christmas entertainment to the 

— Prof. Gore, of the University (N. 
C), paid us a short visit on his way to 
the State Convention. He is a hand- 
some young "bach," and a good Bap- 
tist, too. The following we clip from 
the report of Anniversary Day at 
Chapel Hill, as given in the University 
Monthly: "Prof. Gore was solicited 
to speak by repeated calls from the boys. 
He answered in a few minutes' talk 

which was quite witty. The Professor 
is good at repartee." 

— " Mr. Marshall, I already read 
one copy of the STUDENT; but you 
may put me down for one more, and 
send it to the prettiest girl you know 
who doesn't take it." — Hon. C. M. 
Cooke, at Convention. Accepted. And 

sent to Miss ; no, she gets'it. It 

will be sent to Miss ; no, we don't 

know her. We'll send it to Miss , 

then ; but we know two more possess- 
ing just about her degree of beauty 
who ought to have it. Can't some one 
else authorize us to send a copy to 
each of these? Try it. "Handsome 
is as handsome does," makes Mr. C. 
the handsomest married man in the 
Convention. It is characteristic of 
the man to do just such things. 

— THOSE dear "beavers" will do for 
home service, but they are not the 
things for a crowded Convention. A 
Senior who had to care for his hat un- 
ceasingly while at Warrenton, wanted, 
for the time being, to swap it off for a 
baby. The brethren brushed their 
overcoats against it most irreverently, 
the "sisters" sat down on it without a 
shudder, and every man's hand ap- 
peared to be against it. That Senior 
has tried all, and thinks superintend- 
ing a vaccinated arm or chaperoning a 
six weeks' baby is infinitely superior 
as a pastime to standing guard over a 

— E. E. HlLLIARD, who has so ac- 
ceptably filled the position of Tutor 
during the present term, will leave us in 


January for Scotland Neck. He takes 
charge of a flourishing school at that 
place and becomes editor of the Scot- 
land Neck Commonwealth, a lively 
Democratic weekly. His departure is 
regretted alike by students and citi- 
zens. We wish him much success in 
both his pedagogic and editorial labors, 
as we know he will surely deserve it. It 
now begins to look as if Bro. Huf ham 
is, in very truth, " going to move Wake 
Forest to Scotland Neck." 

— That criticism on the last Senior 
speeches created quite a ripple of sen- 
sation among those concerned. But 
a deliberate survey of the cool truth 
in the thing has restored quiet, and, as 
the speakers themselves say, will bring 
better speeches next time. The criti- 
cism itself did not entirely escape cen- 
sure. About the best thing against 
the critics was said, through sympathy 
for the aggrieved parties, by one of 
those smart little ones having a voice 
like the opening of a big country gate, 
that " people who live in glass houses 
should not throw stones, for the criti- 
cism was purely an ' affected effort,' 
and 1 marred by indelicacy.' " And we 
had two distant friends to send us 
some good, wholesome, gratuitous ad- 
vice on this matter by mail, postage 
paid, for which we return sincere 

Ax Editorial Romance. — A True 
He was ambitious of editorial fame. 
The honor of temporary editorship is 
tendered him. 


The noble youth immediately sets 
himself to " composing things" for the 



j * * . * . * i^y^i* 

Moments, seconds, minutes have 
done their mission and fled forever. 

A troubled form is seen still anx- 
; iously bending over a sheet of blank 

Some more seconds and minutes do 
their mission, and flee forever. That 
' sheet of paper maintains its former 

At the end of the first thirty min- 
utes he resigns with becoming meek- 
: ness. Our hero shall speak for him- 
i self in 

"The process was too much like 
bodying forth the forms of things un- 
known, and giving to airy nothing a 
local habitation and a name. I 
j couldn't." 

He obeyed the dictates of conscience 
and is happy. Editors, don't indulge 
in " bodying forth ;" it's the root of all 
duelling. Don't squander your real 
i estate in settling off colonies of " airy 
nothings ;" it is extravagant. Give 
\ facts, and be happy. 

— By no means an unimportant fea- 
ture of the College is the Sunday 

'School. In this every student ought to 

| take an active part. For years and 
years the students, citizens, children, 

i old and young, have been engaged 
thus in studying and giving on Sab- 
bath mornings. It is still in a flour- 
ishing condition, notwithstanding the 

; church of late has not participated so 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


freely as it ought. Here is a sum- 
mary of the work for the last three or 
four years : In '79-' 80, W. B. Waff, 
Supt., the average attendance was 95, 
and average contributions of the school 
each Sabbath amounted to 46 cents. 
'80-81, Ed. M. Poteat, Supt., shows 
average attendance 121, contributions 
60 cents. Session '81-82, E. E. Hil- 
Hard, Supt., average attendance 132, 
contributions $1.33. During the pres- 
ent session, W. F. Marshall, Supt., the 
attendance has not been so full as it 
ought to have been, though the con- 
tributions so far average higher than 
ever before — attendance 116, contri- 
butions $1.46. The record shows that 
no matter how fluctuating the attend- 
ance, the contributions from Sabbath 
to Sabbath have remained nearly the 
same. This fact seems to indicate that 
those who give are sure to come and 
give, while the givers of little (or none) 
are the irregular comers, and vice versa. 
School opens promptly at 9:20 a. m. 
Welcome one, welcome all. 

— MARRIED. — Rogers — Walters. — 
In the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, 
Nov. 22, at 8 p. m., by Rev. W. B. 
Royall, Mr. W. M. Rogers, of Raleigh, 
and Miss Lydia Walters, of Wake 
Forest. The ceremony was impressive. 
The happy couple, together with 
their attendants, filed into the beauti- 
fully decorated Hall, while the or- 
gan, under the skilful touch of Mrs. 
W. O. Allen, pealed forth the inspiring 
strains of the Wedding March. The 
occasion was one long to be remem- 
bered. Immediately after the cere- 
mony which united the destinies of 
two loving hearts had been performed, 
the bridal party repaired to the resi- 

dence of the bride's mother, where an 
elegant repast was prepared for a few 
guests. We offer our warmest con- 
gratulations to friend Rogers; for in 
winning the heart and hand of this 
young lady he has been most highly 
blest. The bride is well known here, 
where her many qualities of head and 
heart have made her a favorite, and 
we doubt not that many of the boys 
envy the good fortune of him whom 
she has chosen from among her many 
admirers. The Student joins many 
friends in wishing them an unbounded 
career of prosperity. Sorry want of 
space and time prevents us frorrTgiv- 
ing names of attendants. 

— College work, as usual, was sus- 
pended Thanksgiving Day. The ser- 
mon on that occasion was preached 
by our much loved Professor, Rev. 
W. B. Royall. Text, Psalms 63: 3-4 : 
" Because thy loving-kindness is bet- 
ter than life, my lips shall praise thee. 
Thus will I bless thee while I live : I 
will lift up my hands in thy name." 
Nothing is more important than 
thanksgiving at all times ; special days 
ought not to mislead. Text is a pass- 
age in the experience of a man who 
had met with life in its varied scenes. 
His circumstances at present were . 
such as could not possibly, on ordi- 
nary occasions, call forth praise — he 
was a refugee, in the wilderness, in a 
" dry and thirsty land ;" yet, with all 
this, he felt that God's loving-kind- 
ness was better than life, "'and blessed 
him. God's blessings at first "call; forth 
praise ; they grow old, we look upon 
them coldly ; they are withdrawn, we 
murmur. It is a fixed condition or 
state of the soul that we should have, 



praising and glorifying- God always, 
whether we eat, or drink, or whatso- 
ever we do. It would be a small 
thing, surely, if in all our worship to- 
day only a temporary thanksgiving is 
gained. But if the germs of thanks- 
giving have been planted, then is this 
meeting together of the people a great 
thing indeed. If we have that peace 
which passeth all understanding, we 
have all we need. This is less than a 
sketch of what was said ; the warmth 
and deep earnestness with which that 
pure-hearted and good man said it 
must remain untold. 

— The following is a reliable state- 
ment of the yearly progress of the 
Vassar girls in their warfare upon edi- 
bles, at least we take it from a relig- 
ious paper: During the last year the 
Vassar girls consumed 45 tons of fresh 
meats, 2J tons of smoked meat, 2 tons 
of poultry, 3 tons of fish, 5 barrels of 
mackerel, 28,000 clams, 442 gallons of 
oysters, 5 barrels of pork, 225 barrels 
of flour, 2 tons of buckwheat, 36 
bushels of beans, 1,919 bushels of po- 
tatoes, 8,409 dozen of eggs, 93,602 
quarts of milk, 8,005 bananas, and 
22,511 oranges. Boys, do you think 

you could live on this? If you do 
not, just consider that we have an 
average attendance of 140 per day and 
quietly calculate what each one would 
have to destroy daily in order to an- 
nihilate the whole amount in 300 days. 
Vassar is setting a good example. 
Ever since our aunt was a girl we have 
been hearing (and believing it, too,) 
that the dinner table of a female col- 
lege is blank thing — blanker than the 
credit column of an editor's ledger ; 
and in behalf of the prospective better- 
halves of North Carolina, we would 
beseech the managers of the boarding 
departments in our female colleges 
and seminaries to deal out provisions 
to the girls unreservedly as Vassar 
does. It ought to be remembered 
that girls have digestive capacities as 
well as other creatures, and those ca- 
pacities ought to be respected. We 
believe that if the tables were made 
attractive and delightful enough to 
divert the minds of the blessed stu- 
dious lasses from their books, that it 
would set to sparkling many a dreamy 
eye, and ruddy glow would drive un- 
welcome pallor from many a school- 
girl's cheek. 


'76. We congratulate Mr. B. F. Mon- 
tague. He was married on the 6th 
inst. in Raleigh, and started off imme- 
diately on a Northern tour of two 
weeks. . 

'82. It is announced in another place 
that Mr. E. Hilliard leaves us in Janu- 
uary to make his home in Scotland 

Neck. We are sure that he and Mr. 
Ragsdale ('80), with whom he will be 
associated will make a success of their 
school and paper. Indeed, Mr. Rags- 
dale has already a fine and paying 
school. This year he will realize a 
larger income from it than any of our 
professors receive. 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni 


'80. In our last issue we did Mr. W. 
B. Waff the kindness to intensify his 
pleasant anticipations by the prema- 
ture announcement of his marriage. 
The 2 1st of December is the happy 

'72. Mr. C. H. Martin, who was with 
us last term as tutor, is now principal 
of the academy in Lumberton. He 
has one assistant and over fifty schol- 
ars. An effort is being made, in which 
Pastor Jordan is prominent, to estab- 
lish there a graded school. If it prove 
successful, Mr. Martin will be placed 
in charge. 

— '55. Prof. P. W. Johnson has been 
a teacher ever since his graduation. 
He occupied the position of tutor in 
the college one year. Afterwards he 
went South, and for some twenty -five 
years has been principal Of female 
seminaries in Alabama and Georgia. 
We are glad to announce that he will 
hereafter make Wake Forest his home. 
Having bought the interest of Mr. W. 
O. Allen in the firm of Allen, Purefoy^ 
& Co., he will devote himself to mer- 
cantile pursuits. We cordially wel- 
come him to our community. 

— Alumni Association.— It is well 
to Understand in the first place who 
are its members, and in the second 
place what are its objects. 

1 . The alumni orator has not in every 
case been a graduate of the College. 
Such a selection is justified by saying 
that an alumnus is one nourished, a 
learner, etc., the term being a relative 
one. Hence, other conditions being 
fulfilled, one who has been a student 
at Wake Forest is a fit person for the 
delivery of the commencement oration. 
We admit the etymology suggested. 

Cicero uses the word in the expression 
alumnus discipline niece. But, like 
many other words, it retains in its 
modern use the essential idea of its 
ancient use, but with a limited or spe- 
cific application. There can hardly be 
any doubt that the following remark 
by Worcester states its common and 
almost universal use at the present 
day : " Applied particularly to a gradu- 
ate of a college or university, regarded 
as his alma mater." Suppose that it 
may be properly applied to a student 
who has taken no diploma. It will be 
impossible to fix a point at which he 
is sufficiently ''nourished" for member- 
ship in the Association ; and the Asso- 
ciation becomes composed of men from 

•the full graduate down to our unfor- 
tunate friend whose^ failing purse or 
spirit cut short his course of culture 
at the first mile-stone. No : the 
Alumni Association, while we can 
conceive of a possible exception, must 
establish the diploma as an indispensa- 
ble condition of membership. 

2. What are its objects? We have 
not now access to its constitution, if 
indeed there is such a thing. There 
ought to be ; and these objects ought 

'to be therein duly formulated. In our 
mind, however, these several things 
have taken shape as being worthy and 
legitimate objects of the existence and 
influence of the Association. 

First, the improvement of the facili- 
ties of education at Wake Forest. Of 
course this would follow upon the am- 
ple endowment of the College ; but 
while that is still incomplete the Asso- 
ciation could do much for it, "not by 
establishing agencies, but by keeping 
the matter before its members as one 
having a claim upon their benefactions. 



There is need of illustrating apparatus 
in the schools of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy, and perhaps still 
more need of specimens of the animal, 
vegetable, and mineral kingdoms for 
the efficient teaching of Natural 
History. There is also room for growth 
in the Library and Reading Room. 

Second, the increase of the number 
of students to enjoy these improved 
facilities. It goes without saying, 
that the Alumni can do more here 
than all other classes of persons to- 
gether. They know whereof they 
speak, and enjoy the confidence of all 

Third, the development of an edu- 
cational spirit and a thirst for knowl- 
edge throughout the State. This 
might be assisted by a system of edu- 
cational meetings held under the di- 
rection of committees who should re- 
port results at the annual meeting of 
the body, and by lectures by indi- 
vidual members. Closely associated 
with such helpful agencies would be 

the wide circulation of The Wake 
Forest Student. 

Fourth, the preservation of the his- 
tory of the College and the record of 
its influence as illustrated in the lives 
of the individual Alumni. We suggest 
for the attainment of this object two 
means ; the columns of the college 
magazine are open to such material, 
not only in this particular department, 
but also in the department of contri- 
butions ; and it may be possible to add 
another speaker for the annual meet- 
ing, who shall be chosen from a cer- 
tain class, and whose duty it shall be 
to give the Association the history of 
his class. This address should be 
printed at the expense of the Associa- 

We submit that these are worthy 
objects, neither fanciful nor beyond 
attainment. If not these, let us have 
some definite objects of labor, and at 
once set about them. We should be 
pleased to receive other expressions of 
opinion on this important matter. 

W. L. P. 

WORTH REPEA TING-- --Educa, tion Indispensable. 




[From Address to the South London Working Men's College, Jan. 4, 1868.] 

Suppose it were perfectly certain 
that the life and fortune of every one 
of us would, one day or other, depend 
upon his losing or winning a game at 
chess, don't you think that we should 
all consider it to be a primary duty to 
learn at least the names and the moves 
of the pieces; to have a notion of a 
gambit, and a keen eye for all the 
means of giving and getting out of 
check? Do" you not think that we 
should look with a disapprobation 
amounting to scorn upon the father 
who allowed his son, or the State 
which allowed its members, to grow 
up without knowing a pawn from a 
knight? Yet it is a very plain and 
elementary truth that the life, the for- 
tune, and the happiness of every one 
of us, and, more or less, of those who 
are connected with us, do depend upon 
our knowing something of the rules of 
a game infinitely more difficult and 
complicated than chess. It is a game 
which has been played for untold ages, 
every man and woman of us being one 
of the two players in a game of his or 
her own. The chess-board is the world, 
the pieces are the phenomena of the 
universe, the rules of the game are 
what we call the laws of nature. The 
player on the other side is hidden from 

I us. We know that his play is always 
fair, just, and patient. But always we 
i know, to our cost, that he never over- 
\ looks a mistake, or makes the smallest 
\ allowance for ignorance. To the man 
who plays well the highest stakes are 
paid, with that sort of overflowing 
generosity with which the strong 
; shows delight in strength. And one 
who plays ill is check-mated — without 
; haste, but without remorse. My met- 
| aphor will remind some of you of the 
1 famous picture in which Retzsch has 
I depicted Satan playing at chess with 
man for his soul. Substitute for the 
mocking fiend in that picture, a calm, 
strong angel who is playing for love, as 
we say, and would rather lose than 
win — and I should accept it as an im- 
age of human life. * * * 

To every one of us the world was 
once as fresh and new "as to Adam. 
And then, long before we were sus- 
ceptible of any other mode of instruc- 
tion, Nature took us in hand, and 
every minute of waking life brought 
its educational influence, shaping our 
life into rough accordance with Na- 
ture's laws, so that we might not be 
ended untimely by too gross disobe- 
dience. Nor should I speak of this 
process of education as past, for any 



one, be he as old as he may. For 
every man the world is as fresh as it 
was at the first day, and as full of 
untold novelties for him who has the 
eyes to see them. And Nature is still 
continuing her patient education of 
us in that great university, the uni- 
verse, of which we are all members — 
Nature having no Test-Acts. Those 
who take honors in Nature's univer- 

sity, who learn the laws which govern 
men and things, and obey them, are 
the really great and successful men in 
this world. The great mass of man- 
kind are the " Poll" who pick up just 
enough to get through without much 
discredit. Those who wont learn at 
all are plucked ; and then you can't 
come up again. Nature's pluck means 


[From Good Words.] 
The wind had gone with the day, 

And the moon was in the sky, 
As I walked last night, by a lonely way, 
To a lonely path in the forest gray, 

That we loved, my love and I. 

They said, " She had gone to her home 

In a land that I did not know." 
And winds were still, and the woods were dumb, 
And I knew that she could not choose but come 

To a soul that loved her so. 

I had longed for her return, 

And she came and met me there r 
And I felt once more the swift blood burn 
Through my heart, as a foot-fall rustled the fern 

And a whisper stirred the air. 

And through where the moonlight streamed 

She passed, and never a trace ; 
Yet sweet in the shadow the glad eyes gleamed, 
And the shade more bright than the moonshine seemed 

For the brightness of her face. 

And I stretched my empty hands, 

And I cried in my weary pain, 
" Is there — away in the unknown lands, 
A heaven, where Time reverts his sands 

And the past returns again?" 

WORTB REPEATING— Life -Good Company. 



Life ! I know not what thou art, • 
But know that thou and I must part ; 
And when, or how, or where we met, 
I own to me's a secret yet. 

Life ! we've been long together, 

Through pleasant and through cloudy weather; 

'Tis hard to part when friends are dear — 

Perhaps 'twill cost a sigh, a tear; 

Then steal away, give little warning, 

Choose thine own time; 

Say not Good-night — but in some brighter clime 
Bid me Good-morning. 


When I sit by myself at the close of the day, 
And watch the blue twilight turn amber and gray, 
With fancies as twinkling and vague as the stars, 
And as distant as they from life's petty jars ; 

I know not, I think not where fortune may be, 

But I feel I'm in very good company ! 

When I sit with a friend at the glow of the hearth, 
To fight some great battle of wisdom or mirth, 
And strike from our armor the sparkles of wit 
That follow the shafts of our thought when they hit ; 
I ask not, I care not where pleasure may be, 
But I know I'm in excellent company! 

When I sit with my darling who loves me so well, 
And read in her eyes what no language can tell, 
Or trace on her lips, free as cherub's from guile, 
The meanings and mysteries hid in a smile ; » 

I heed not, I dream not where Eden may be, 

But I feel I'm in heavenly company ! 




[From Good Words.] 

Bright sea, far flooding all the pebbled sand, 

Flinging thy foamy pearls from stone to stone ; 
Thy lullaby, low-murmured to the strand, 
Sounds like a lover's tone ; 

And yet I know, elsewhere, 
Some other shore, as fair, 
Thy waves have kissed, and left it dry and lone. 

Bright sunshine, gleaming on my cottage wall, 

Tracing the shadow of an ivy-spray, 
How tenderly thy golden touches fall 
On common things to-day ! 
Yet, beneath other skies 
Some land benighted lies 
Deserted by thy glory, cold and gray. 

Blithe bird, loud warbling underneath the eaves 

An eager love-song passionate and shrill, 
My heart is trembling amid summer leaves 
With sweet responsive thrill ; 
Yet far away, dear guest, 
There is an empty nest 
Which thou hast left forsaken, void and still. 

Fair sea, bright sunshine, bird of song divine, 
I, too, may lose the tide, the light, the lay; 
Others may win the kisses that were mine, 
My night may be their day ; 

Yet, though the soul may sigh 
For precious things gone by, 
I shall have had my rapture, come what may ! 




[Arthur's Home MAgazine.J 

This little poem, from the pen of the late President, was written before his 
first term in Congress— hence some twenty years ago. At that time possibly 
the President of a Christian College was the " summit where trfe sunbeams 
fell," but the last lines are all but a prophecy : 

'Tis beauteous night ; the stars look brightly down 
Upon the earth, decked in her robe of snow, 
No light gleams at the window, save my own, 
Which gives its cheer to midnight and to me, 
And now, with noiseless step, sweet memory comes 
And leads me gently through her twilight realms. 
What poet's tuneful voice has ever sung, 
Or delicate pen portrayed, 

The enchanted, shadowy land where memory dwells ? 
It has its valleys, cheerless, lone and drear, 
Dark-shaded by the mournful cypress tree ; 
And yet its sunlit mountain-tops are bathed 
In heaven's own blue. Upon its craggy cliffs, 
Robed in the distant light of dreamy years, 
Are clustered joys serene of other days ; 
Upon its gentle, sloping hillsides bend 
The weeping willows o'er the dust 
Of dear departed ones ; and yet in that land, 
Where'er our footsteps fall upon the shore, 
They that were sleeping rise from out the dust 
Of death's long, silent years, and round us stand 
As rest they did before the prison tomb 
Receive their clay within its voiceless halls. 
The heavens that bend above that land are hung 
With clouds of various hues. Some dark and chill. 
Surcharged with sorrow, cast with sombre shade 
Upon the sunny, joyous land below. 
Others are floating through the dreamy air, 
White as the falling snow, their margins tinged 
With gold and crimsoned hues ; their shadows fall 
* Upon the flowery meads and sunny slopes, 

Soft as the shadow of an angel's wing. 
When the rough battle of the day is done, 
And evening's peace falls gently on the heart, 



I bound away, across the noisy years, 

Unto the utmost verge of memory's land, 

When earth and sky in dreamy distance meet, 

And memory dim with dark oblivion joins, 

Where woke the first remembered sounds that fell 

Upon the ear in childhood's early morn ; 

And, wandering thence along the rolling years, 

I see the shadow of my former self 

Gliding from childhood up to man's estate. 

The path of youth winds down through many a vale, 

And on the brink of many a dread abyss, 

From out whose darkness comes no ray of light, 

Save that a phantom dances o'er the gulf 

And beckons toward the verge. Again the path 

Leads o'er the summit where the sunbeams fall ; 

And thus in light and shade, sunshine and gloom, 

Sorrow and joy, the life-path leads along. 

James A. Garfield. 


— A spoon touches a girl's lips 
without kissing them, and the Judge 
says that is the reason they call a fel- 
low who don't know anything a spoon. 

— If anybody longs to be a million- 
aire, it is the youth who treats his girl 
to soda water, and then finds he has 
mistaken a button in his pocket for a 

— " Did you see the moon overyour 
right shoulder, my dear, ?" said she to 
him, as they roamed down the walk. 
" N-n-no, not exactly ; but I just saw 
the old man over my left shoulder, and 
I'll bid you good night." — T. Plant. 

— Fashions for pet dogs are now 
given in foreign magazines, and a lead- 
ing authority remarks that terriers only 

wear bracelets, while the " lulu " and 
the "bouledogue" may adopt collars 
mounted with medallions or with lock- 
ets inclosing a photograph. — Memphis 
A valanche. 

— The other day an elephant was 
seen in a Missouri village for the first 
time, and a little boy, as the great an- 
imal came in sight, cried out, " See, 
see, mamma! the el'fant is walkin' 
backwards !" The youngster had mis- 
taken the trunk for the tail. 

— Every sermon that is a sermon 
must leave on the mind of the hearer 
these two impressions: "This is the 
thing to be done," and " / am the man 
who must do it." If it fails of this, it 
is not a sermon ; it may be an essay, 
a study, a disquisition ; but it is not a 
sermon . — N ational Baptist. 



— Time : Election day. Slightly ex- 
hilarated individual in front of the city 
hall vainly trying to put on his coat. 
Sympathizing passer-by : " You're put- 
ting the right arm into the left sleeve." 
Exhilarated individual : " That's all 
right, I — I'm le — left handed." — Uni- 
versity {Pa.) Magazine. 

— She admitted to her mother that 
the young man had made a very strong 
impression on her. " Yes," said the 
old lady, " I can see where the impres- 
sion mashed that lace flat as a clean 
napkin. Don't let it happen again. — 
Syracuse Times. 

— A distinguised Professor was in 
Edinburgh one wet Sunday, and, de- 
siring to go to church, he hired a cab. 
On reaching the church door he ten- 
dered a shilling — the legal fare — to 
cabby, and was somewhat surprised to 
hear the cabman say, " Twa shullin, 
sir." The Professor, fixing his eagle 
eye upon the extortioner, demanded 
why he charged two shillings, upon 
which the cabman dryly answered, 
" We wish to discourage travelling on 
the Sawbeth as much as possible, sir." 
— Central Baptist. 

— PROFESSOR of Civil Engineeing — 
" Mr. P., which would be the more 
feasible plan, to construct one con- 
tinuous grade up a very steep ascent, 
or to have several grades, one tending 
to the right, and another to the left, 
and so on ?" 

Mr. P. — " I suppose several grades 
would be better, sir." 

Professor — " How so, sir?" 

Mr. P. — " Why, sir, to give the engi- 
neer a change of scenery /" — University 
(Va.) Magazine. 

— Dr. Arnold, writing to one of 
his former pupils at Rugby, gives some 

excellent hints to those who would 
guard against the habit of reading 
without thought or system : 

" I would advise you," he writes, "to 
make an abstract of one or two stand- 
ard works — one, I should say, in phil- 
osophy — the other in history. I would 
not be in a hurry to finish them, but 
keep them going with one page always 
clear for notes. 

" The abstract itself practices you in 
condensing and giving in your own 
words what another man has said ; a 
habit of great value, as it forces one 
to think about it, which extracting 
merely does not. 

" It further gives brevity and sim- 
plicity to your language, two of the 
greatest merits which style can have, 
and the notes give you an opportunity 
of a great deal of original composition, 
beside a constant place to which to re- 
fer anything that you may read in 
other books ; for having such an ab- 
stract on hand, you will be often think- 
ing when reading other books of what 
there may be in them which will bear 
upon your abstract." 

— PROFESSOR : " Mr. Briggs, will 
you please define space ?" Mr. Briggs : 
" Space is a real objective immaterial 
extended, continuous, infinite, immu- 
table, eternal, and absolute whole of 
capacity to receive extended substance 
existing in trine extension of infinite 
length, infinite breadth, and infinite 
depth, which is ideally divisible in each 
dimension into infinite wholes of lo- 
cality, of all possible forms and sizes 
possessing the relations of similarity, 
difference, ratio, direction, distance, 
contiguity and conjunctibility." Exit 
Professor and students after a diction- 
ary. — Exchange. 




A Literary and Educational Monthly, published by the Euzelian and Philo- 
mathesian Societies of Wake Forest College, closes its first year with the 
December number. What was at first an experiment now rests on a good 
basis. We leave the work of the past year labelled SUCCESS. The future 
prosperity of our journal depends almost solely on the extension of its patron- 
age. Friends, aid us in extending its circulation. Speak for it, write for it, 
work for it, subscribe for it. 

With many thanks to our many friends for past favors, we respectfully solicit 
for the future such patronage as we shall merit. Few magazines of its size 
equal The STUDENT in pure and entertaining reading matter. Considering 
its youthfulness, it stands without a peer among college journals. 

[Price, - - - - : - S2.00 per year. 

" Well conducted." — University (N. C.) Monthly. 

"An excellent journal." — " thoroughly interesting." — Biblical Recorder. 
il I always read it through before I put it down." — Dr. Tlws. E. S&inner, at 

" I do, too.' — Dr. J. D. Huf ham. 

" Always glad to exchange with such a journal, it is among the best of our 
exchanges." — Philo Star. 

" Well worthy the support of the public at large as well as of those more 
immediately interested in the college from which it emanates." — Raleigh News 
and Observer. 

" Put me down for one more copy, and send it to the prettiest girl you know 
who doesn't take it." — Hon. C M. Cooke at Baptist State Convention. 

" Full, and excellent in its typographical execution. It shows that the 
editors' heads are full of news and thought." — Delaware College Review. 

" Worthy of the College and an honor to the State -Oxford Orphans' Friend. 

" Presents a splendid appearance." — Wilmington New South. 

Those whose subscriptions expire with the present or succeeding issue, will 
greatly favor us by a prompt renewal. Address 


Wake Forest College, N. C. 

flows and f^ow Sastttigs, 



Corn, Cotton and Tobacco. 

W. B. DUNN, 

4— 12m Wake Forest College, N. C. 

Table of Contents. 

JANUARY, 1883. 



From College to Prison, = Mac. A. Fee.. 193 

Principle, not Expediency, the Guide of Life, G. C. B. 202 

Seeing the Dark Side, : B. L. Ank. 207 

A Portrait and a Statue, 215 


Mr. J. H. Mills' Article, 216 

Illiteracy and the Colleges, ...W. L. P. 216 

Below the Surface, E. S. A. 217 

Educational, ^ 219 

Literary Gossip, 223 

Science Notes, 226 

In and About the College, 228 

Wake Forest Alumni, 232 

Our Book Table, 234 


Ethics and Aesthetics in Literature, Rev. J. Max Hark. 235 

Unrest, Francis Ridley Havergal. 237 




January, 1883. 

Vol. 2. WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, N. C. No. 5. 



Senior Editor E. S. Alderman. Senior Editor W. F. Marshall. 

Associate Editor H. B. Folk. Associate Editor D. M. Austin. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions, must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all communications to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. 


A Story of the Invisible Empire. 



"All aboard!" 

A moment of hurry and confusion, 
and the train is moving. On the rear 
platform of the hindmost coach stands 
a young man, gazing wistfully at the 
fast receding depot. 

Then the village is lost in the dis- 
tance and he looks mechanically, with 
eyes dimmed by tears, at the fleeting 
cross-ties over which he is whirling. 

He has bidden farewell, for the first 
time, to home and sweetheart, and is 
off for college. He is thinking — 
hence tears. This parting means more 
than temporary absence from loved 
ones. It means severance from old 
habits and introduction to a new world, 
a new life. The mother, in the future, 
will know her boy only as a visitor to 
the old homestead. He feels this, and 
is sad. 

On the next morning we find him 
on the north-bound express leaving 
Raleigh. He had been travelling for 

about forty-five minutes, when Capt. 
Bear opened the coach door, and 
called out, " Wake Forest !" 

Seizing his valise our hero hastened 
from the car, and as he touched the 
ground was greeted with deafening 
shouts of "New-ish!" " Leg 'im!'' 
" Leg 'im ! !" 

After a struggle with many "friends" 
who wished to show him the way to 
the college (which was only three 
hundred yards distant and in plain 
view), he succeeded in finding the 
young man to whom he had a letter 
of introduction. Under his guidance, 
after an hour's search, he also found 
his trunk, which had been hurriedly 
borne by willing hands to regions un- 

He is then shown to the Bursar. 
"Your name in full, sir?" 
" David Summey." 
"Your father's post office?" 
" Chessville, South Carolina." 
He then relieved himself of all his 
money but ten dollars. 



At night we find him in his room 
alone, a travel-worn, homesick boy. 
He knows, however, that he must 
tough it out, and at length takes a 
more rational view of things. Wake 
Forest is a much smaller place than 
his mind had pictured. This is an- 
other sad disappointment. So taking 
his Bible he sits down and reads with- 
out interruption the entire book of 

This act came not so much from a 
spirit of devotion, as from a vein of 
dry philosophic humor which ran 
through his character. 

His homesickness did not prove ob- 
stinate. The busy routine of college 
life soon left no time to pine for the 
impossible. He joins his chosen So- 
ciety. Charmed by the halo of fra- 
ternity which its secrecy throws around 
it, and fascinated by the excitement 
incident to its heated debates within, 
and struggle for supremacy without, 
he becomes at once a " society man." 

Ambition whispers in his ear the 
luring story of honor and fame, and 
he is soon afire with enthusiasm. At 
Commencement he ascends the ros- 
trum amid the cheers of friends and 
the tender glances of admiration from 
pretty maidens, to receive the gold 
medal for improvement in oratory. 

His career in college is destined to 
be a brilliant one. Vacation ended, he 
is back again and promptly at work. 
His eager eye is already fixed on new 
honors in College and Society, and a 
brighter future still looms up in the 

But a shadow falls across his path- 
way. Serious and thoughtful, he is sit- 
ting in his room a bleak day in De- 
cember brooding over this trouble, 

when a friend calls to have a little 

" Hello, Dave ! you seem to be wan- 
dering in the Mow-grounds of sorrow' 
again. I want to know what in the 
nation is the matter with you here of. 
late, anyway ?" 

" Then sit down, ' Rip,' and I'll tell 
you, for I am tired thinking of it. It 
will be a relief to talk things over. 
Read this letter from mother, and 
you'll understand." The letter ran 
thus : 

My Darling Boy:— * * * * U. S. 
troops are quartered at Chessville, and 
are making hundreds of arrests daily. 
Almost every young man in the coun- 
try who has not been taken has gone 
to Texas or Arkansas. I need not ask 
you, my boy, why you joined the Ku 
Klux Klan. I know your reasons, as 
every true Southern woman does, and 
they were good. But oh, how terrible 
to think of your being arrested and 
thrown into jail ! The thought almost 
drives me mad. Your name has not 
yet been implicated, but Alvin Dun- 
cane has turned traitor, and will, I am 
almost sure, soon involve you. * * * 
My dear boy, I am praying that you 
may be left unhurt. All my hopes are 
so bound up in your future that harm 
to you would be death to me. Your 
father is very feeble, and his anxiety 
is the cause of it. Telegraph to us if 
anything happens. 


" So they are liable to pounce upon 
you at any time, old fellow? And you 
don't feel comfortable under the cir- 

" Oh ! I don't care a straw what they 
do with me, 11 replied David, with em- 



phasis. " But father and mother are 
worrying their life out; and if I am 
arrested there is no telling what will 

" Shucks ! they are not going to get 
you down here. Nothing so lively as 
that going to take place around this 
old institution, I'm certain. Just im- 
agine a boy being marched off at the 
point of the bayonet ! Too romantic 
entirely !" 

" Well, I only wish / were certain of 
it," was his companion's thoughtful 
reply. " I joined that organization 
with my eyes open, though but a boy, 
and I am willing, if need be, to abide 
by the consequences. I would again 
do the same thing under similar cir- 
cumstances. I believe the existence 
of that order, for a time at least, was 
absolutely necessary for the protection 
of our homes, our characters, and our 
lives. I have sown the wind ; 1 am 
ready to reap the whirlwind, though 
it be the death knell of all the fond 
hopes and bright dreams of youth." 

" Oh ! you needn't get eloquent over 
it. I just k?iow nothing will happen 
to you while stowed away in this old 
asylum. You are safe, old boy; so, 
save that eloquence for some debate — 
you can work it in on almost any 


The Transit and Trial. 

It was the last Friday in December, 
1 871. The shades of night were set- 
tling over the quiet little village of 
Wake Forest, as a rickety old ambu- 
lance drawn by two stacks of bones 
once honored by the name " horse," 
halted before the south campus gate. 

In^a few minutes_ the heavy tramp 

of soldiers could be heard as they 
marched up the walk-way leading to 
the college building. Not a boy was 
astir ; for the bell had ceased to toll, 
and the last straggling Eu. and Phi. 
were in their seats. 

In the Eu. Hall the debate had al- 
ready opened, and was growing warm. 
David Summey is on the floor defend- 
ing, in his earnest and impulsive style, 
the character of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

A loud rap is heard at the door. 
The door-keeper announces to a star- 
tled Society: "A United States Mar- 
shal wishes to see officially the gentle- 
man from Chessville." 

Half the boys leaped to their feet 
with excitement at this announcement, 
but a rap of the gavel brought all to 
their seats. 

" I move we adjourn !" cried a mem- 

"Second the motion!" echoed a 
dozen voices. 

The motion was carried, and in a 
moment the members had collected 
around Summey, who had not yet left 
his position on the floor. 

u Well, fellows, my hour has come," 
said he, in* a half laughing way as he 
gathered up his hat from the centre- 

" We'll see about that, old chum," 
said a strong voice at his side. " There 
are only six soldiers out there. We 
can lick that crowd so quick there will 
be no fun in it. They are cowardly 
wretches, any way, who have been 
mustered into Kirk's service. Dave, 
we'll rescue you in a twinkling, if you 
say so ? 

" That we will !" shouted every boy 
in the Hall. 

" Boys, with your help I could es- 


cape, but I will not accept it. Your 
kindness will not be forgotten soon. 
I don't propose to run." 

In spite of all their protests he de- 
livered himself up to the Marshal, who 
at once arrested him. 

With a heavy heart he bade adieu 
to his school-mates, and, casting a lin- 
gering look at the old college building, 
signified to the soldiers his readiness 
to depart. 

Surrounded by six rusty bayonets, 
in the hands of six dirty scoundrels, 
he was escorted through the campus ; 
and, entering the waiting hack, was 
taken to Raleigh, where they arrived 
about midnight. 

He spent the remainder of the night, 
which was bitter cold, on the bare 
floor of the guard-house. 

The next morning he was informed 
by the United States Commissioner 
that, as the charge of murder stood 
against his name, he would not be al- 
lowed to give bail. 

"Who dares prefer such a charge !" 
indignantly asked David. 

"That is immaterial at present, Mr. 
Summey. You will be tried in South 
Carolina, where the crime- was com- 
mitted," replied the Commissioner. 

" So I am an alleged murderer," 
mused David, as he returned to the 
guard-house. "Rather an ugly thought. 
Though the charge is as false as the 
dastardly coward who has made it, I 
may hang for it. I can expect noth- 
ing better than to be tried by an ig- 
noraut negro jury. I see I have an 
enemy at work." 

En route from Raleigh to Columbia 
David had many opportunities of es- 
caping the Marshal, who often slept 
soundly under the influence of whiskey. 


But he chose not to take advantage of 
these opportunities, though more than 
once he was startled from a doze by 
the flitting vision of a gallows. 

On New Year's day he found him- 
self lodged in the jail of Columbia. 
The inmate of a prison, charged with 
the gravest offence known to law! 
The plate from which he was com- 
pelled to eat was an old wash-pan, so 
dirty that one could not tell of what 
it was made. So he ate with his back 
to his plate, and felt for his victuals. 
The sight of that pan was more than 
a stomach with any sense of propriety 
could bear. But as the days dragged 
themselves wearily along, these mis- 
erable, surroundings became familiar. 
Disgusting as they were at first, daily 
contact soon made all common-place. 
Those were dreary days indeed, as 
he sat hour after hour gazing through 
his iron bars at the busy city beneath, 
within whose limits he had not a sin- 
gle friend. Sad thoughts of the agony 
he knew his parents were suffering 
harassed him day and night. His 
father was bending all his energy to 
his rescue, but without avail. There 
was a power behind the throne. 

The jailor was a bitter Radical, and, 
at a safe distance behind strong bars, 
spent much of his time cursing and 
jeering at the prisoners. 

At the end of a month David, hand- 
cuffed and chained to another pris- 
oner, was removed to Yorkville, but 
thirty miles from his home. Here his 
condition was much improved. Dur- 
ing his stay in the jail at Yorkville, he 
was visited by nearly all the young 
ladies of the town, who relieved the 
tedium of many a long hour by their 
jovial conversation and expressions of 


warm sympathy. He received nu- 
merous boxes from them containing 
the nicest edibles of every description. 
Tender memories of their kindness he 
will always keep. 

One day a visitor in the person of 
Mr. Alvin Duncane was ushered into 
his presence. Mr. Duncane had some 
very important propositions to lay be- 
fore his former associate. After in- 
forming him that he had been ele- 
vated to the rank of United States 
Marshal, he said with a confiden- 
tial wink : " Now, Dave, if you will 
turn State's evidence against the Ku 
Klux, and pay me five hundred dollars, 
I'll manage this little charge of mur- 
der, and then see that you get a pay- 
ing position besides." 

David arose, and, with lips curled 
with scorn and eyes sparkling with 
suppressed rage, gazed for a moment 
at his visitor, and then said with burn- 
ing emphasis : 

" Alvin Duncane, do you know why 
I have not knocked your teeth down 
your lying throat ? Because, traitor, 
I wished to see the depth of a black 
heart. Oh, no ! you don't get out of 
this door yet [stepping between him 
and the door], I have somewhat to say 
to thee.' 

"You have proved yourself a villain 
of the deepest dye. The first and only 
raid in which I was ever engaged as a 
Ku Klux, you were with me. You 
were loudest in professions of ever- 
lasting fidelity to the order and its 
purpose. But when the crisis came, 
you were not only found wanting in 
all the principles of true manhood, but 
like a cringing hound licked the feet 
of the first Yankee officer you saw, ac- 
knowledging your guilt with the deep- 

est humility. You even fell lower 
than the conquered hound. Having 
perjured your grovelling soul by prov- 
ing false to your oath, you have be- 
trayed every friend who has fallen into 
your power by trusting to your honor. 
To cap the climax of your infamy you 
have joined the enemy ; and, clothed 
with the insignia of National power — 
the power at which you struck — you 
stalk through the country hunting 
down and imprisoning your fellow 
conspirators. And to-day you stand 
before me, avaricious wretch that you 
are, offering, for five hundred dollars, 
to relieve me of a charge made by your 
own lying lips! I had rather die 
than gratify you with one dime. Me- 
thinks when you reach your final home 
below, the very flames of hell will re- 
coil from contact with your foul car- 
cass. The Devil will have to soak you 
in petroleum before you will burn. 

" Coward ! I give you ten seconds 
to leave this room." It required but 

Alvin Duncane, who had stood with 
downcast countenance during this 
fierce denunciation, no sooner found 
the way clear than he sprang for the 
door, and with a muttered curse dis- 

At the expiration of two months 
more, our prisoner was removed to 
Charleston, where the United States 
Court was in session. He was ar- 
raigned before Judge Bond and 
tried as a simple conspirator, since 
there was not the shadow of any 
evidence to sustain the charge of 
murder. The jury consisted of eleven 
coal-black negroes (so slick they looked 
like they had been greased with meat 



skins) and another motley animal of 
uncertain color, who tried to pass for 
a white man. 

They retired for about five minutes 
and returned. There was silence in 
court as the dusky foreman, who was 
a sort of preacher, arose to render the 
verdict : " May hit please yer onuh, 
we fin's dat'pris'ner guilty — wurl wid- 
out en." 

Even the Judge could not repress a 
smile at the solemn flourish attached 
to the decision, as he turned to the 
accused and slowly pronounced the 
sentence : Mr. Summey, by the au- 
thority in me invested, I sentence you 
to eight years confinement at hard la- 
bor in the United States prison at 

The condemned man listened to 
those eventful words without moving 
a muscle, and resumed his seat. 



After the trial David's prison life 
began in earnest. His lodgings in jail 
were changed to a dungeon which ad- 
mitted no fresh air. Life now was a 
burden indeed. His nature was not 
one that easily yields to melancholy, 
but was rather defiant. He was too 
proud to ask any mitigation of the 
treatment. But the lack of fresh air 
and exercise, and the mental anguish 
caused by thoughts of his parents and 
his own blighted hopes, were finally 
too much for his constitution. He 
was taken suddenly ill, and in twenty- 
four hours became delirious. For 
weeks the fierce struggle between life 
and death continued. During periods 
of dim consciousness he could feel the 
very presence of death as he hovered 

over the darkened cell. There was no 
fond mother there to comfort or cheer. 
The sense of utter loneliness he expe- 
rienced can only be understood by 
those who have wrestled alone with 
death in a strange land. 

Upon learning of his condition the 
ladies of Charleston took great interest 
in him. One especially (Mrs. Griggs) 
visited frequently the young sufferer, 
whose handsome face with its deli- 
cately cut features told her of gentle 
rearing, and touched her heart. Every 
day she sent a negro with something 
nice to eat. When strong enough to 
be moved, she had him transferred to 
a room with windows, and provided 
him with a comfortable bed. David, 
however, remained dangerously ill 
until late in the spring, when he began 
slowly to convalesce. The ninth day 
of June found him, with several other 
prisoners, aboard a steamer bound for 
Albany. The strong sea breeze seemed 
to infuse new life into his weakened 
blood. He soon felt strong and vig- 

The wonders of a first sea voyage 
might have been enjoyable but for the 
shadows of prison walls which dark- 
ened all. The sights he saw made 
little impression on his mind — there 
was no room for them. 

After four days on water they ar- 
rived at Albany, and were conducted 
at once into the presence of the Su- 
perintendent of the prison. They were 
told to choose a profession. David's 
name was called. He arose to reply. 
Casting a glance at the doleful coun- 
tenances of his fellow prisoners, with 
a mingled smile of humor and pity, he 
said : " I'll make coffins, sir. I think 
we'll need several before long." 



The officer looked up with an ex- 
pression of astonishment which said 
plainly : " Rather an interesting speci- 
men." He made no objection, how- 

They were then ordered to change 
their clothing for the ordinary con- 
vict's garb, with which they were pro- 
vided. The suit was made up of a short 
close-cut black coat, a neat blue cap 
with flat top, and pantaloons of a coarse 
gray material built on the " barn door" 
style. They were then instructed in 
the prison regulations, one of which 
taught them never to look to the right 
or left, but always straight in front. 

By the time all preliminaries were 
arranged it was night. David was con- 
ducted to his cell, and a cell it was in 
truth. Six feet wide, eight feet long, 
and walls of granite. The floor was 
one solid rock, and the ceiling the 
same. With the door closed, but one 
hole could be found, and that a very 
small key hole. A rude bed in the 
corner and a wooden stool completed 
its furniture. 

As he sat there in the gloom on this 
Friday night in June, the terrible 
reality of a convict's life for the first 
time stared him full in the face. His 
mind (that power that cannot be pris- 
oned !), overleaping the solid masonry 
that confined the body, wanders back 
to his home in the Sunny South. Tears 
are falling as he sees the loved ones 
bowed with sorrow. He is at the old 
college again. . ' Tis Friday night — the 
last one in the session, too ! He sees 
the happy faces of old companions as 
they are smiling at the straggling 
" funny debate" which winds up the 
session's work. 

He thinks of some one else, too. 

The windowed walls of Vassar College 
which he had seen in the distance that 
day, contains a little blue-eyed maiden 
whom he had learned to love. He had 
never declared that love, but he be- 
lieved it was returned. May Burton 
was of Northern birth, and her father 
had removed from Chessville to his 
old home in New York since May had 
entered college. Few messages had 
passed between them, yet he believed 
that in her heart there was still a ten- 
der spot for him. But how she would 
receive the news of his arrest, con- 
demnation, and imprisonment as a 
member of the dread Invisible Empire, 
he knew not ; for May was a thorough- 
bred Yankee in all her ideas. So he 
says, with a sigh : " Better I should 
forget her. Eight years ' at hard labor' 
will not leave much poetry in my na- 
ture any way." To him the future is 
as dark and cheerless as the cell in 
which he sits. 

The next day he commenced work, 
and his eight long years began slowly 
to drag themselves out. All the days 
were alike, no variety, no change — all 
monotony. When not at work in the 
shops, he could be found sitting in his 
den, with one boot in his hand, bat- 
tling manfully for life with the ver- 
min which infested the place. The 
prison was noted for cleanliness — still 
they were there. 

When about three months had 
passed, one day a friend, who had en- 
tered with him, stepped up and with 
a " furlough grin" that overspread his 
entire anatomy, said : " Dave, I'm a 
free man !" 

" What !" 

" Here is my pardon, if you don't 
believe it." 



Then hope revived. 

" Mine next/' was the thought that 
thrilled David, and gave to his step a 
new spring. But, alas ! he was doomed 
to disappointment. He saw the last 
of his associate conspirators bid a joy- 
ful adieu to the dingy prison, and still 
no pardon came. 

At % last he knew the cause. Mr. 
Alvin Duncane, the United States 
Marshal, was at Washington specially 
interesting himself in his case. " The 
cursed villain!" muttered David, as he 
heard of it. " I'll live to be free yet. 
And when I am, friend Duncane, you'll 
have to migrate certain ! either to the 
plains of Texas, or, perchance, to a 
much warmer climate." 

David still had hope that his friends 
would triumph over his enemy and 
obtain his release, but he had the 
benefit of an extensive doubt on the 

" I have no faith in the integrity of 
the National Government," he would 
say. " I believe it as corrupt and vil- 
lainous as the scoundrel whom it has 
favored with power." 

On New Year's day, the anniversary 
of his prison career, as he was driving 
his plane along a coffin lid, a party of 
joyous school girls, guided by the Su- 
perintendent, entered the shops. 
When within a few steps of his bench, 
one of their number suddenly stop- 
ped and gazed at him as if rooted to 
the spot. 

Another girl noticing it, tittered 
out : " Heigho ! May, do you recog- 
nize a friend f The girls all turned 
inquiringly to May Burton to hear her 

The prisoner's heart stood still as 

he waited breathlessly for the answer, 
which to him would mean worlds. 

" Yes, I do," replied May, in a tone 
that showed she meant it. And turn- 
ing to the Superintendent, she said : 
" I would like to speak to that pris- 
oner ?" 

" Certainly." m 

Without a moment's hesitation, be- 
fore her laughing and amazed com- 
panions, she walked straight up to 
David, and, extending to him her 
pretty little hand, asked, not without 
some agitation, " What does this mean, 
Mr. Summey?" 

" It means, Miss May, that I am a 
member of the Ku Klux organization. 
My reasons for joining that order I 
have told you before. And, owing to 
the villainy of one I once trusted as a 
friend, I am still a prisoner while all 
others are released." Averting her 
face from his earnest look, she re- 
turned to the party, and was gone. 

" Well, May, he certainly is hand- 
some, if he is a convict. And I really 
don't think he looks much mean," said 
one of the girls, as they were leaving. 

" Oh ! isn't it so funny !" said an- 
other. "May's lover — her true lover, re- 
member — is in prison. How romantic ! 
We must write it up for the Miscel- 

" Tut ! Hush your foolishness, girls. 
I only know him as a friend. He 
never spoke a word of love to me in 
his life," said May, blushing. 

" No matter, Mademoiselle, you love 
him, that's plain enough. I can see 
it in your eye." 

" No you can't ! But I am not 
ashamed to own him as a friend. He 
would die rather than stoop to a base 
act. I know him." 



"That's right, stand up for your 
hero, May," was the taunting reply. 

" You mean to stand up by him some 
day, don't you ?" said another. But 
May remained silent, allowing them 
to enjoy themselves at her expense. 

" She's a trump," thought David, as 
they passed out of sight. " If I could 
only win her!" 

The next train carried May home. 
Bursting into Judge Burton's room, 
she exclaimed : 

" Father, what do you think ?" 

" Really, daughter, I don't know, 
but I rather think you have seen some- 
thing interesting. What is it, little 
one ?" 

As hurriedly as possible she related 
the day's events, closing with an earn- 
est appeal to her father to go imme- 
diately to Washington and obtain his 

" To please you, Daisy, I'll go. 
Though I am inclined to the opinion 
the young rascal ought to serve his 
time out." 

" Oh ! father, you don't believe that. 
You were at the South at the time and 
know the circumstances." 

" Bless me, if I don't believe the 
little huzzy's in love with the scamp," 
ejaculated the Judge, as he hastened 
to the depot to catch the train. "He's 
a fine boy, though, without a doubt. 
These confounded Southern affairs are 
always in a mess." 

On the twentieth day of January the 
doors of the old prison swung open 
once more, and David Summey step- 
ped out a free man. The. supreme joy 

of that moment can be better imagined 
than written. 

* * * * * * 

Two years and a half have rolled 

away. On the deck of a steamer 
ploughing the waters of the Hudson, 
one beautiful evening in June, stands a 
young physician with his newly won 
diploma projecting from his pocket. 
He is enjoying the changing scenery, 
and from the expression of his face 
we know he is going to see her. 

In due time we find him seated in 
Judge Burton's cosy parlor with the 
little one by his side. He had been 
there often before. 

Somehow,the conversation dragged.. 
May seemed embarrassed. The fact 
is, from the time David Summey had. 
entered the room, a woman's unerring 
instinct had told her that he meant 
business this evening. She felt that 
her hour had come, and instinctively 
shrank from it. 

" Miss May, I have something of a 
serious nature to say to you." He 
received no answer, and continued : 
" Since the day we first met, I believe 
— I know I have loved you. And 
this love has grown stronger and deeper 
with the years, until it has become a 
part of my being. For me, there is 
not a single bright thought or hope in 
which your sweet form is not entwined. 
If I have gained honors, it was that I 
might lay them at your feet. If am- 
bition lures me to strive for a noble 
destiny, it is that I may deck your 
brow with its laurels. May, I ask you 
for the grandest gift a woman can be- 
stow — her love, which means her life. 
I wait your answer." 

There was a moment's silence. She 
raised her drooping head, and in spite 
of a tear or two there was a mischiev- 
ous twinkle in her eye, as she asked : 

"Can I marry a released convict ?" * 

" If you love him, May." 



" And I do," was her firm answer, 
as she placed her hand in his open 
palm. " Yes, my lord, I am ready for 
the sacrifice. I only hope to prove 
worthy of the manly heart I have 

" Then, darling, fix the day !" 

" Oh ! you must give me time to 
breathe," was the playful reply. 

" All right ! In two days, if I don't 
get a letter that reads mighty pretty, 
you can just fix up your bangs, for I'll 
be here;" 


The subject of this article suggests 
a journey — for what is life but a jour- 
ney ending in the most solemn and 
fearful consequences? — a kind of pil- 
grimage through countries innumera- 
ble — a voyage over seas vast — a jour- 
ney furnishing to the view of the trav- 
eller every variety of scene and object, 
some enchanting and beautiful, some 
inspiring and elevating, and others 
stirring the soul with fear, indignation, 
or disgust ? But however diversified 
the objects which meet him, whether 
mountains lofty, cliffs rugged, valleys 
deep, seas stormy or seas calm, this 
journey must be made by each and 
every individual. Unlike the question 
of deciding at leisure whether one 
shall take a trip to the u Land of the 
Sky," the mountains of Virginia, Ni- 
agara Falls, or the Old World, this 
question has already been decided, 
and the decision is unalterable. The 
journey has been made by all the gen- 
erations from the time when chaos 
with its terrible confusion and murky 
darkness became order and harmony, 
down to the busy, pulsating, wonder- 
ful present, and will continue to be 
made until the last echo of receding 
centuries shall die away in the dim 
distance. It is inevitable. Every tick 

of the clock, as it marks the hours of 
fleeting days ; every breath, as it sup- 
plies fresh oxygen to the hungry blood; 
every twinkle of the eye, as it is be- 
dimmed by the particles flying from 
the swift wheel of time, contributes 
new momentum to man's progress to- 
wards eternity, the end of this journey. 

Along this highway of life, notwith- 
standing the swiftness with which it is 
passed over, is many a scwoling des- 
perado lying in ambush, many a rav- 
enous wild beast lurking in the hedge, 
many a poisonous reptile coiled in the 
bramble, to fall upon the wearied pil- 
grim and rob him of his goods, to tear 
his flesh, or to poison the fountain of 
his life. Just ahead there are many 
whirlpools, dark abysses, and quiver- 
ing quick-sands, into which he is liable 
to fall at any moment. To avoid these, 
helpless man instinctively throws up 
his hands to Heaven and implores a 
guide. He has no more than uttered 
his piteous prayer than two mysterious 
beings hover about him, in dress and 
appearance entirely dissimilar. One 
is arrayed in a suit of coarse texture, 
with a countenance firm and look stern, 
indicating endurance and firmness. 
The other is " clothed in purple and 
fine linen," with comely features and 



glances quick and darting, betraying a 
restless spirit and fickle purpose. The 
visitor of the stern air, raising the 
hand with the voice as if to point out 
the way, thus addresses him : " You 
see what lies before you. If you choose 
me to direct your course, we face all. 
We shall turn neither to the right 
hand nor to the left. Though the 
days be burdensome with toils and 
cares, and the nights hideous with the 
howl of the storm, we shall proceed 
fearlessly and without faltering." The 
other, intent upon a gracious hearing, 
assumes a different tone, and speaks 
with soft flowing words which fall 
on the ear of the eager listener 
like music in the stilly night : " If you 
permit me to accompany you through 
the journey of life which looks so 
gloomy and seems 'compassed about' 
with so many awful and impending 
dangers, I promise you a more easy 
and pleasing route than the one which 
requires the facing of all^these perils. 
We'll beguile the cares of day with 
listless indolence, and feasts prepared 
by other hands shall gratify your ap- 
petite and make your burdens light. 
The black nights shall be transformed 
into brightest days, and the sparkling 
wine shall chase away your every care. 
Everything pleasing to appetite or 
desire you shall receive promptly from 
my hands." 

Thus the man of this world is daily 
addressed, and, bewildered and per- 
plexed, he is often at a loss what to 
do. If he be a man swayed by strong 
appetites, desires, and affections, 
though these be somewhat under the 
influence of prudence, he will accept 
the entreaties of the latter ; if a good 
and virtuous man, he will yield to the 

voice of the former. But if he be 
both a good and a prudent man, Prin- 
ciple will be his constant adviser in 
every course of conduct and will de- 
cide upon every motive of action, 
though Epediency may be allowed to 
obtrude herself when several duties 
are under consideration, all equally 
right, but having unequal claims, and 
to whisper to him the one which is 
most pleasing. However, not every 
man is both wise and virtuous, and 
capable therefore of being led by both 
hands at the same time ; but must 
either fasten his eye on the stern and 
determined countenance of Principle, 
or yield to the musical and delusive 
voice of Expediency. 

Glance at his life who has Expe- 
diency for his guide. *His first new 
trowsers, in which he struts about the 
yard and front porch with a majestic 
air of self-importance that would make 
a newly crowned king feel small, are 
his old sire's time-honored wedding 
pantaloons freshly recast. In his school 
days, in order to shine with a brilliancy 
equal to that of his classmates, and to 
win the favor of his instructors by his 
apparent skill and thoroughness, he 
ornaments his desk with interlinears 
and literal translations ; and amid the 
thrilling acclamations of an admiring 
corps of teachers and a bewildered and 
dazzled concourse of students, he is 
triumphantly borne through college 
upon a motley, greasy " Pony" already 
jaded by the onerous burdens of many 
other unfortunate youths animated by 
a similar ambition. If he is a political 
aspirant, that he may ingratiate him- 
self into the favor of his constituents, 
he makes circuitous campaigns into 
obscure corners of petty provinces and 



syburban wards of the city and alights 
at every unsightly cabin to pay his re- 
spects to the occupants. He smiles 
graciously upon the landlady, giving 
her hand a hearty grasp, while his arms 
encased in broadcloth sleeves encircle 
a ragged and squalid brat just out of 
a mud-puddle — its accustomed place 
of revelry. Having spoiled two or 
three handkerchiefs endeavoring to re- 
move from his spoiled broadcloth the 
" real estate" which he has robbed the 
little fellow of, he hastens to conclude 
his demonstrations, and withdraws 
from the premises, leaving the inhabi- 
tants in happy bewilderment with the 
thought that the " town gentleman" 
should make them a " fashionable 

In the Legislative Halls of State 
and in the Senate Chamber of the 
United States, that he may perpetuate 
his name and elicit the praise of his 
country — no, the country, for he has no 
country — he burdens the Congres- 
sional Records, at the expense of the 
very people whom he dupes, with com- 
pilations of other men's thoughts, in- 
terspersed with [Applause] and excla- 
mations of an enraptured Senate ; 
when in reality the only eloquent notes 
and touching appeals that ever drop 
from his sacred lips, are the puff of 
the offensive pipe and the yawn of a 
drunken riot. And the only peals of 
applause he ever excites are the peals 
of deriding laughter while he is carried 
through the corridors of the Capitol, 
like a beast stupefied, to the apart- 
ments of the abandoned and de- 

The truth is, the man of Expe- 
diency passes his days in inventing a 
succession of devices, pretexts, plans, 

and substitutes by the help of which 
he hopes to appear as well as other 
people. He is a kind of creature of 
emergencies whose happiness often 
depends on the possession of pin, but- 
ton, or tooth-pick. He makes a big 
fuss and show in society, bows low at 
the shrine of Fashion, and yields with 
sneaking submission to her whims and 
caprices. In public life he betrays 
the sacred trust committed to his 
charge, forgets his constituents to 
whom he has sworn allegiance, and 
neglects their interests, which are swal- 
lowed up and absorbed in his selfish 
and reckless schemes for power and 
glory. What is it that the man will 
not do when under the full sway of 
Expediency? Instead of profiting by 
the wrecks strewn along his path, and 
removing some of the ruins which 
blockade his way, and which should 
warn him and enlighten his under- 
standing, he augments them with heaps 
of bitter remorse and bones of a mis- 
directed life. His appetites and de- 
sires claim no allegiance to a power 
higher than Expediency, which con- 
stitutes the mould of all his habits. 
How this guide leads the unfortunate 
pilgrim into inextricable snares and 
dens of passion, leaving him to grap- 
ple with fate like the gladiator with a 
hungry lion ! His destiny is sealed 
with the blood of murdered time, and, 
with the grum voice of outraged op- 
portunities, is proclaimed to future 
generations. O, the remorseful 
wretchedness of the man who is bound 
by the ruthless fetters of Expediency. 
It grows on him " with the passing 
days and strengthens with the recur- 
ring years." Independence of charac- 
ter and action is as far separated from 


him as the blushmg East is from the 
roseate West, or as the shaggy, rock- 
built earth is from the smooth blue 
sea that swims above. He is not his 
own in anything, save his passions, 
and for their gratification he resorts to 
means which would make angels weep 
and demons blush. 

Now turn your eyes, already wearied 
and disgusted with the man of policy, 
which always merges into selfishness 
— a selfishness of the most despicable 
type — to the man who has pluck and 
heroism enough to face the worst, and 
to face it with a brave heart and a 
sweet resignation. Behold him yon- 
der! There is a mighty and grand 
struggle going on in the arena of the 
soul between the two aspirants for 
leadership in the great battle of life. 
The contest is close. It is often close* 
and the result determines the destiny 
of the individual. While he is about 
to entrust himself to the vigilant and 
sleepless watch-care of Principle, he 
hesitates, because of his knowledge 
of personal sacrifices (so-called), of 
heavy burdens, of self-denials, and of 
important responsibilities. Behold 
him again ! There is a light and glory 
in the countenance like unto the sun. 
It gleams from his eyes fresh from the 
fires of the soul. For Principle, the 
constant luminary, has obscured the 
fickle luminary of the soul. He no 
longer hesitates, but fixes his eyes on 
something in the mysterious future. 
Away out yonder he sees some- 
something rising up out of that foggy, 
misty region just at the other end of 
his journey, and that something beck- 
ons him and irresistibly impels him to 
follow the newly created impulse. 
Ah ! he starts — he is gone. Not gone 

to shun danger or duty by all sorts oi 
expedients ;. not gone to be tossed by 
every breeze of public opinion ; not 
gone with a view of winning for him- 
self alone crowns of immortal fame 
and wreaths of imperishable glory; 
but gone to meet the stern realities of 
this life bravely, and to stand by the 
right, fight for the right, and, if need 
be, die for the right. Whether placed 
in the deepest abyss of gloom, tanta- 
lized by surrounding abundance, 
pinched by frightful poverty or resid" 
ing in royal palaces, he is neither 
covetous and envious on the one hand, 
nor arrogant and haughty on the other. 
Whether amid the smoke of battle 
and din and clash of arms, or in the 
tranquil atmosphere of peace and 
quietude, his aims and motives are the 
same. Whether in the hot conflict of 
public council or in the genial rays of 
the home circle, but the one inspiration 
fills his soul: principle, duty, and the 
desire of " the greatest good to the 
greatest number." He has no party 
affiliations, nor does he entertain those 
narrow and selfish views peculiar to 
party leaders and party adherents, 
such, for instance, as the satiated and 
bloated Republicans and the hungry 
and lean Democrats of to-day cherish ; 
but he possesses that pure and lofty pa- 
triotic principle, the noblest sentiment 
that animates the bosom of the citi- 
zen, which forgets self and party and 
is absorbed in the interests of family, 
home, State, Nation, God. He has 
an independence of mind and charac- 
ter too stern and lofty to be subdued 
by any popular sentiment. He heeds 
not present popularity, which has 
justly been called " the echo of folly 
and the shadow of renown," but acts 



upon that high and noble principle 
which laughs at the storm of popular 
censure and indignation and scorns 
the offer of reward and profit at the 
hands of Expediency. With his views 
of duty and right, no exigency deters 
him from his purpose, though it 
bursts upon him like an avalanche 
which moves rocks and mountains 
from their solid foundations ; though 
grim death, with its yawning, bloody 
jaws be ready to receive him, he 
flinches not from his duty. He is 
guided by Principle, he is wedded to 
it, and never sues for divorce. It be- 
comes a part of his nature — indeed 
the better part of his nature. It takes 
up its abode in the breast and makes 
the heart its solemn temple ; and in 
the holy chamber of this temple it 
presides with a dignity and majesty 
divine. Once firmly established there 
it is not easily dislodged. Though 
the violent storms of passion may 
overwhelm it, the winds of ambition 
whistle and howl around it, and the 
thunderbolts of envy and cyclones of 
jealousy burst against it, it stands un- 
moved and unshaken. It mounts to 
the citadel of the heart and sways the 
sceptre of its empire with an om- 
nipotent justice, taking cognizance of 
every motive and phase of action. 
Every grovelling passion, every strong 
and sordid appetite, every impure 
and unholy desire acknowledges its 
power and yields with submission to 
its will. It makes a beautiful and 
happy world within man, whose boun- 
daries are continuous with the bound- 
aries of a glorious and blissful eternity. 

Then why not everyone accept this 
guide to lead him, remembering that 
life is no fleeting cloud, but an awful 

and solemn reality^crowded with all 
the restless and feverish agitations of 
hope and fear, joy and sorrow, pleas- 
ure and pain, courage and despair, 
and that something like principle and 
duty are preeminently requisite to 
blend all these into a beauty and sub- 
limity, making human actions and 
achievements truly excellent and 
noble ; and remembering that this 
ever-existing principle is not a fanci- 
ful theory, but, if properly cultivated 
and nourished, becomes a great, clear 
and sparkling fountain, whence flow 
the currents of life in a bright, trans- 
parent stream, in the limpid depths 
of which pure motives reside and 
grand aims thrive, to reappear upon 
the shores of eternity. 

In conclusion, it may not be amiss 
to warn young students, and those 
contemplating going to college, against 
the dangers of the influence of Expe- 
diency, and to commend to them the 
salutary and inspiring influence of 
Principle ; for if there is any place in 
the world where a man needs inspira- 
tion and is tempted to invent excuses 
and expedients to shield himself from 
the frowns of Professors and the rules 
of Literary Societies, it is at college. 

It is a great crisis in the history of 
any young man's life when he starts 
to college, leaving anxious and loving 
parents, looking after him with high 
hopes and deep concern for his suc- 
cess. And what he determines to do 
when he first enters college, perhaps 
will determine his destiny; — certainly 
what he absorbs, what he takes into 
his intellect, his soul, his nature while 
there must mould his character and 
shape, in a great measure, his destiny. 
He can make it what he will. He can 



faithfully perform* all the duties which 
are imposed upon him, or he can shirk 
them by a thousand and one expe- 
dients which will grow on him and en- 
twine themselves about him like the 
serpent which coils its slimy folds 
around its victim tighter and tighter, 
and buries its fangs into the quivering 
flesh deeper and deeper, until every 
spark of ambition is smothered and 
every fountain of aspiration poisoned ; 

and at the close of his college curricu 
lum the dead past will rise up before 
him like a ghost, and with its long, 
bony, clammy fingers will strike him 
in the face, and blow its cold breath 
upon his life to blight it. Then let 
him and every one follow Principle, 
nourish and foster it ; for it is the 
sweetest flower in the garden of the 
soul, rendering every motive fragrant 
and every action pure. 


{Concluded from December number?) 

When consciousness returned, Rob- 
ert found himself lying in a room, 
with many others who had been 
wounded in the wreck. The first per- 
son on whom his eyes rested was Jack, 
seated by his bedside, and watching 
over him with tender care. 

" Jack," said Robert, " were you hurt 
by the accident ? I feared you had 
been killed, for I didn't see you after 
the crash, and I couldn't look for you, 
as I was fastened under the timbers ;" 
and he shuddered as the recollection 
of that scene came to him. 

"Oh, Robert, you don't know how 
glad I am to see you so much better ; 
but don't talk about that awful time. 
I was not much hurt, only stunned at 
first, and managed to crawl from un- 
der the wreck. But in the confusion, 
I couldn't find you at first, and when I 
did the timbers were on fire, and you 
were under them. You had fainted, 
but with the help of some men I got 
you out. The doctors said you would 
be all right as soon as the delirium 

was over. I have been here with you 
only three days. Soon we can start 
on our tramp again, and I hope this 
won't keep you from getting to New 
York before your time's out." 

Gratitude but feebly expresses Rob- 
ert's feelings toward this boy, who 
had saved him from the burning wreck, 
and had then cared for him so tenderly 
and faithfully during his delirium, 
though a stranger having no claims 
upon his kindness. Was that all some 
horrible nightmare, or a dread reality, 
that raging pain, the darkness, and the 
wild delirium which followed ? He re- 
membered that a vision of a beautiful 
face with great, dreamy eyes, floated 
before his fancy, only to fade away into 
dim mist, and be followed by scenes 
of suffering, while flames leaped up 
around him, and seemed to burn into 
his brain until it was scorched and 
seared. Then reason regained her 
seat, and he found himself safe, 
watched by one who but a short time 
before was an entire stranger. 



In a few days Robert was strong 
enough to be off, and our two friends 
set out on their tramp again. Robert 
was growing impatient, for he feared 
this loss of time would cause him to 
reach New York late. 

" If I am not asking too much, Jack," 
said Robert, as they were plodding 
along, " won't you please tell me the 
name of that young lady whom Ave 
saw in the railroad station ? We have 
become good friends, and I hope you 
are willing to confide in me now." 

" You know, Robert, that I can trust 
you, and that I would do anything for 
you, but there is something connected 
with that girl and the man with her, 
that I can't possibly tell now. Some 
day, though, I will tell you all, and 
then you will appreciate my motive ;" 
and as Jack spoke a shade of sadness, 
followed by one of deep thought, 
passed over his countenance. " But 
I'll tell you her name now, though you 
mustn't ask me any more. Her name 
is Lula Roland, and the man you saw 
with her is named Leonard Finley." 

" That young lady's face has been 
haunting me ever since I saw her, 
Jack, and I have longed to know who 
she is." 

" Yes, she has a lovely face," was 
the reply, " and I don't blame you for 
falling in love with her, as you seem 
to have done. But her character is as 
lovely as her face, as you would find if 
you knew her." 

" Oh, don't tantalize me so, Jack. 
Is Miss Roland engaged to Finley?" 

" It is thought so, but depend on 
my word, she will never marry him." 
His fists were clenched as he said this, 
and a look of determination came into 
his eyes, as if some chord had been 

touched which awakened fierce pas- 
sions within his breast. 

There was an air of mystery about 
the boy that sadly perplexed Robert. 
Despite his rough exterior, and an as- 
sumed carelessness in speech, there 
was an element of gentleness con- 
stantly struggling to the surface. And 
what had caused this exhibition of 
feeling, so out of harmony with his 
usual mild manner? Then at times 
he would become sad and thoughtful, 
as if something weighed upon his 
mind. But Robert forbore questioning 
him, for he feared it would cause him 

In their usual way, they tramped for- 
ward for two days, and came to a large 
city. For the purpose of procuring 
food, they separated, and as Jack said 
he was well acquainted with the city, 
they agreed to meet at a corner of two 
of the principal streets an hour later. 

As Robert was walking the street, 
looking for a house where he might 
get food, for he and Jack had eaten 
nothing that day, he felt a heavy hand 
laid roughly on his shoulder; and, on 
turning around, what was his horror 
at finding himself in the grasp of a po- 
liceman ! " Special orders to take up 
all vagrants," was the policeman's gruff 
answer to the astonished expression on 
Robert's face, and he proceeded for- 
ward, holding the latter's arm. Me- 
chanically Robert accompanied him, 
and as his real situation dawned upon 
his dazed senses, he turned pale at 
first, and then the hot blush of shame 
and mortification mantled his cheeks. 
Though recently he had become in- 
ured to hardships, had passed through 
perils, barely escaping death, and had 
witnessed scenes of violence, yet his 


nature revolted at the thought of be- 
ing locked up as a common vagrant. 
He thought of Jack, and felt sure that 
the boy would feel distressed at not 
finding him at the appointed place, and 
would search for him. Never did 
Robert pass a more unhappy night 
than in that vile cell. 

Together with a string of fellow- 
prisoners, he was marched before the 
Mayor's court the next morning; but, 
to his surprise and relief, instead of a 
sentence on the chain-gang, he was 
given three hours in which to leave 
the city. Though he would gladly 
have staid to look for Jack, his time 
was too precious. Besides, there was 
a possibility of meeting Jack in New 
York, for he knew he would go there, 
failing to find him. 

On reaching the rendezvous, Jack 
waited for Robert, and towards night- 
fall, growing uneasy, he set out to find 
him ; but, after a fruitless search of 
two days, he resumed his tramp to- 
ward New York, for he had a purpose 
to accomplish, and unless he reached 
the city soon it might fail. 

Robert departed reluctantly, for 
he was loth to leave Jack behind, 
but to be arrested again would 
be fatal to his plans. There was a 
large seaport not far distant, and he 
resolved to wend his way to this, and 
find employment on a New York ves- 
sel ; or, if unsuccessful, to conceal 
himself as a stowaway, for he could 
reach his destination sooner by water 
than by land, and his time was grow- 
ing short. No employment could be 
found, and his only recourse was to 
get passage as a stowaway. A small 
supply of food, the result of the day's 
begging, was sufficient to protect him 


against hunger for a few days, and ob- 
serving a large steamer almost ready 
to start to New York, he walked on 
board, and in the bustle and confusion 
was unnoticed. 

On the deck of the steamer were 
many passengers, and Robert's heart 
gave a great bound as he recognized 
among them Leonard Finleyand Lula 
Roland. But neither observed him, 
and if they had, would not have known 
him. In the hold of the vessel he 
found a dark hiding-place, and felt 

During the second night out, Robert 
was awakend by the cry of "fire!" 
ringing through the vessel. Amazed 
and horrified, he started to his feet, 
and rushed to the deck, where a scene 
of confusion met his eye. All the 
passengers had been awakened, and 
were in a state of the wildest alarm. 
There is always an element of awe in 
a conflagration, but on the sea at night, 
the emotions excited surpass descrip- 
tion. The captain and crew were 
calm, and tried to quiet the fears of 
the passengers, but in a short time it 
was evident that the fire was beyond 
control. The captain said they were 
not far from the New Jersey coast, 
and that the vessel would be turned 
towards the land, so that, even if it 
could not be reached before the ship 
would have to be abandoned, they 
might still be saved in the boats. But 
soon the flames had made such head- 
way that he ordered them to take to 
the boats at once. A scene of distress 
ensued : wives clung shrieking to their 
husbands ; mothers, in despair, drew 
their children to them. Finley and 
Lula Roland were on the deck, the 
former with terror plainly stamped 



upon every lineament of his counte- 
nance ; but the latter was more pos- 
sessed, and seemed to regard with a 
feeling almost akin to contempt, the 
cringing fear of her companion. A 
man's own safety is a god that some- 
times makes very grim demands upon 
his devotee, and Leonard Finley felt 
that it was a grim demand to leave 
that girl and save himself, but he was 
among the very first to crowd into the 
boat that was lowered. If without 
any danger to himself, gladly would 
he have seen Lula Roland saved, too ; 
but, in trying to rescue her along with 
himself, he thought that both might 
perish. Robert felt keenly for her as 
he saw her standing on the deck, look- 
ing around in mute despair, and he 
quickly determined that she should 
not be left to perish. Stepping up to 
her he said : " You can get a seat in 
the next boat. Trust me, and you 
will be safe." 

" Oh, how good you are," said she, 
in a voice that thrilled him as it had 
done before. " I thought everybody 
was going to leave me." 

The next boat was lowered, and 
Robert placed her in it, and then took 
a seat by her side, for the captain said 
there were enough boats to carry off 
all on board. Quickly the boat was 
filled, and they pulled off from the 
burning vessel. 

All night they rowed, but could 
discover no signs of land when day 
dawned, only a wide, rolling waste of 
water and a leaden sky. The sea was 
growing rough and a stiff breeze was 
blowing, and they feared a storm was 
coming upon them. Their boat would 
never stand a storm on that danger- 
ous coast, they knew. In the after- 

noon their worst fears were confirmed, 
for the storm had come upon them in 
greater fury ; but soon they discov- 
ered the dim outlines of the coast. 
With renewed energy they rowed to- 
wards it, but the mocking waves be- 
tween seemed only to tantalize them 
with the sight of land. Robert aided 
the sailors in rowing and bailing out 
the water. In the background of his 
thought there was the possibility, 
striving to become a hope, that they 
would reach the land ; but, as each 
wave swept over the boat, this possi- 
bility grew fainter and fainter. A 
huge wave rolled over them, sweeping 
out nearly all of the occupants of the 
boat, while the others were left cling- 
ing to the sides. Among the latter was 
Robert ; but when he looked for Lula 
Rowland she was not to be found. 
Just then a mass of golden hair, rising 
and disappearing in the water a few 
yards distant, attracted his glance, and 
being an excellent swimmer, he at 
once struck out towards the place 
where the hair had disappeared. Div- 
ing down, his hand clutched some- 
thing, and he rose to the surface hold- 
ing Lula's arm. With his precious 
burden, he started back to the boat, 
but it was only after a vigorous buf- 
feting of the waves that he reached it. 
Their only hope was to cling to this, 
and drift to the beach. Lula was un- 
conscious ; but he saw that she was 
alive, and, fortunately, he had some 
cords, with which he lashed her and 
himself securely to the boat. The rough 
sea had washed off every one of the few 
who had been left clinging to the sides, 
but Robert trusted in the strength of 
the cords. A dark object floated by 
the boat, just under the surface of the 


water, and Robert discerned the out- 
lines of a human form. At his own 
peril, he unlashed himself, and, swim- 
ming to the body, brought it up. It 
was one of the sailors who had been 
in their boat, but he was dead. Yes, 
they alone of the ten persons in that 
boat but a short time before, were 
now alive. Struggling back, he lashed 
himself again, and saw that the waves 
were driving them to the beach. Oh, 
if their strength would only last ! But 
the chilling water benumbed his limbs, 
and his strength was failing. Would 
her strength hold out? Nearer and 
nearer they drifted ; he felt his feet 
touch something firm ; they were 
saved ! The waves could not reach 
them now, for the shelving beach ex- 
tended for some distance into the wa- 
ter. Loosing the cords that bound 
them to the boat, he carried the un- 
conscious girl from the water, and de- 
posited his dripping burden upon dry 

Soon night drew on, and the moon 
shone dimly through banks of clouds. 
During all that anxious night Rob- 
ert watched over Lula, chafing her 
hands and rubbing her forehead. He 
had no stimulant to give her, and 
nothing with which to build a fire in or- 
der to dry their garments. In the morn- 
ing the sun rose clear, and as the beams 
fell upon her face their genial warmth 
seemed to revive her, for she opened 
her eyes, and looked around. Recog- 
nizing Robert, she said : " Are we 
saved? Oh, how noble you are. You 
rescued me when the waves swept me 
off. But where are the other people 
who were with us ?" 

" All drowned but you and me," was 
the reply. 


Robert's patience was at length re- 
warded, for she had fully recovered 
consciousness, but was not able to 
leave the beach yet. 

" A touch of nature makes the whole 
world kin," and common misfortune 
has a wonderful effect in bringing 
people into close sympathy with each 
other. Lula Roland, the refined and 
accomplished young lady, felt herself 
in complete sympathy with this tramp. 
" But surely he is no common tramp," 
thought she, " for there is something 
about him that shows the true gentle- 

They soon became well acquaint- 
ed, and Robert ventured to tell her 
of their first meeting, gave her the 
reason of his being a tramp, and 
related some of his adventures. 
Scarcely could he realize that before 
him was the face that had been haunt- 
ing him. The thought made him 
happy. One always experiences a 
sense of satisfaction after performing 
a good deed, and while Robert felt 
that what he had done for Lula Ro- 
land he would have done for any one 
else, still the thought that he had been 
the means of saving her life gave him 
much joy. 

Jack's words came to him, and he 
realized that the boy was right, and 
finally summoned up the courage to 
tell her of his attachment to her. In 
blind egotism, many a man has mis- 
taken a woman's proofs of friendship 
for proofs of love, and Robert felt that 
he had committed this blunder ; for, 
though she was still kind to him, his 
hope froze to despair when she told 
him that she was the betrothed of an- 
other ! Then the bitter thought surged 



through his mind that it was Finley. 
" But perhaps he is drowned. No ; I 
must not wish that ; it is sinful/' 

" I have learned to esteem you very 
much/' said she; " first for your 
bravery, and afterwards for yourself, 
as I have discovered your character 
and I am going to intrust to you one 
of my heart secrets. My uncle was a 
rich, but eccentric man, though very 
devoted to me, and also to a young 
man named Leonard Finley, who was 
employed in his store. It was a cher- 
ished hope of his that we two should 
marry ; but there never was any con- 
geniality between us, for Leonard was 
insincere in his nature, though he could 
make himself very pleasant, and had 
great suavity of manners. Leonard 
was travelling in the South when my 
uncle died, and while there married a 
beautiful young woman, an actress, as 
rumor whispered ; but she was a lovely 
creature, and loved him with all the 
ardor of her Southern nature. Of all 
this my uncle was ignorant, and when 
his will was opened after his death, it 
was found that he had given all of his 
immense estate to Leonard and my- 
self, provided we should marry each 
other ; otherwise, it was to go to some 
college, and pass out of the family. 
About a month after my uncle's death, 
Leonard returned with his bride, but 
after a short stay went South again, 
and while down there his wife died, as 
he reported, of one of the fevers 
peculiar to the climate. After return- 
ing home the second time, he began 
to pay me marked attention, and, to 
save the immense estate to the family, 
all of my relatives urged me to marry 
him. My mother is an invalid ; I have 
three small sisters, and we are some- 

times in straitened circumstances. My 
relatives say it is my duty to my 
mother and sisters to marry Leonard, 
and they think he is a worthy young 
man ; but I do not, cannot love him, 
and only my sense of duty to my 
mother, and my desire to gratify her 
wishes, induced me to engage myself 
to him. Now, my friend, instead of 
blaming me, sympathize with me." 

In a short time they had recovered 
from their exhaustion, and proceeded 
away from the beach, hoping to find 
a house. After a walk of a mile, they 
reached a cottage, and there ascer- 
tained that they were not more than 
ten miles from a railroad station. The 
owner of the house was a farmer, and 
he and his wife busied themselves in 
ministering to the comfort of the ship- 
wrecked strangers. In the afternoon 
the farmer carried them to the station 
in his wagon, for Lula said she wanted 
to get to her relatives in New York as 
soon as possible. 

Supposing that Robert knew noth- 
ing of Finley, she did not again men- 
tion his name, neither did Robert in- 
timate to her that he had any knowl- 
edge of him. 

When they arrived at the depot, he 
saw her on the train, and then bade 
her farewell with a wordless sorrow in 
his heart. 

The laws of New Jersey were rigid 
in regard to tramps, and Robert knew 
that to be arrested would defeat his 
plans. The only resort was to hire 
himself and make money to buy food 
to sustain him during the journey. 
The trains were very closely watched, 
but he was practised enough to escape 
the notice of the average brakeman. 
A group of men were at work on the 



railroad not far distant, and seeing 
these' he proceeded in that direction* 
and offered his services to the fore- 
man, who engaged him at a dollar a 
day. Only five days of Robert's time 
still remained, and he could not work 
for more than two or three days. 

A month before, Robert Orden 
would have felt himself disgraced by 
manual labor ; now he realized its true 

On the evening of the third day, no 
solution of the difficulty presented it- 
self, and he determined to move for- 
ward on foot. To avoid questions, he 
said nothing of his intention, but at 
midnight, while all was still, he 
stole away, with his three dollars in 
his pocket, and trudged along until 
dawn. " Can I reach New York to- 
morrow morning at ten?" was the 
question uppermost in Robert's mind. 
With part of his money he bought a 
breakfast, and then resumed his walk 
along the track. Though several 
trains passed him, they all seemed to 
be going the wrong way ; but about 
dusk, after a weary tramp all daylong, 
he stopped at a water-tank, and his 
waiting was rewarded by the appear- 
ance of a freight train, bound for New 
York. Eluding the brakeman, he en- 
tered an empty car, and felt secure. 
Now success was his, for the train 
would reach the metropolis before ten 
in the morning. Robert felt elated, 
and the only thoughts to disturb his 
mind were about Jack and Lula Ro- 
land. In vain he tried to shake off all 
thought of her. As the ghost of the 
murdered Banquo haunted Macbeth 
and " would not down at his bidding," 
so the bitter-sweet memories of Lula 
Roland haunted Robert. 

The train rushed onward through 
the night, and fatigued from the day's 
walk, he was soon wrapt in slumber. 
The sunshine, streaming through an 
aperture in the car, fell upon his face, 
and he awoke ; the car was standing 
still on the track, and he could not 
hear the train. In an instant the truth 
flashed upon him, and he started to 
his feet. The car had been switched 
off on the side track during the night, 
and the train had gone on. " All over 
now," he groaned, " unless I am near 
enough to get there by ten." His 
fears were confirmed when he de- 
scended and inquired of a bystander 
the distance to New York. " Thirty- 
seven miles," was the answer. Fail- 
ure was inevitable. Buying a break- 
fast, he ate it, and then set out, de- 
termined to come as near the time as 
possible. Five hundred dollars had 
been deposited in one of the banks to 
his order, and with this he could buy 
new clothes, and look like another 
man, while the remainder would be 
sufficient to take him back home. 

It was dark when Robert reached 
the Jersey City ferry, and with the 
remnant of his three dollars he paid 
his passage and secured cheap lodging 
for the night. 

Only a close observer would have 
recognized in the neatly dressed, hand- 
some, though sun-burned, young man 
seen on the streets the next day, the 
unkempt tramp of the day before. A 
stylish suit had replaced his much 
worn garments, while the barber's skill 
had wrought wonders on his neglected 
beard. In external appearance he 
was the same Robert Orden that was 
first introduced to us, but in other re- 
spects a radical change had taken 



place. His thirst for adventure was 
now satiated ; now he could fully ap- 
preciate his advantages and sympa- 
thize with the sorrows of the poor. 
No longer was he content to lead a 
life of ease, thinking, forsooth, because 
^had no cares to press upon his mind, 
that all the world was happy. Only 
a life of activity could satisfy him 
now ; one in which he would be use- 
ful to himself and his fellowmen. His 
loss he took philosophically, and felt 
that the experience acquired while 
mingling with the so-called " dregs of 
society" would be invaluable ; for his 
mental horizon had been extended 
and in a broad, philanthropic view, he 
saw himself only one of millions of 
human beings struggling for existence, 
many of whom needed a helping hand 
held out to them. 

Robert telegraphed to Charles 
Weston the time of his arrival, and 
told him to take the thousand dollars 
that he^had won ; and unwilling to re- 
turn until he could find Jack — for the 
boy had said he was going to New 
York — he lingered a few days in the 
metropolis. And, perhaps, though he 
would not acknowledge it to himself, 
he wished that he might see Lula Ro- 
land again. 

A day or two afterwards, as he was 
walking along the street, he noticed a 
church door open, and people enter- 
ing ; he followed the throng, as he had 
no business of importance to transact. 
The occasion was a marriage, and soon 
the bridal couple appeared, walking 
down the aisle. Instantly all eyes 
were turned upon them, and as Rob- 
ert looked, a thrill of pain darted 
through his frame, for the bride was 
Lula Roland, and the man by her side 

was Leonard Finley ! " Too late ! 
everlastingly too late !" Robert almost 
groaned aloud in his despair. Yes, 
Finley had escaped from the sea, and 
Lula Roland was sacrificing her life- 
time happiness to gratify the wish of 
her mother and friends. She was pale, 
but composed, as though she realized 
the step she was taking, while Finley's 
eyes gleamed with a fiendish triumph. 
The sole/rin ceremony was almost over, 
and before pronouncing the irrevoca- 
ble tie, the minister paused and said, 
" If there are any who have good rea- 
sons why these two should not become 
man and wife, let them now speak, or 
forever hold their peace." 

" I have !" exclaimed a lady in the 
audience, rising to her feet. Robert's 
senses swam. Could it be ? Was that 
Jack? " I am Leonard Finley's law- 
ful wife," continued the lady. " Two 
years ago, he hurled me into the Mis- 
sissippi River from the deck of a 
steamboat, thinking he would murder 
me, and by marrying this girl get pos- 
session of a large estate. But I was 
saved, all my ardent love turned into 
the bitterest hatred, and my only de- 
sire has been that he should suffer. 
As an avenging Nemesis I have fol- 
lowed his footsteps ever since, and 
now my desire is fulfilled." Yes, it 
was Jack. Robert understood every- 
thing now. 

It was as if Leonard Finley had 
been confronted by a witness from the 
other world, for he had supposed that 
his purpose had been accomplished. 
As his wife began to speak, he gave 
one wild, imploring look around, and 
sank to the floor without a groan. 

In the confusion that followed, his 
wife disappeared, and though Robert 



made diligent search, he was never 
able to find any trace of her. 

In one of the handsomest residences 
in the city where we first met Robert 
Orden, he lives now, and is widely 
known and respected for his philan- 
thropy and liberality. The poor know 

he is their friend, and no tramp or 
needy person ever goes empty-handed 
from his door. Mrs. Orden is the 
owner of those eyes that once haunted 
our hero, and Robert often declares 
that the bright part of his career be- 
gan after " seeing the dark side." 



I hold a Picture, Carrie, dear, so fine 

No Titian's art can match its diamond worth ; 

On it I gaze, when hearts around are cold, 

Till Hope's sweet smiles renew their birth. 

The art's divinely done. " By whom and how ?" 

You ask. Yourself the painting did ; 

My willing heart your canvas was ; and there 

The image lives, howe'er the art be hid. 


I have a Statue, done with matchless grace ; 

No Phidian chis'lings e'er gave life and form 

So nobly sweet to bronze, or gold, or stone. 

I turn to this for light and calm in storm. 

The lines are copied off from Beauty's self ; 

For thou the form didst give. How like to thee 

In all the rarest sweetness of thy soul! 

For Love gave form and wrought the work thro' me. 




We ask the special attention 
of the Alumni to the article by Mr. J. 
H. Mills, one among the oldest and 
most respected of their number. It 
hardly needs to be said that he writes 
with freshness and vigor. He presents 
his views of the proper objects of the 
Alumni Association. These objects 
at first sight appear to be quite differ- 
ent from those presented on the- same 
subject in our last issue, but at bottom 
the two views diverge but slightly. 
The history of the Manual Labor In- 
stitute, indeed, is not a great history; 
but, in the light of future develop- 
ments, it will doubtless become an im- 
portant history. The writer's exhor- 
tation to the making of a worthy his- 
tory is not a little inspiring. 


The facts touching illiteracy in 
North Carolina presented in our edu- 
cational notes are altogether trust- 
worthy, being taken immediately from 
the census returns. They could not 
be made more impressive by the most 
extended comment. We have but to 
remember the further fact that this il- 
literacy is actually on the increase, in 
order to recognize the peril in which 
the State now stands and to see what 
must be its condition in the near fu. 
ture, if present tendencies are not ar- 
rested. And it had as well be received 
at once as truth, that the public school 
system cannot furnish the complete 
remedy for the evil. Permanent and 
pervasive improvement in general ed- 

ucation must begin in the universities 
and colleges. In proportion as their 
facilities are improved and their pat- 
ronage widened, will the thirst for ed- 
ucation spring up in minds hitherto 
strangers to it. Increase the number 
of young men and women who, from 
these higher institutions of learning 
go out thoroughly educated, and you' 
increase the luminous centres from 
which into the surrounding darkness 
light will radiate ; you deposit so many 
leaven lumps which will, by and by, 
penetrate and quicken the entire inert 
mass. The unlettered man will be 
quite content to knock his clods right 
on the verge of the new dominion into 
which education would conduct him. 
But bring to bear upon him the influ- 
ence, silent or positive, of one who has 
passed through that gateway into those 
wide and charming fields, and he will 
soon long to walk there himself. 

This awakened desire for education 
must be judiciously gratified and stim- 
ulated. In other words, there must be 
competent teachers for the lower 
schools. Perhaps there is, in connec- 
tion with this subject, no more preva- 
lent or more fatal error than that 
which supposes any one acquainted 
with "the rudiments" competent to 
teach beginners. That is entrusting 
the foundation, design, and measure- 
ments of the structure to a quack, 
while to the skilled architect later on 
are entrusted the filling up and the 
"finishing touches." The incompe- 
tence of the public school system is 
largely due to the incompetence of the 

EDITORIAL— Below the Surface. 


teachers whom it employs. " All 
right, just so the teacher keeps ahead 
of the class in the book?" Entire 
folly. The delicate and susceptible 
mind of the little child — let not the 
quackery of an ignoramus distort and 
sear it, crowd it here into an ugly ex- 
crescence and there kill the buds of 
future fruit. For the proper shaping 
of that plastic mind the skilful teacher 
will need his philosophy, his science, 
his literature; and the more, the better. 
Of course the public schools cannot 
supply their own teachers. Nor can 
the normal schools, as at present con- 
ducted, supply them. We are again 
brought back to the colleges and uni- 
versities, upon which, indeed, depend 
- in great measure the success of all 
schools and, hence, the wide diffusion 
of intelligence. 


The science of language has been 
the theme of more writers during the 
last hundred years, and has employed 
more learning in its discussion than 
perhaps any other. Only within the 
last hundred years have men discover- 
ed that all languages may be traced 
to a common origin. The divergences 
became so much more conspicuous 
than the resemblances that men were 
not aware that a tie of speech existed 
between themselves and others. We 
can think of no more beautiful source 
of pleasure, leaving out the benefit to 
be derived, than the study of language. 
The study of the external agencies 
that have operated upon the language 
is indeed interesting; but to our mind 
the internal changes, though more in- 
tricate, are far more interesting. 

The study of the changes which par- 
ticular words have undergone — the 
circumstances under which new words 
were coined — will furnish far better 
recompense than it is easy to believe. 
How many beauties lie hid in the 
common words of our every-day 
life. An uncultured man may live 
among the beauties of nature, and his 
eye discern no beauty. He may come 
in daily contact with the greatest won- 
ders in art, and all be dull and worth- 
less, to him. An Apollo de Belvidere 
or a Venus de Medici would be passed 
unheeded. As thousands have walked 
over the buried city of Pompeii, know- 
ing nothing of the wonders which lay 
just below the surface, so we pass over 
a world of wonders hid in words. 
If we should but dig down into 
some of our commonest words, we 
should happen upon a buried world of 
knowledge and pleasure. And, too, 
such a broad field for research ! Give 
a man a knowledge of a few languages, 
and there is no end to thought. 

Comparative philology, an unex- 
plored continent ! The guide-posts 
are few — the roads but dimly marked 
out, but one can revel among its 
beauties continually perceiving new 
relations ; an ever changing pano- 
rama passes before him, and he has 
only to stop and select. It is as one 
" gathering shells on the seashore" 
who knows not which to select in 
the profusion of beautiful ones ; this 
one is beautiful — just a little far- 
ther on another still more beautiful 
strikes his eye, and thus wandering, 
thus led on, his pleasure knows no 

The study of words, then, opens up 



a new world, and can never fail to be 

We can only hope to touch a point 
here and there which will stimulate 
thought. In this connection the ques- 
tion arises as to whether speech was 
a creation of man or not. Is it or not ? 
The particular way in which language 
was generated no one knows. 1 Inquir- 
ers into this subject tell us that lan- 
guage is not of man but of' God, and 
this is what they mean : God did not 
give us words, names, but the power 
of naming. God gave man the capac- 
ity, and then evoked the capacity 
which he gave. Some one has de- 
scribed the process by comparing it to 
a tree, coming from a root — spring- 
ing up and unfolding its leaves. The 
root is the divine capacity of lan- 
guage. It is not like building a house, 
they say. First, fashioned slowly and 
painfully — improving it little by little : 
a log house ; then, after years of labor, 
a stately edifice for pleasure and de- 

This is proved by the language of 
savages. They possess not speech in 
its elementary forms, but relics of a 
language that has seen better days ; 
and this fact suggests that the study of 
words — language — furnishes another 
source of pleasure. 

By studying the language of any 
country in its different stages we can 
tell to what eminence they arrived 
in virtue, in spiritual knowledge ; in 
fact, language is the index of civ- 

Were we to limit ourselves to any 
particular division of this subject it 
would afford material for mo're than 
our space would allow. 

The modifications and changes of 
language by specialization, generaliza- 
tion, desynonymization, ablaut, um- 
laut, and rhotacism — each is worthy a 
volume; and hence our subject is the 
more difficult to treat. 

We have selected from different 
sources a few words to show how in- 
teresting and entertaining this study 
may become. There is and has been, 
on the part of people as they pro- 
gressed in learning, a tendency to gen- 
eralize ; as the mind became accus- 
tomed to comprehend general notions, 
the names of specific objects were 
transferred to classes. 

The word " character" is an instance 
of this transferrence. The Greek word 
for character meant a tool for engrav- • 
ing; then, by association it was ap- 
plied to the marks engraved. And 
we still see this meaning when we V 
say, Greek characters, Arabic charac- 
ters. But all objects have marks 
which distinguish them from other 
objects, and the word " character" was 
generalized, and now applies to any 
mark or quality of an object. 

The opposite of this process is 
equally important and interesting. 
The words physician, surgeon, minis- 
ter, became restricted. The word 
"frank" is a good word to illustrate 
this point. It means, as we all know, 
generous, straightforward, free. The 
Franks, a German tribe, gave them- 
selves the name "Franks," or the free. 
They conquered Gaul, to which they 
gave the name "France," and estab- 
lished themselves as its rulers. Their 
independence and love of liberty dis- 
tinguished them from the original in- 
habitants, and thus the word " frank" 
came to denote not a man of the 

EDITORIAL— Educational. 


German race, but any man possessed 
of certain moral qualities. 

A good instance of the growth of a 
number of meanings from a single 
root is seen in the word post. All 
know what post means — something 
placed in the ground, as of wood or 
stone. We have gate-post, lamp-post. 
Then we have military post, which 
came in this way: As a post often 
marked a fixed place in the ground, as 
a mile post, it came to mean the place 
where the post was fixed. The places 
where the posts stood along the roads 
in the days of the Roman Empire, and 
where horses were kept to facilitate 
the conveyance of persons or news, 

came to be called the posts. We use 
it thus now ; and we have from this 
post-man, post-horse, post-haste. 
Quite a number of expressions derived 
from this word have arisen, such as 
post-office, postage, postal-card, etc. 

The last change the word has un- 
dergone is quite curious. Duriifg the 
last few years iron letter-posts have 
been placed at different points in our 
cities, and the word has thus assumed 
its original meaning. 

The study of almost any common 
word will yield something interesting. 
To all we commend this study as one 
from which great benefit and pleasure 
may be derived. 


— The report of the Durham graded 
school for December shows 342 pupils 
enrolled and the attendance of 96 per 

— WASHINGTON and Lee Univer- 
sity has an increase of 20 per cent, in 
the number of students, as compared 
with the enrolment of last year. 

— Athens is — shall we say the eye 
of Georgia? It is a great educational 
centre. It is the seat of two female 
colleges and the State University. 

— Mr. John Duckett, the former 
superintendent of public instruction in 
Wake county, has been elected princi- 
pal of Hamilton Institute, Hamilton, 
N. C. 

— In New England now there is one 
college student to every 167 families. 
But twenty-three years after its first 
settlement there was one university 
graduate to every 40 families. 

■ — We are pleased to notice the cir- 
cular of the Lexington Male Acade- 
my. Mr. S. E. Williams, a former 
student of Wake Forest, is principal. 
He has a favorable prospect for the 
spring term. 

—At the next Chapel Hill com- 
mencement Dr. Hepburn, President of 
Davidson College, will preach the ser- 
mon before the graduating class, and 
Hon. Thos. C. Manning will deliver 
the literary address. The new term 
opened on the 5th instant with " flat- 
tering prospects 200 present. 

— Joseph C. Price, the famous col- 
ored orator, is President of Zion West- 
ley Institute, located on the beautiful 
grounds known as Delta Grove, Salis- 
bury, N. C. The Institute is for the 
education of colored men and women. 
On the grounds, which comprise forty 
acres, is one $5,000 building. 



— Hon. Joseph E. Brown, o f 
Georgia, recently proposed to give 
$50,000 to the University of the State, 
at Athens ; but on account of the 
complicated conditions of the "gift" 
the Legislature decided that it was 
hardly worth accepting. 

— The per cent, of illiteracy in Iowa 
is smaller than in any state of the 
Union. Nebraska comes next, then 
Dakota, then Maine, then Ohio and 
Kansas. Iowa's per cent, is 2.4 ; New 
Mexico heads the list with 60.2 per 
cent, of enumerated population 10 
years old and upward unable to read. 

— FOR efficient teaching, knowledge 
of the pupil is hardly less important 
than knowledge of the subject to be 
taught. Some one has said that, if he 
had fifty different pupils to teach, he 
would try to make himself fifty differ- 
ent teachers, as he turned to instruct 

— Tpie State Senate now in session 
has at least appointed a standing com- 
mittee on education. Mr. Pemberton 
is chairman. Wonder if the commit- 
tet will recognize the educational 
question as the most vital and far- 
reaching of all now before the people 
of North Carolina? Wonder what 
legislation, if any, they will recom- 
mend ? The Governor devoted part 
of his late message to education. 

— The corner-stone of every repre- 
sentative government is the intelli- 
gence of its citizens. In the light of 
the following figures the duty of Con- 
gress seems clear. Native white per- 
sons in United States 10 years old and 
upward unable to write, 2,255,460; 
foreign white, 763,620; colored, 3,220,- 
878 — total, 6,239,958, or 17 per cent, 
of the number enumerated. 

Dr. PRITCHARD in the Central Bap- 
tist thus speaks of the Theological 
Seminary at Louisville : " I am taking 
Dr. Broadus' lectures on New Testa- 
ment Interpretation, and can truly say 
that, while I have always had a high 
opinion of the Seminary, my appre- 
ciation of its value has been greatly 
enhanced since I have become one of 
its students and see more distinctly 
the kind of work done here." 

— The Morgan Park Theological 
Seminary is in the suburbs of Chicago, 
though about thirteen miles south 
from the centre of the city. It has 
nearly 100 students. An effort is 
making to raise in the West for its en- 
dowment $100,000, and a like sum in 
the East. Messrs. John D. Rockefel- 
ler and John H. Deane are interested, 
and that is a strong pledge of ultimate 
success. Dr. Northrup is President. 

— NORTH Carolina's standing on 
the census bulletin no. 303 is as fol- 
lows : Population 10 years old and up- 
ward, 959,951 ; returned as unable to 
read, 367,890, or 38.3 per cent.; re- 
turned as unable to write, 463,975, or 

48.3 per cent. White persons 10 years 
old and upward enumerated, 608,806 ; 
returned as unable to write, 192,032, 
or 31.5 per cent. Native white per- 
sons 10 years old and upward enume- 
rated, 605,244 ; returned as unable to 
write, 191,913, or 31.7 per cent. For- 
eign-born white persons 10 years old 
and upward enumerated, 3,502 ; re- 
turned as unable to write, 119, or 3.3 
per cent. Colored persons 10 years 
old and upward enumerated, 351,145 ; 
returned as unable to write, 271,943, or 

77.4 per cent. 

EDITORIAL— Educational. 


— THERE are in the United States 
48 law schools with attendance of 3,- 
000 students, 120 medical schools with 
attendance of 14,000 students, 364 
universities and colleges with atten- 
dance of 60,000 students. 

— It has been claimed that Ando- 
ver Theological Seminary is the oldest 
of its kind in the land. It was opened 
in September, 1808. But it appears 
that in 1785 the Reformed Dutch 
church opened a theological school in 
New York city, which was transferred 
in 1810 to New Brunswick, N. J. 

— According to the census of 1880, 
the colored people are most illiterate 
in New Nexico (92.2 per cent, of enu- 
merated population 10 years old and 
upward), next in Georgia (81.6), next 
in Alabama (80.6), next in Louisiana 
(79.1), next in South Carolina (78.5), 
next in North Carolina (77.4). 

— Ah ! what may not be done, 
through the grace of God, by first- 
rate men ! Once, when some difficult 
enterprise was under discussion in the 
Southern Baptist Convention, Dr. 
Jeter lifted high his towering form and 
penetrating voice as he cried : "How 
often have we need to say, Oh, for a 
man! Oh, for a man ! — J. A. B., in 
Religious Herald. 

— It is only when the native white 
population is considered that North 
Carolina stands next to Mexico in il- 
literacy. When the entire population 
is considered, North Carolina is ahead 
of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mis- 
sissippi, and South Carolina. But the 
illiteracy of the native whites in any 
State is that which constitutes its pe- 
culiar shame. 

— In a lecture a few weeks since, 
Hon. John Eaton, U. S. Commissioner 
of Education, said that in the whole 
country since 1870 there had been a 
gain of 3 per cent, in intelligence, but 
an absolute increase of 581,814 in the 
number of illiterates. He stated that 
in the Union the number of persons, 
ten years old and upward, who could 
not write, was 6,239,958. He favored 
a government appropriation of $100,- 
000,000 to remove this ignorance. 
There are indications that a large 
amount will be appropriated by the 
present Congress. And North Caro- 
lina needs the largest share. 

— Oberlin College, Ohio, was 
projected in 1833 upon the manual 
labor system. Its career has been 
most remarkable. It was the pioneer 
in the matter of co-education, but is 
more singular for its extreme abolition 
sentiments and its admission of color- 
ed students to its courses along with 
the white. Of its 2,000 alumni, 60 
are colored. Since its foundation it 
has had 18,000 students. Students 
are required to attend morning pray- 
ers at their respective boarding places, 
besides evening prayers at the college 
chapel. Each class has a weekly 
prayer-meeting, and every recitation 
is prefaced with prayer and singing. 

— There are nine millions of chil- 
dren in the public schools of the Uni- 
ted States. These schools are main- 
tained at a cost of eighty millions of 
dollars. The number of children who 
do not attend school at all is five 
millions. The Commissioner of Edu- 
tion estimates that to furnish these 
with house-room and prepared teachers 
will cost $110,000,000. 



— With all its wealth, Harvard is 
an expensive place for a poor student, 
unless he is fortunate in securing a 
good scholarship. The boarding-club 
for undergraduates has a membership 
of over 600, but its price for board, 
even under stringent instructions for 
economy, is about $4.50 per week. 
The Newton club with less than sixty 
members, provides a bill of fare good 
enough for any student for $2.75 per 
week. College expenses are growing 
terribly burdensome. They are said 
to average $1,000 per annum at Har- 
vard and Yale. In my day, many a 
student at Brown graduated with hon- 
or, and was conscious of no self-denial, 
with an outlay of much less than this 
sum for his entire course. — Boston Cor. 

— A recent visitor favors us with 
the following note : 

"Shaw University.— A striking 
feature in the progress of civilization 
is the forward stand that colored in- 
stitutions are taking among us. 

"Foremost among these is Shaw 
University, at Raleigh, founded in 
1865, by Hon. Elijah Shaw, of Massa- 
chusetts. The President, Dr. H. M 
Tupper, is likewise from Massachu- 
setts. Through his untiring zeal and 
the magnanimity of Northern philan- 
thropists, with some aid from this 
State, it has developed from a small 
wooden structure about 40 x 50 into 
five large, elegant brick buildings. One 
of these, the Estey Female Seminary, 

is one of the finest school edifices in 
the State. One hundred females are 
in attendance this session, most of 
whom enter with the view of fitting 
themselves to become teachers. 

"Three others of the buildings are 
used respectively for mess-hall and 
college-chapel, dormitory, and the 
third for recitation rooms, mostly. The 
fifth, in course of completion, is for 
the newly established Medical Depart- 
ment, and partly also for a hospital. 

" The college curriculum, embracing 
five departments, viz., College, Scien- 
tific, Normal, Theological, and Medi- 
cal, will compare favorably with not a 
few of our Southern colleges. Two 
hundred males have been matriculated 
so far this session, besides ten form- 
ing the class in the Medical Depart- 
ment. One of the last named number 
hails from Jamaica. 

" One visiting this college will be 
struck with the stamp of improve- 
ment in everything. It is evident that 
all is guided by a hand that is deter- 
mined to keep abreast of the times. 

" If each Southern State had a Shaw 
University, and each county of each 
State would take care that at least two 
of its most worthy colored youths 
were well educated there, in order that 
they themselves might operate branch 
schools throughout each county, then 
might we look for a happy solution of 
that question so puzzling to our states- 
men and thinkers, ' What will become 
of the negro ?' " 

EDITORIAL. —Literary Gossip. 228 


By Phi. Sr. Editor 

— It is said Mr. Anthony Trollope 
made a clean half million by his pen. 

— Oscar Wilde has left this coun- 
try for a more congenial clime. He 
says his sojourn among us was unsuc- 
cessful in that he was unable to give 
us higher views of art. 

— THE critics are going for Mr. Ten- 
nyson with their gloves off. He seems 
to be trying to ruin his fame by his 
dramatic productions. Many a one 
would have succeeded e'er this, and so 
would Mr. Tennyson, had not his fame 
been of the most robust kind. His 
last work, Promise of May, has turned 
out a complete failure in London. 

— Every day coins its word. "Con- 
ductress" and "brakelady" are the 
latest abominations, which arose from 
the employment of women on the ele- 
vated roads. 

— The January Century contains an 
article on "The Debt of Science to 
Darwin" by A. R. Wallace, who is 
probably the most distinguished living 
English writer on subjects akin to the 
Darwinian theory. The article is an 
attempt to assign him his place in sci- 
ence and literature, the writer regard, 
ing Sir Isaac Newton alone as Dar- 
win's equal. The frontispiece of the 
number is an engraving of Darwin. 
There are also pictures of Darwin's 
home, "Down House," hisstudy, and 
favorite walks. 

— The French Academy began a 
Dictionary two hundred years ago, 
which was to be the final authority on 

the use of the French Language, 
Many jokes have been cracked over 
the slow progress of the work, and this 
is one of the best. Charles Nodien 
writing to a friend, says : "You ask 
me when the Dictionary of the French 
Academy will be finished ? Nostrada- 
mus could not reply to the question. 
For myself, I am firmly of opinion 
that the Academy will be finished be- 
fore its Dictionary. 

— We have been waiting for a his 
tory of the recent war in Egypt. It 
is announced. Dr. W. H. Russell, the 
veteran war correspondent of the Lon- 
don Times, is the author. It is said 
he will make some disclosures not al- 
together to the credit of the English 
war department. 

— Everybody who can sing a note 
or tell one tune from another knows 
"Annie Laurie." An English paper 
says that the bonnie Annie was the 
daughter of Sir Robert Laurie, of 
Maxwelltown, M. P., by his second 
wife. She was born on the 16th of 
December, 1682, and grew up to be 
the most beautiful Dumfries womam 
of her day, as well as the heroine of 
the song which has perpetuated her 
charms. The lyric was composed by 
Mr. Douglass, of Fingland, an ardent 
admirer of "Bonnie Annie." She, 
however, did not reciprocate his affec- 
tion, but preferred his rival, Alexan- 
der Ferguson, of Craigdarroch, to 
whom she was eventually united in 

— The original manuscript of "Home } 



Sweet Home." as written by John 
Howard Payne, is now in the posses- 
sion of an elderly lady in Athens. Ga. 
The words of the poem as first writ- 
ten are all interlined, with here and 
there an endearing expression from 
the writer to the lady who now holds 
it. to whom in the old days he was de- 
votedly attached, and who has many 
of his letters. She has been offered a 
large sum for the manuscript. The 
poet's remains have been shipped from 
Tunis to the United States. 

— THE Critic thinks "Mr. Isaacs," a 
new novel by Mr. F. Marion Crawford, 
a remarkable contribution to literature. 
Mr. Crawford has written, not a sensa, 
tional novel, but a fairly accurate de- 
scription of life in India, interspersed 
with running comments on Buddhism, 
polygamy, etc. 

— Dr. Oliver Wendell Hol::z5. 
on retiring from his professorship at 
Harvard, received the following pleas- 
ant greeting from London Punch : 

" Your health, dear 'Autocrat''! All England owns 
Your instrument's the lyre, and not the bones.* 
Yet hear our wishes — trust us they're not cold ones — 
That though vou give up bones, vou mar mak*? old 

— "James Feximore Cooper." by 
Prof. T. R. Lounsbury, is the latest 
publication in the "American Men-oL 
Letters" series. The life of Cooper 
is probably the most interesting yet 
published. His works have a larger, 
wider circulation than any other Amer. 
ican writer, except possibly, those of 
the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
"I have visited many countries," wrote 
the late Prof. Morse. "In every city 
that I visited the works of Cooper 
were conspicuously placed in the win- 
dows of every bookshop. They have 
been seen_ by American travellers in 

the languages of Turkey and Persia, in 
Constantinople, in Egypt and in Jerusa- 
lem. They are published in 34 differ- 
ent places in Europe as soon as he 
produces them." 

Cooper's life would be interesting in 
the hands of almost any writer, but is 
doubly so when written by such a man 
as Prof. Lounsbury. The Critic says : 
j "All direct and authoritative sources 
of information contained in family pa- 
pers were closed to the biographer ye: 
it would have been difficult to write a 
better book than this, had the family 
archives been completely at the wri- 
ter's disposal." 

— It is a curious fact that most of 
the distinguished men of letters in 
England belong to the Liberal party. 

I Among the list are Gladstone, the 
Duke of Argyl. Froude. Kinglake, 
Lecky, Freeman. Kerber: Spencer. 
Trollope, Browning. Matthew Arnold, 

[ Leslie Stephen, Trevelyan. Hayward, 
Jowett. Hughes, Rawlinson, Layard, 
Fergusson. Lubbock, Owen, Tyndall, 
Huxley, Goldwin Smith, Gavan Duffy, 
Grant Duff. Frederick Harrison, Har- 
court, Lord Sherbrooke. Lord Hough- 
ton. — Examiner. 

— The recent issues of the Hum- 
boldt Library of Popular Science are, 
just as the rest, the work of the mas- 
ters in the subjects presented. Lec- 
tures on Evolution, by Huxley, closes 
the second volume, the contents of 
which are as follows : Origin of Xa- 

j turns, by Rawlinson : Evolutionist at 
La~gc. by Grant Allen: La n. /holding 

I in England, by Fisher ; Fashion in De- 
formity (Illust.), by Flower : Manners 
and Fashions, by Spencer : Facts and 
Fictions of Zoology, by Andrew Wilson : 

EDITORIAL- -Literary Gossip. 


Study of Words, by Trench ; Heredi- 
tary Traits, by Poctor ; Vignettes from 
Nature, by Allen ; Philosophy of Style, 
by Spencer ; The Mother Tongue, by 
Bain ; Oriental Religions, by Caird and 
others ; Evolution, by Huxley. Cer- 
tainly an attractive table of contents 
for $1.50. (J. Fitzgerald & Co., 30 
Lafayette Place, N. Y.) 

— CANON Farrar's literary style 
has been characterized as " oily facility 
of buttery periods written to please 
the popular ear." This is not fair ; 
he only beautifies substance that is 
worthy of it. 

-—IT was $5,000 that Tennyson re- 
ceived for what his own countrymen 
call " one of the dreariest masses of 
nonsense ever put before a long-suffer- 
ing public. " "What's in a name?" 
Ah! Juliet, a fortune. 

— Since the death of George Eliot, 
there is probably no woman living 
possessing and gaining more and more 
with every year a luminous intelli- 
gence that sets Frances Power Cobbe 
in some points at the head of modern 
thinkers. — Our Continent. 

— Anthony TrolloPe, who died 
on the 6th ult, was one of the most 
voluminous of English writers. His 
works are mainly in the department of 
fiction, though there are some books 
of travel and biography. He himself 
considered his Life of Cicero his best 

— The necrology of 1882 contains 
some distinguished names ; W. H. 
Ainsworth, Jan. 2 ; R. H. Dana, Jan, 
6 ; Berthold Auerbach, Feb. 8 ; H. W. 
Longfellow, March 24 ; D. G. Rossetti, 
April 9; Charles Darwin, April 19; 

R. W. Emerson, April 27; Dr. John 
Brown, May 10; G. P. Marsh, July 
24; W. S. Jevons, Aug. 13 ; Anthony 
Trollope, Dec. 6 ; Henry James, Dec. 

— A novel enterprise is seriously 
contemplated by the inmates of Ward's 
Island Insane Asylum. They are to 
have a paper of their own. It is to 
be called the Moon, and will be writ- 
ten, edited, and " set up" by lunatics. 
They will succeed, for the crank in 
journalism gets the lion's share these 

— A little monthly in the Latin lan- 
guage has been started at Potsdam, 
N. Y. It appears that by means of 
this little magazine, the editor has 
effected among colleges and high 
schools a correspondence in print 
which he calls Catena Latina, and the 
members of which are anuli, or links of 
the Latin chain. Some interest is al- 
ready aroused, and the members or 
links are increasing. It seems des- 
tined to do good. — Critic. 

— Helen Campbell in a late num- 
ber of Our Continent, after telling us 
that Longfellow's place will be less 
for posterity than we are now ready 
to believe, says of Mr. Lowell that, 
while he has never enjoyed Longfel- 
low's popularity, his poetry has ele- 
ments which are growing every year 
into the i^al life of the people, " and 
are the best and truest expression of 
the America of to-day. The Harvard 
Ode must have all the immortality 
mortal word can hold, for it is the voice 
of the nation's faith and hope and 
, longing." 



— If there is any unfilled gap in 
our literature it lies in the direction of 
humorous books. Not those of the 
professional humorist, which come at 
last to have a positively ghastly 
quality, but the quiet and calmly 
mirth-provoking ones, where one 
smiles unconsciously and turns back 
to find out why.- — Continent. 

— The Critic in speaking of Dr. 
Hodgson's Errors in the Use of Eng- 

lish says that he himself must submit 
to the laugh for writing " this blunder 
of D'lsraeli's," adding that it is hardly 
worth while to use the genitive ending 
after D'Isrselt, when ' of ' is used be- 
fore it. We ask the Critic to think 
again. Mr. Hodgson made no mis- 
take in writing as above, " of " being 
partitive, the genitive ending being 


By Alumni Editor. 

— The First Telephone. — Tele- 
phones are not so very recent after all. 
The first one was made by Phillip Reis, 
in 1861, at Frankfort. It was design- 
ed for the transmission of speech. At 
a recent meeting of the London Phys- 
ical Society it was exhibited by Prof. 
Thompson, who showed by various 
proofs that words were sent by that 
and similar apparatus. 

— A New Scientific Journal. — 
A stock-company, under the presiden- 
cy of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell 
will this month revive at Cambridge, 
Mass., the defunct journal Science. 
The editor is Samuel H. Scudder, 
Pres. of the Boston Society of Natu- 
ral History. It begins with a capital 
of $50,000 dollars and a strong corps 
of contributors. Special arrangements 
have been made to collect scientific 
news from all parts of the world. 

— The Yale Museum has a most 
valuable collection of fossils from the 
older half of the Tertiary epoch. They 

are of unexampled number and vari- 
ety. This is what Prof. Huxley said of 
it a few years ago : 'T have had the 
advantage of glancing over the collec- 
tions in Yale Museum, and I can truly 
say that, so far as my knowledge ex- 
tends, there is no collection from any 
region and series of strata comparable 
for extent, or for the care with which 
the remains have been got together." 

— Petroleum. — What becomes of 
the "rock oil" pumped up in Pennsyl- 
vania? It is prepared for illuminating 
purposes — kerosene, for instance, is 
made from it. Before it isfit for such 
use, however, it has to be refined. It is 
distilled in great pans over furnaces, and 
the vapors of the boiling liquid are con. 
densed in pipes surrounded by cold 
water. But it is not ready for use until it 
has been washed — yes, washed with 
acids. The distilled fluid is poured in- 
to a large tank, and afterwards acids 
are thoroughly mixed with it by pow- 
erful air-pressure. After being well 
shaken up, it is allowed to settle, when 


the acids sink to the bottom and with 
them the tar which passed over with 
the vapors. The acids are removed, 
and the oil is mixed with salt-water. 
The explosive gases arise in suffoca. 
ting fumes, and the longer this contin- 
ues the safer the oil is for burning- 
After being bleached it is ready for 
the shops. 

— Two French chemists have suc- 
ceeded in the artificial production of 
crystallized quartz, by heating to a 
temperature below redness in a closed 
steel tube, lined with copper, a mix- 
ture of potash, alumina, and gelatinous 
silica in the presence of water. By 
heating for fourteen hours, numerous 
regular crystals were produced of the 
ordinary quartz form, which acted on 
polarized light in the manner of native 

— The dinosaurs, of what is known 
in geology as the age of Reptiles, were 
perhaps the largest animals that ever 
lived on our earth. Their name means 
'terrible lizard.' Many of them, as is 
shown by their remains in the rocks of 
that age, were from 20 to 30 feet 
long. Prof. Marsh found one in the 
West which was 80 to 100 feet long — 
a size which before was thought im- 
possible for a terrestrial animal. A 
dinosaur has lately been unearthed in 
the "Bad Lands" of Dakota which was 
35 feet^ long and 25 feet high; the 
skull weighed 694 pounds, and the 
whole skeleton 1,900 pounds. 

— The Electric Light. — In the 
opinion of the London Lancet, before 
the electric light becomes the common 
illuminating agent of the period, some- 
thing ought to be done to mitigate its 
unpleasant intensity. It is too "hard," 

Science Notes. 227 

and needs to be softened. There is 
reason to believe that mischief has al- 
ready been wrought by its use. To 
make it less trying to the eyes, the use 
of globes of suitable material is sug- 
gested ; but such globes would neces- 
sitate great loss of power, so that the 
gas flame might equal it. Perhaps the 
scattering of the rays by reflection 
would be the best plan. When The 
Electrician is forced to say that for 
true comfort there is nothing like the 
light given by the old-fashioned pure 
wax candle, are we sure that we are 
not advancing backward ? 

Meerschaum. — This mineral con- 
sists of silicate of magnesia and water. 
It is chiefly obtained near the city 
Eski-Schier, in Asia Minor, where, 
even before the time of the Turks, it 
was mined on a large scale. The city 
is surrounded by a basin, which proba- 
bly was once a large lake. All around 
the border of this basin are found 
masses of meerschaum mixed with peb- 
bles and bowlders in red earth. It is 
in strata or layers. Between every 
two strata of pebbles there is found a 
stratum of meerschaum. Before it is 
fit for export it has to be dried, pol- 
ished, and refined. It is put up in 
chests of 30 inches vfi. length, 8 in 
width, and 15 1-2 in depth. The re- 
fining of a lot of 100 chests requires 
two months, and costs about $600. 
The price of a chest at Eski-Schier va- 
ries from $30 to $50. Its principal 
use is in the manufacture of pipes and 
cigar holders. 

— A Cautious Scientist. — What- 
ever may be said of Mr. Darwin, he 
was most patient, painstaking, and 
truth-loving. Any reader of Mr. Wal- 



lace's essay in the January Century will 
be so impressed. Take one illustration. 
Soon after his return from the voyage 
in the Beagle in 1837, it occurred to 
him that some light might be thrown 
On the origin of species in animals and 
plants, by accumulating facts that 
might bear upon it and reflecting on 
them. For five years he worked on 
this line before he allowed himself to- 
speculate on the subject. During the 
next two years he put his provisional 
theory in definite shape, and then de- 

voted fifteen years more to observa- 
tion, experiment, and literary research, 
before he gave the world an abstract 
of his theory in his greatest work, 
''The Origin of Species." If to these 
periods we add the five years of study 
and observation during the voyage 
we find that this work is the outcome 
of twenty-seven ' years of thought and 
labor. During this long period only 
a very few of his most intimate friends 
knew that he had left the beaten paths 
of science. 


By En. Sr. Editor. 

— Skating. 


—Christmas over. 

— SECOND-hand books. 

— New students are coming. 

— A new boarding house in town. 

— Prof. Taylor is in New York in 
the interest of the endowment. 

— One of the Seniors has given up 
law, and will be a railroad man. So 
they say. ^ 

— A number of the Oxford girls and 
others spent the Christmas with us. 
Come again, and don't wait till Christ- 
mas, either. 

— Glad to see William J. Ferrell 
again. He is looking well, and says 
he is doing better. That's the way, 
W. J. 

— E. G. Beckwith, '82, comes in 
as Tutor with the new term. You'd 
better look sharp, young friends who 
have to deal with him. 

— JUST as we go to press we can 
only state that the funeral services of 
Dr. Wm. T. Brooks occurred from the 
chapel on the 1 8th instant. He died 
on the 1 6th. 

— Our pastor was " pounded" new 
year's night. Many were the humor- 
ous "pounds" imposed. Old and 
young gathered together, and it was a 
most pleasant evening to all present. 

— Prof. Hobgood says that if we 
do not get the Richmond Band again 
for Commencement he can't let the 
girls come — that the band is half the 
Commencement. That is what Jie says 
about it. Wonder if the girls are of 
this opinion, and want the Richmond 
band, too ? If they are, we will de- 
liberate about changing the pro- 
gramme for Commencement, and not 
get the 7th New York Regiment band, 
beyond comparison the most skilled 
assemblage of musicians on American 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


[For the Student.] 

Senior Speaking — Wake Forest 
COLLEGE — Friday, December 22, 
1882, at 7 O clock, P.M. 

1. T. J. Simmons, Wake Forest, N. C. 
Subject — " Evolution of the Beauti- 

2. G. C. Briggs, Asheville, N. C. Sub- 
ject — " Madame Roland." 

3. G. P. Bostick, Shelby, N. C. Sub- 
ject — " Life is only what we make 

4. W. R. Walters, Granville county, 
N. C. Subject — " Power of the 

5. H. P. Markham, Durham, N. C 
Subject — " Queen Elizabeth." 

6. C. G. Jones, Jr., Leaksville, N. C. 
Subject — "The Uncrowned Kings." 

Marshals : F. H. -Manning, Gates 
county, N. C. ; A. P. Taylor, Wilming- 
ton, N. C. 

Social gathering in Literary Halls, 
complimentary to the Class. 

Messrs. Editors : The above pro- 
gramme of the last Senior Speaking 
must be the basis of a few remarks 
relative to what was done on that oc- 
casion. The party delegated by you 
to do this work from sketches taken 
on the spot very promptly failed to 
do his duty. He took " sketches" of 
another kind. It now devolves upon 
me at this remote period to " write up 
Senior Speaking," without the shadow 
of a note. I must turn back into the 
realms of memory, tramp across the 
jagged *flints of examination week, 
through the gushes of New Year, the 
whirling mazes of Christmas parties 
and sociables, and then crawl away up 
into the desolate old attic of memory, 
and bring to light whatever scraps of 
Senior Speaking I may find there. 

First Speaker. I desire, here and 
now to say that this was beyond ques- 

tion the speech of the occasion. — 
Thought was beautiful, sentences well 
finished. The speech itself was a 
beautiful unfolding of the beautiful. 

Second Speaker did not have a far- 
fetched subject. That was right. He 
had one about which some of us knew 
but little. Whose fault was that? He 
told about the heroism of this noble 
woman in a pleasing manner, and was 
happy in the selection and presentation 
of a subject so sure to interest, so wor- 
thy of study. 

Third Speaker, with an earnestness 
entirely his own, said that life is only 
what we make it. Something in this 
struck me as being peculiarly true, and 
the impression produced by the subject 
caused me to forget the speaker's 
treatment of it. Hope he will excuse 
me, but surrounded by such circum- 
stances as I was, viz. : those lovely 
owners of red sacks, and remembering 
that life is only what we make it I in- 
tuitively went to "making it" as pleas- 
ant as possible. I desire to thank the 
speaker for his subject and hope he 
will be able to "make life" double soon. 

Fourth Speaker. No criticism is 
perfect without a quotation. "Philip- 
pus" is responsible for the following 
very lucid English (?) in reference to 
this speaker: "He produced a speech 
that did credit to his manner of think- 
ing. After expatiating on the poten- 
tiabilities of will in the abstract, he il- 
lustrated his subject by some striking 
examples from history. The speaker 
delights in the logical aspect of things 
and finds his poetry in the scintillations 
of reason." 

Fifth speaker had a broad and fer- 
tile subject, and treated it well. There 



is abundance of room in this subject 
for contrary opinions. It would re- 
quire a rigid debate to do justice to it- j 
Some have away of skimming over his- 
tory and of making pompous allusions 
to things in general. This is to be 
deprecated. This gentleman has a 
way of going deep into things and 
taking them one at a time. This thor- 
oughness is to be commended and en- 

Sixth speaker told us about "Un_ ! 
crowned Kings." I do not believe he 
quoted any poetry. That was right 
again. Said the noblest deeds were 
sometimes done in the humblest way. 
Those deserving the highest encomi. 
urns often pass unnoticed by the cold 
charities of an ungrateful world ; that 
ofttimes within the peasant's breast ; 
was a heart more truly noble than ever 
beat beneath sceptred mail. Now, I 
reckon Mr. J. said this. If he did not, j 
he ought to have done so ; it stands 
to reason that he ought. It would 
have been a flagrant departure from 
his usual way of saying things, if he 
had not done so. Now, as this gen- 1 
tleman is no non-conformist, I think 
I am justifiable in my opinions as to i 
the substance of his well delivered 

Well, it would not be fair to stop 
without telling who "Philippus" is. — 
He was private secretary to Julius 
Caesar — had the honor of telegraphing 
his famous letter of acceptance to the 
Roman Senate — Veni, Vidi, Vici — dis- ! 
tinguished himself at the battle of 
Naseby — was a bosom friend of Ruskin 
during the thirty years war, is some- 
what of a critic. Last work is a flashy 
report of Senior Speaking in The Scot- 

land Neck Commonwealth. If I am 
not mistaken, this may be relied on ; 
however, it would be best to consult 
cyclopaedia. — Cornelius Nepos. 

— Oxe of our young ministers went 
as a "visiting brother" to preach for 
the Oxford church a few weeks ago. 
The next Oxford paper contained the 
following : "A little Oxford chap heard 
a new preacher not long since. On 
returning home he told his mamma 
'that was the best preacher he ever 
did hear — he didn't preach from the 
Bible at all, but just told stories.' " 

— OUR thanks are due Mr. C. G. 
Jones for some very efficient work done 
for us while in Raleigh. If all 'would 
do likewise we could soon make fur- 
ther improvements in the STUDENT. 

— ONE of the Editors knows a secret 
that one of our good matrons wishes 
to be kept from the girls. How 
strange that one should be so appre- 
hensive of the girls. When they begin 
teasing that Editor to tell that secret 
— teasing so musically, so pleadingly 
— we fear it will cease to be a secret ; 
and then that good matron, what will 
she do ? 

— The following encouraging item 
s from the Examiner of Jan. u. The 
only wrong thing about it is the "Dr." 
prefixed to the name of our modest 
professor, who does not as yet claim 
such distinction : "Rev. Dr. Taylor, of 
the Wake Forest College, N. C, is now 
in the city on what we regard as a very 
interesting and important mission. 
What this mission is, is made suffi- 
ciently plain by his own statement in 
another column. We had the pleasure 
of seeing him on Sunday at our own 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


house, and have seldom heard more 
interesting facts in an hour's conver- 
sation than he gave us respecting the 
work and prospects of the College, 
and the growth of North Carolina in 
the best directions. Our Baptist 
friends who have the means and heart 
to help a most deserving object cannot 
do a better thing than to hear what 
Dr. Taylor can tell them." The state- 
ment by Prof. T. referred to is found 
in full further on in this department. 

— WITH this number the competi- 
tion for the Student medal closes. 
Who is the fortunate winner? 

— Anniversary day falls on Friday, 
Feb. i'6th, and will soon be upon us. 
The handsome invitation card does 
credit to the .gentlemen who had this 
matter in charge. Sorry to note an 
error in spelling, which, however, was 
the engraver's fault. The question of 
Foreign Immigration, so full of politi- 
cal and social significance at present, is 
to be discussed in public debate. 

—We are obliged to Dr. T. H. 
Pritchard for his valuable articles in 
the Recorder on the "Endowment of 
Wake Forest College." So far three 
have appeared, the first treating of the 
necessity of endowments in general, 
the second of Wake Forest's need, and 
the third of the amount of the endow- 
ment needed. Of course we knew 
that the Doctor's separation from us 
would not cut short his abiding inter- 
est in us, but it is pleasant to receive 
just this kind of a testimonial from him. 

—Joint Resolutions.— Whereas, 
The Euzelian and Philomathesian So- 
cieties of Wake Forest College have 
received of Gen. W. R. Cox, a hand- 
some map of the United States, there- 
fore be it 

Resolved, I. That we return thanks 
to our worthy Congressman for his 
acceptable gift. 

2. That we appreciate the interest 
he feels in the welfare and prosperity 
of our College and societies. 

3. That a copy of these resolutions 
be sent to the donor, that they be 
spread on the minute books of each 
society, and be published in the Ral- 
eigh Observer, and in the Wake For- 
est Student. 

Eu. Committee — A. M. Redfearn, 
L. G. Broughton, W. S. Royall. 

Phi. Committee— C. L. Smith, D. A. 
Bridges, J. C. C. Dunford. 

The explanation of Prof. Taylor's 
work is thus given by him in the Ex- 
aminer of Jan. 1 ith : 

The Wake Forest Necessity. — 
The returns of the last census reveal 
the startling fact that nearly one-third 
of the white people of North Carolina 
cannot read or write. Still more start- 
ling is the other fact that the number 
of whites who cannot read or write is 
greater by 25,635 than it was in 1870. 
The masses of the people of North 
Carolina, white and black, belong to 
the Baptists more than to any other 
denomination. There are more than 
100,000 white Baptists in the State. 
For much of this illiteracy, therefore, 
we are, as Baptists, responsible. 

Is any College in the Union con- 
fronted by a work of more magnitude 
and importance than Wake Forest, the 
Baptist College of North Carolina? 
The only way to reach illiteracy is 
from the top downward. This Insti- 
tution must be enabled to cheapen 
tuition and double its work. At pres- 
ent it is unable to supply the demand 
for its graduates as teachers. The 
present outlook before the College is 
more bright and hopeful than ever be. 



fore. The next catalogue will contain 
the names of nearly 200 students, rep- 
resenting Virginia,. North Carolina, 
Tennessee, and South Carolina. The 
endowment is slowly increasing, and 
amounts now to $53,600. The College 
has seven Professors, and is doing 
thorough and first-class work. 

Within ninety days nearly $30,000 
has been pledged in North Carolina 
for the immediate completion of the 
endowment up to $100,000. The pay- 
ment of these pledges which are in 
large sums, is conditional upon the 
raising of $50,000. If this additional 
$20,000 can be raised outside of North 
Carolina, the College will at last be 
placed on a permanent foundation. In 
1876 Northern brethren gave Wake 
Forest $10,000. This money has never 
been encroached upon for expenses. 
The endowment is invested with great 

care in first mortgages on land. The 
College has lost no investment since 
the war. 

For nearly three months the duties 
kof my chair have been performed by 
my colleagues, that, without expense 
for agency, I might try to raise the 
$50,000 dollars so greatly needed. 
Having the promise of nearly $30,000, 
I have come to ask Northern brethren 
to help in raising the remainder. If I 
did not think that in this I were try- 
ing to serve the Lord Jesus, I would 
not undertake what is in many respects 
a trying and difficult work. May I 
not hope for sympathy and aid from 
those who are seeking to use for God's 
glory the means that he has bestowed? 

Ch. E. Taylor, 
Prof, of Latin, W. F. College, N. C 

New York, Jan. 8, 1883. 


— '55. Dr. A. J. Emerson, of Wil- 
liam Jewell College, Mo., is thus spo- 
ken of in a letter by Dr. Pritchard to 
the Central Baptist, St. Louis : " The 
third is an old classmate, by the name 
of A. J. Emerson, whom I had the 
honor to recommend to the Board of 
Trustees of Wake Forest College, 
N. C, as able to carry two D's at the 
end of his name, and whose modesty 
is only equalled by his merit." 

— '74. Rev. A. C. Dixon is preach- 
ing in his new church, known as Im- 
manuel Baptist church, corner North 
Avenue and St. Paul street, Baltimore. 
The church will seat 625, and cost $18,- 
500, while the site cost $15,300. It is 

only the germ of a large building which 
is yet to be added. He seems to be 
working with system. He has published 
on a card the subjscts for Wednes- 
day evening lectures down to the 
28th of February. He gives us a good 
word in a recent Recorder. Our read- 
ers would be glad to hear from him 
in the contributor's department of the 

—'82. Mr. W. J. Ferrell will teach 
in Granville the next five months, 
though offered a better situation at 
Warsaw. He gets a fixed salary, and 
hasn't the trouble of collecting. 

—'82. Mr. E. G. Beckwith has been 
elected to fill the place made vacant 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni. 


by Mr. Hilliard. We are sure he will 
gain the respect and esteem of all our 

—The Alumni Association. — 
Messrs. Editors : I once felt a lively 
interest in the Wake Forest Alumni 
Association ; but when the omnibus 
gate was opened, and the Association 
deliberately disqualified itself for its 
own mission, I turned my thoughts 
towards objects promising better re- 
sults. Late numbers of the STUDENT 
indicate a return of sober second 
thought, and there now seems to be 
hope and a future for the organized 
efforts of the Alumni Association. 

The endowment of the College is 
not the peculiar work of the Alumni, 
but a duty incumbent on citizens. 
Neither is the fact that a man gradu- 
ated in 1853 any reason why he should 
return and eat a big dinner in 1883. I 
see no necessary connection between 
dinners and diplomas. The citizen 
should also urge young men to a thor- 
ough college course, because the State 
needs more educated men — not be- 
cause he himself has graduated. So 
then it seems to me that the peculiar 
work of the Alumni Association, and 
the work which no one else can do so 
well for the College, is : 

1. To suggest improvements in the 
course of study ; 

2. To discuss educational problems ; 

3. To note the progress of arts and 

A graduate of a college, in contact 
with the world, is made to feel his de- 
ficiencies, and is always struck where 

his armor is weakest. Hence he can 
point out needed improvements in the 
course of study. To illustrate : let a 
young man go from college to a posi- 
tion involving the government of oth- 
ers. He immediately discovers his 
need of the training which Plato gave 
his students at Athens, which Pythag- 
oras gave his students at Crotona, and 
which was so conspicuous in Seneca ; 
but which has been so unaccountably 
lost out of the modern curriculum. 

Again, these are days of educational 
swindles. Even our Normal Schools 
need professors of Siftings, to sift out 
the delusions. And our public graded 
schools are strangely misunderstood. 
Education should be guided by the 
educated men of the land. 

Ours are also days of delusion in art 
and science, and, at the same time, 
days of marvellous progress. Educated 
men should denounce the dangerous 
and commend the useful. They should 
expose cheats and counterfeits, and 
seek to popularize the arts and sciences 
beneficial to mankind. 

Here then is a wide field for the 
Alumni Association. Let us suspend 
(if possible) the history of the " Manual 
Labor Institute," and make some his- 
tory in the advancement of learning, 
in the improvement of the young, and 
in the welfare of humanity. Should 
dinner be convenient in the hour of 
hunger, let us pause and eat it ; but 
let us rise above the worship of the 
stomach and the pocket. 

J. H. Mills. 





[Books sent us by publishers will 

Geological Sketches at Home and Abroad. 
By Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F. R. S. In Two 
Parts. Humboldt Library. 

We have of late learned the advan- 
tage of reading whatever Dr. Geikie 
may see fit to put into print. Apart 
from the subjects which he treats, he 
is master of a literary style which is a 
perpetual delight. Indeed, the last 
few years have seen the development 
of a new style for the treatment of 
scientific subjects. The occupation of 
Dr. Dry-as-dust, with his hard names 
for common things, seems almost gone. 
With little, if any, loss of accuracy, 
science has been popularized ; that is y 
its facts and theories have been treated 
in so plain and fascinating a way that 
a man of ordinary attainments can un- 
derstand them and will frequently take 
down a book like Tyndall's Forms of 
Water, or "Bates' Naturalist on the 
Amazons, in preference to Wilkie Col- 
lins or Charles Reade. Formerly, the 
smallest intimation that a book was on 
a scientific subject as effectually closed 
its pages to the average reader as an 
iron clasp. This clear and vivacious 
treatment of science goes far towards 
explaining the growing interest of the 
popular mind in it. 

While our author is no slave to fancy, 
but judicious and reliab \ he is yet 
keenly alive to the beautiful and pic- 
turesque in nature. For him, 

" She has a voice' of gladness, and a smile, 
And eloquence of beauty." 

These "Sketches," fourteen in all, 
have been previously published one at 
the time in some of the leading maga- 

receive due notice in this place. J 

zines. But we are glad to have them 
all together in this cheap and conve 
nient form. 

The first is " My First Geological 
Excursion." It breathes the enthu- 
siasm of the early days of which it 
treats, and, besides being an interesting 
bit of personal history, is valuable as 
showing how vastly superior actual ob- 
servation of nature is to the most ex- 
tended and careful descriptions in the 
books. " Thenceforward," says he, 
" the rocks and their fossil treasures 
formed the chief subject of my every- 
day thoughts. That day stamped my 
fate, and I became a geologist." The 
second, " The Old Man of Hoy," pre. 
sents a vivid description of the fantastic 
shapes into which the waves have^ 
sculptured the cliffs of the extreme 
northern coast of Scotland and of the 
neighboring islands. Under " The 
Colliers of Carrick" we have the strange 
history of John Brown, collier, who by 
the falling in of a coal mine was for 
twenty-three days shut up " in utter 
seclusion from the world, and without 
a particle of food. He lived for three 
days after." We could all but imagine 
ourselves by the bed of the old man 
as we read the superstitious explana- 
tions proposed by the Scotch colliers 
of John Brown's wonderful experience. 
But we did not mean to go as much 
into details. The second part is per- 
haps the more interesting. In it we 
have "A Fragment of Primeval 
Europe," " In Wyoming," " The Gey- 
sers of the Yellowstone," which is the 
most satisfactory account we have seen 

WORTH REPEATING -Ethics and Esthetics in Literature. 


of that wonderful region, " The Scot- 
tish School of Geology," " Geological 
Influences which have affected the 
course of British History," and others. 
We had intended to make at least one ' 

extract from the last mentioned for its 
interest and as an example of the au- 
thor's style, but must refer our readers 
to the book. It can be had for 30 
cents of J. Fitzgerald & Co., New York. 



[From Sunday School Times.] 

Whatever the misnamed "aesthetical'' 
school of literature may say about 
ethics and aesthetics having nothing 
in common, about morality having 
nothing to do with art, the fact ever 
remains, supported by the verdict of 
history,.the voice of the greatest mas- 
ters of art themselves, and the judg- 
ment of every healthy man's reason, 
common sense, and conscience, that 
true beauty cannot exist without good- 
ness, that art and morality, which God 
himself hath joined together, are not 
by man to be put asunder. 

Most positive is this universal judg- 
ment in the case of literature. As 
Professor Shairp, who certainly is an 
authority, distinctly asserts "The 
moral substance of human nature is 
the soil on which true poetry grows; 
the poetry of life must be moral, since 
life itself is spiritually moral." This 
is the sentiment of the intelligent 
world. And it has been inexorable in 
carrying it out in practice. It has ever 
refused to crown with its choicest lau- 
rels the brow of genius alone, unless it 

were as pure as it was broad. The 
writers whom history to-day names its 
greatest are not its Lucians, Voltaires, 
Heines, or Byrons, despite their power 
and brilliancy, but its Virgils, Dantes, 
Schillers, and Miltons, because of their 
purity and moral elevation. The au_ 
thors whom posterity will remember 
and reverence will not be the Zolas, 
Rossettis, and Whitmans of the fleshly 
school, but the pure-hearted, clean- 
handed Wordsworths and Bryants, 
Elizabeth Brownings, Tennyson s, 
Longfellows, and Whittiers. For man- 
kind ever has recognized, and ever 
will, the truth that even Goethe con- 
fessed, that "in poetry only the really 

great and pure advances us, either 

elevating us to itself, or rejecting us." 

It is utterly useless to try to crowd 
out the "moral nature" of man in judg- 
ing of literary worth. It has as true 
a right to speak and be heard as any 
other; nay, its right* is more unques- 
tionable, as it belongs more distinctive- 
ly to the purely spiritually part, the 
truly human side, than all the others. 



It has least connection with the fleshly 
and animal portions of human nature* 
It is the link which connects man with 
God. But even granting it no more 
authority than the reason, or the mere 
feelings, as a legitimate faculty of the 
soul, as an integral part of man, we 
must yet give it an equal place with 
the other faculties. Any judgment in 
which it does not join is but a partial 
and imperfect expression of the man. 
As the reason ever demands truth as 
an essential element of the beautiful, 
nor has its demands denied, so the 
conscience asks for goodness ere it 
will grant the claims of true beauty. 

If literature were but a lifeless, pas- 
sive thing, we might perhaps regard 
the matter otherwise. But it is not. 
It is a living, breathing, mightily work- 
ing power on earth, one of the most 
actively influential of any of the mould- 
ing forces of the world. Hence we 
dare not grant it the license we prac- 
tically do concede to some of the other 
departments of art. If the muse were 
but a cold stone statue, we might per- 
haps grant her a place in some corner 
of our parlors, or niche in our galleries, 
in spite of her nakedness and volup- 
tuous posture. But as a woman of 
flesh and blood, a living, moving being, 
going in and out among us, we do and 
have a right to insist that she con- 
form to the laws of virtue and de- 
cency at least. If she refuse, she will 
be locked up, erelong, in the dungeon 
of oblivion ; and this despite the loud 
protests of her admirers, that "one 
should never talk of a moral or im- 
moral poem." i 

A practical world like ours does not 
believe in the doctrine of "art for art's 
sake," when it is only made a pretext 

and excuse for pandering to the most 
inartistic part of man's nature, the sen- 
sual, animal, brutal. It refuses to be- 
lieve that that can be really beautiful 
which brings the blush of shame upon 
the brow of innocence, or kindles the 
lurid glow of passion and unholy lust 
in the eyes of its youths and maidens, 
Of writings like many of Swinburne's, 
Oscar Wilde's, Rossetti's and Whit- 
man's, it says what Longfellow thought 
of some others even less impure than 
they : 

" They seem to me a stagnant fen, 
Grown rank with rushes aud with reeds, 
Where a white lily now and then, 
Blooms in the midst of noxious weeds 
And deadly nightshade on its banks." 

And it refuses for the sake of the lily 
to contaminate itself by hunting for it 
in the surrounding mud and filth, and 
perhaps fatally poisoning itself with 
the nightshade's deadly breath. 

It certainly is true, finally, that the 
highest art of all time, the most last- 
ing beauty, has been that which, far 
from violating the instincts of purity, 
veneration, and holiness in the human 
heart, has most directly appealed to 
them, most reverently done homage 
to them. Painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture and poetry have always attained 
their most healthy growth, and most 
perfect development, when breathing 
the pure atmosphere of religion, and 
inspired by the principles and senti- 
ments of honor, nobility, innocence, 
and manliness, as found in him who is 
the perfect Man, and himself the Way, 
the Truth, and the Life. The greatest 
poets of their time have always been 
also the best men. Whenever the 
muse has tried to soar upward under 
the afflatus of sensual excitement and 



fleshly intoxication, she soon has 
fallen, Icarus-like, down, wingless and 
wounded. Only when supported on 
either hand by the true and the good 
has the Beautiful ever maintained her 
place in the world. Never as a volup- 
tuous queen or goddess has she at- 

tained to immortality; but ever only 
as a virgin pure and undefiled, a loving 
handmaiden of the Christ, the eternal 
principle of right and goodness and 
truth, who alone is the light and the 
[ife of all things upon earth. 


" Our heart is restless till it rest in Thee." — St. Augustine. 

There is a strange wild wail around, a wail of wild unrest, 
A moaning in the music with echoes unconfessed, 

And a mocking twitter here and there, with small notes shrill and thin, 
And deep low shuddering groans that rise from caves of gloom within. 

And still the weird wail crosses the harmonies of God, 
And still the wailers wander through his fair lands rich and broad ; 
Grave thought-explorers swell the cry of doubt and nameless pain, 
And careless feet among the flowers trip to the dismal strain. 

They may wander as they will in the hopeless search for truth, 
They may squander in the quest all the freshness of their youth, 
They may wrestle with the nightmares of sin's unresting sleep, 
They may cast a futile plummet in the heart's unfathomed deep. 

But they wait and wail and wander in vain and still in vain, 
Though they glory in the dimness and are proud of very pain ; 
For a life of Titan struggle is but one sublime mistake, 
While the spell-dream is upon them, and they cannot, will not wake. 

Awake, O thou that sleepest ! The Deliverer is near, 

Arise, go forth to meet him ! Bow down, for he is here ! 

Ye shall count your true existence from this first and blessed tryst, 

For he waiteth to reveal himself, the very God in Christ. 

For the softl is never satisfied, the life is incomplete, , 
And the symphonies of sorrow find no cadence calm and sweet, 
And the earth-lights never lead us beyond the shadows grim, 
And the loan heart never resteth till it findeth rest in him. 




Fayetteville Street, 


(Gallery over Alfred William's Book Store.) 

Be sure and see my specimens be- 
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kinds of photographing done in the 
very best style. The popular size 


a specialty. Also, 


in India Ink and Water Colors. 

Don't fail to call on me for work of 
this kind. 


We thank our friends, and the public, for 
the very liberal patronage bestowed on us the 
past season, and we shall endeavor to merit 
a continuance of the same. 


has been selected with great care, and we only 
ask you to examine it as we feel sure you will 
be pleased. 

Students will find it to their advantage to 
examine our stock of 

(rents' Furnishing G-oods. 

Miles & ZeigWs celebrated shoes in all lines 
a specialty. Remember our motto : 

"The Best Goods for the Least Possible 

We deliver goods to any part of town free 
of charge. 


Very respectfully, 

F. M. PUREFOtf & SOtf, 


Shelby Female College. 

Session begins September 20th, 1882, and closes 
June 21st, 1883. 

Board, wa-hing, fuel, etc.. and tuition in Col- 
lege Class, Fall Term, rive scholastic months, 
to January 3 1st, 1833 $87 50 

The same in Preparatory Classes, to 
January 31s % 1883 82 53 

The same in Primary Cla>s s 75 00 

Boarders furnish one pair of sheets, one pair 
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two bags for soiled clothes 

Without special contract, payments re- 
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Fa/1 Term, Five Scholastic Months, to January 
31st, 1883. 

Primary Department, $12 50; Preparatory, 
$20 ; College, $25. Incidentals, to be paid with 
first month's tuition. $1. 

For particulars be sure to apply for circular. 

R. D. MALLARY, President, 




A Sillier Vacation in Enrone. 


By JOHN E. RAY, A. M. 

This highly interesting volume of 
over 200 pag^s, with a number of rich 
illustrations of places and customs in 
Europe, is now ready, and is to be had 
at the following remarkably low fig- 
ures : 

Bound in Paper, 50 Cents. 
Bound in Cloth, - $1 00 

Mailed to any address upon receipt 
of the price, and 10#cents for postage. 
Address all orders to 


4— 3m Raleigh, N. C. 

Table of Contents. 

FEBRUARY, 1883. 



Prescience, W. R. Walters. 237 

" To Thine Own Self be True," Rev. W. T. Jordan. 239 

The Career of Gambetta, W. S. R. 242 

Western North Carolina, Dr. Wm. Royall. 246 


North Carolina's Shame, E. S. A. 255 

The Student Medal, 256 

Educational, 256 

Literary _Gossip, 259 

Science Notes, •_ 263 

In and About the College, 268 

Wake Forest Alumni, 273 

Exchanges, ^76 

Periodicals. 278 


The Future of Literature, 


At Last, 

The Literary World. 

Principal Dawson. 

J. G. Whittier. 



February, 1883. 

Vol. 2. WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, N. C. No. 6. 



Senior Editor W. F. Marshall. 

Associate Editor D. M. Austin. 


Senior Editor. E. S. Alderman. 

Associate Editor. _ ___H. B. Folk. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all communications to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. 


It is a time-honored custom, about 
coeval with the history of man, to re- 
gard the future as something utterly 
impenetrable to human vision. But, 
in order to show that every thinking 
man is a prophet in a certain sense, it 
may be remarked, first, that every 
event has a cause. And since every 
cause is antecedent to its effect in 
point of time, it follows that we can 
foresee the approaching effect, provi- 
ded we are acquainted with the rela- 
tions of cause and effect in the given 
case. So, then, every event is neces- 
sarily preceded by certain signs or cir- 
cumstances which may serve as pre- 
monitions to intelligent creatures. Or, 
in other words, coming events do in- 
variably cast their shadows before to 
give warning of their approach, though 
we may not heed the warning because 
we do not see the shadow. The ability 
of man to note these premonitions, 
and to predict the future, depends, of 
course, upon a knowledge of natural 
laws, or of the laws of cause and effect. 
For it is evident that the visible op- 
erations of any cause would not ap- 

pear to him as such, if he knew noth- 
ing of its relations to an effect. And 
since man's knowledge of these laws 
is extremely limited, he is able to fore- 
tell the future in but few instances, 
comparatively, though every coming 
event casts its shadows around him. 

Infinite Wisdom understands all 
causes and sees all their operations, 
and for this reason, if there were no 
other, would be able to foreknow all 
things. Now, it seems that if there 
were other beings who knew all the 
laws of nature, and were capable of 
observing the operations of all causes 
at once, they also would be able to 
foresee all events in so far as they oc- 
curred in accordance with those laws. 
And from this it may be inferred that 
in proportion as man, with his finite 
capacities, can approach to the Infin- 
ite in knowledge, in that proportion is 
he able to predetermine the^natural 
course of all future events; that is, he 
is able to know what will be, provided 
nothing extraneous to natural laws 
shall interfere. 

The developments of science confirm 



this conclusion, and illustrations are 
abundant. The chemist knows with 
certainty what will be the result if he 
pours sulphuric acid upon lime. The 
astronomer can predict eclipses and 
transits with a certainty and an accu- 
racy utterly incomprehensible to the 
uncultured intellect. This principle 
of premonitions, however, is evidently 
not limited to scientific and physical 
occurrences, but is as far-reaching in 
its application as the subjects of hu- 
man thought which involve the laws 
of cause and effect. And though in 
many instances, on account of an im- 
perfect knowledge of the causes, the 
predictions are mere probabilities ; 
yet they are often probabilities which 
amount to moral certainties. 

Such is the case in matters of his- 
tory. It may be asked, What induced 
Gen. Woolsley before leaving England 
to place his finger upon Telelkebir on 
a map of Egypt, and say, "Here Arabi 
will make a stand, and here I will fight 
him on the 15th of September?" 

Now, it seems but natural that such 
a principle as this, which pervades al- 
most every sphere of human thought 
and action should greatly affect the 
welfare of mankind. Indeed, we find 
everywhere, on the one hand, happi- 
ness and prosperity the results of in- 
telligent forethought; and on the 
other, misery and degradation, where 
such forethought is wanting. Perhaps 
no other power vouchsafed to man as 
a reward of mental toil, has yielded a 
richer harvest of blessings to the hu- 
man family, than the power of pre- 
dicting the future. These blessings 
extend both to the details and to the 
great concerns of life. They reward 
proportionately the little forethought 

of the untutored savage, as he strug- 
gles in the chase to capture game for 
his next food, and the deep researches 
of the statesman, as he calculates upon 
the future destinies of a nation. Who 
can tell to what extent the glorious 
liberties of which we boast are due to 
the wisdom and forecast of those noble 
statesmen of the Revolutionary period? 
They were too well acquainted with 
the sentiments and resources of the 
colonies to doubt the successful issue 
of the war for independence ; and it 
is a sublime sight to sqe them never 
failing in courage or constancy, even 
during the darkest days of that long 
struggle. And again, can it be supposed 
that the founders of the most nearly 
perfect system of government ever de- 
vised by man, had no true or definite 
ideas concerning its future ? Did they 
expect it to fall to pieces in a few 
short years, and be numbered with the 
things of the past ? 

But too often the shadows of com- 
ing events fail to give their wonted 
warnings, and men lose all the conse- 
quent advantages. For this, two rea- 
sons may be assigned. 1. A disre- 
gard of known laws and facts ; 2. Ig- 

In reference to the first reason, it 
may be remarked that men sometimes 
believe what they wish to believe, 
their better judgment to the contrary, 
notwithstanding. A strong prejudice 
or passion may lead them into a course 
of conduct altogether inconsistent 
with their own knowledge of the sit- 
uation. Such, it seems, was to a 
great extent the case with the South- 
ern people at the beginning of the 
war between the States. Taking only 
a limited view of the situation at that 



time, from the present standpoint, it 
seems natural to ask, Could any one 
of fair intelligence, viewing the sub- 
ject calmly and in the light of reason, 
have failed to see the impolicy of Seces- 
sion ? But that was a time when pas- 
sion was dominant. Sectional ani- 
mosity and a sense of outraged free- 
dom swayed the minds of men; 
amid the beating of drums and the 
roaring of cannon the still small voice 
of reason was not heard. 

In regard to Ignorance, the second 
reason why the shadows of coming 
events give no warning of their ap- 
proach, but little need be said. Of 
what use, the sign-board to him who 
cannot see ? or the distant rumbling of 
the thunder to the deaf man? Though 
every change in the world of action 
and nature may convey a message to 
intelligence, yet to him who gropes in 
the darkness of ignorance it has no 


That is an important period in the 
experience of a young man when he 
approaches maturity and feels the ne- 
cessity of answering the questions, 
"What shall I do?" "What shall I 
be?" and " What part am I to act in 
the great drama of the world's his- 
tory ?" If he has studied well his 
inclinations, and trained himself ac- 
cordingly, he will have little difficulty 
in finding his life-work. 

The Creator has made every man 
for some specific work, and endowed 
him with faculties suitable for success 
in that work. That all men are created 
free and equal, is an adage which both 
observation and experience contradict. 
That all men are made of the same 
material, duly fashioned and tempered 
by varying circumstances, is, to a limi- 
ted extent, true ; but men who are 
true to themselves, who have right 
conceptions of themselves, and know 
their own powers, are generally mas- 
ters of their circumstances. All men 
may be created free so far as the lib- 

erty to exercise their powers is con- 
cerned, but all men are not equal in 
circumstances nor intellectual powers. 
That some intellects are more bril- 
liant ; some imaginations more discur- 
sive ; some judgments clearer, and 
some memories stronger than others, 
all must confess. 

What profession or occupation is 
best suited to the exercise of his pecu- 
liar endowments is the first thing for 
each young man to determine. Of 
course a great deal in the man depends 
upon the training of the boy, and pa- 
rents can do their children valuable 
service by educating them in those 
professions for which they seem best 
adapted. But parents too often make 
the mistake of attempting to suit the 
profession to the boy, instead of suit- 
ing the boy to the profession. Hence, 
we hear fathers and mothers say 
of their boys : " We intend making a 
doctor of this one, a lawyer of this 
one, a preacher of that one," &c. They 



simply select the profession for the 
boy because they wish him to follow 
it, and not because it at all suits him ; 
hence, a reason why so many lives are 

The unfitting of men for their oc- 
cupations is among the most mourn- 
ful experiences of life. Hundreds and 
thousands of men go through the 
world doing respectably well that 
which affords them a livelihood with- 
out ever once rinding in it the purpose 
for which they were sent into the 
world. They have mistaken their call- 
ing, and are as absurd in what they 
have undertaken as a duck waddling 
on the ground, or a locomotive off the 
track. Of course a man should be 
versatile enough to submit to the in- 
evitable — to bend to the law of neces- 
sity, but no man can be master of his 
work unless that work suits him. 
Morse couldn't write a poem, but he 
was a great inventor ; Mozart couldn't 
build a ship, but he was a splendid 

No man can follow successfully more 
than one branch of industry. Some 
men are too much like a marble — they 
roll in any direction ; but a symmetri- 
cal, well-balanced man turns his " pa- 
tient, toiling attention" to one pursuit. 

The questions, then, for each young 
man to settle are : " What shall I 
make out of myself?" " What shall I 
do?" In answering these he will 
greatly err if he does not stop and ask 
himself, u Where am I ? what are my 
surroundings ? what am I ? and what 
am I made for?" Among certain of 
the Greeks these questions were not 
hard to answer, since each boy was 
required to follow the occupation of 
his father. That practice, however, has 

among us no real existence, and each 
one must ask, " What shall I do?" 
It is of first importance for him to re- 
member that it depends almost en- 
tirely upon him whether he does 
anything. Friends may assist and 
cheer him, but they cannot give him 
character, or change his faculties. He 
must decide for what his faculties 
qualify him, and an excellent way for 
him to do this is to look around him 
and see where he is most needed, and 
where he can do the most good ; then 
go to work. Don't wait for some op- 
portunity to turn up. Too many me v n 
are like the lobster, which, when 
washed upon the shore, awaits the 
coming of a wave to carry him back. If 
the wave never comes, he dies. If he 
were to make an effort he could get 
back ; so if you want to do any good, 
look around you, see where you are 
most needed, go to work, and success 
is certain. But study yourself, and be 
sure you are in the right place. Don't 
mistake your calling. Many farmers 
have been spoiled by trying to make 
merchants of themselves ; many law- 
yers, by trying to be preachers ; and I 
have seen a few tooth-pullers who 
would have made excellent stump- 
pullers. A horse can't catch rats, 
neither can a cat pull a plow. A mule 
cannot fly or sing very well, but he 
is an expert in the liberal use of his 
heels. The opossum can't whistle, but 
he can pucker his mouth and grin to 
perfection ; and I never thought a 
donkey was fulfilling his mission half 
so well as when standing in the sun- 
shine fast asleep. You can't make a 
good preacher out of a woman, neither 
can you make a good nurse out of a 
man. It is a very easy thing to get 


the right woman in the wrong place, 
but a very hard thing to get the right 
man in the right place. 

But, young man, be certain that you 
do something. If you can't find out 
at once what you are made for, go to 
work at something honorable, and you 
w^ll soon determine what you are good 
for. If you can't keep books, perhaps 
you can sell goods. If you can't make 
a good merchant, perhaps you would 
make a respectable blacksmith. If 
you think you can succeed best at 
farming, — well, do that. Its an honor- 
able calling, and if you get your hands 
soiled, there is everywhere an abun- 
dance of soap and water. Don't be 
ashamed of honest labor. Don't be 
looking around for an easy place where 
you can wear fine clothes, and have 
little work to do. Don't be idle. Bet- 
ter roll barrels than do nothing. Idle- 
ness breeds discontent, with all its at- 
tendant vices. Nothing without toil, 
the beauty of living. 

You must prepare yourself for a life 
of hard, patient toil. The decree that 
in the sweat of his face man shall eat 
his bread, cannot be reversed, and the 
sweat drops of honest labor are more 
precious than the jewels of a crown. 

The prejudice of the Dark Ages 
which condemned labor in any form 
has vanished, and no office of trust is 
beyond the reach of integrity and vir- 
tuous labor. Romulus, though nour- 
ished at no gentle breast, was, never- 
theless, the founder of the Eternal 

You cannot succeed without close 
attention to business, and continued, 
persistent effort. Michael Angelo, 
when an old man, said, " I still carry 
my satchel ;" meaning that his life had 


been one of perpetual study. Charles 
Dickens, who excelled as novelist, said: 
" My own invention or imagination, 
such as it is, I can most truthfully as- 
sure you, would never have served me 
as it has, but for the habit of common- 
place, humble, patient, daily, toiling, 
drudging attention." Beaconsfield 
said, " When I want to read a novel, I 
write one." 

A man true to himself will take care 
of his body. There should be no war 
between mind and muscle, but each 
must harmonize and keep pace with 
the other, or very little will be accom- 
plished. Unless the body is educated 
and properly developed, our intellect- 
ual attainments will lack that vim and 
activity which make success enjoya- 
ble. How many a student in after 
years, like Marius on the ruins of 
Carthage, sits weeping among the 
desolations of his heart, and cries ; 
" Alas for my health, it lies buried at 
College !" 

I know that there are notable ex- 
ceptions to this rule of bodily culture, 
but they are few. I know that there 
is one who has just left the halls of 
Congress to wear the honors of his 
State and home, who is, physically, a 
very poor specimen of a man, but a 
listening Senate sat in rapture when- 
ever his voice was heard, and strong 
men were made to weep by the power 
of his genius. And Alexander Pope 
was a peevish, sickly counterfeit of a 
man, but the whole world acknowl- 
edges his worth as a thinker and poet. 

How much more these men would 
have enjoyed their work and their 
honors had they been strong, can easily 
be imagined. 

A man true to himself will be true 



to his friends. If there is anything 
that should nerve and support a man, 
even under the most trying ordeal, it 
is for him to feel that his friends are j 
interested in his welfare. How little 
the student as he sits in his room, 
thinks of those around the fireside at 
home and elsewhere, who, if they 
could look in upon him, would expect 
to find him hard at his studies, en- 
deavoring to make of himself a man 
of whom they would all be proud. 
Few young men can appreciate the 
expectations of their friends. Take 
from me my wealth, take from me my 
health, if you will, but spare me my 
friends. They are my heart's sanctu- 

ary, and the only treasures that I would 
carry from the old year into the new. 
And how often, at twilight's lovely 
hour, when done with the day's weary 
work, do I draw my chair near a glow- 
ing fire, in a cozy little room, and 
bathe my soul in mellow memories of 
those who share with me the mingled 
joys and sorrows of life, and make its 
burdens light. 

A man true to himself will endeavor 
to be a Christian gentleman. In doing 
this, he will shun the way of the pro- 
fane, the way of the drunkard, the way 
of the vicious, and take his stand in 
the ranks of those who belong to the 
grandest style of man on earth. 


With the last loitering moments of 
the old year, this distinguished French 
statesman drew his last breath. In 
his death one of the three brightest 
lights in contemporary Europe is ex- 
tinguished; — Gladstone and Bismarck, 
though riper in years, are yet in active 
service. By his death a man has been 
removed from the chess-board of 
French politics who has probably made 
more decisive moves in the interests 
of France than any one Frenchman 
since the day of Napoleon I. 

" The career of M. Gambetta was 
an Iliad of strange and dramatic inci- 

Leon Michel Gambetta was born at 
Cahors, France, April 2, 1838. His 
father, who survives him, was a wealthy 
merchant of northern Italy, while his 
mother, a woman of strong mind, fairly 

trained, was a native of southern 
France : thus, on his father's side, he 
came of that race which gave to France 
the peerless Napoleon. 

At college he made little noise, but 
was a close student, and was regarded 
by his tutors as rather eccentric than 
intelligent. He was graduated as 

j Bachelor of Arts at the age of eighteen. 
He had long made up his mind to be- 
come a lawyer and politician, and from 

i his early boyhood he had kept abreast 
of the politics of the day. But his 
father had destined him for the priest- 
hood, and refused him aid to study 

j law. From his mother, however, who 
always entertained generous sympa- 
thy with her son's intellectual tastes 

j and ambitions, he received the neces- 
sary aid, and entered a law school at 
Paris. By severe application and an 


innate fitness for the law, he com- 
pleted a four year's course in half of 
that time. 

When a law student, many of his 
evenings were spent at the meetings 
of social clubs, where, amidst roister- 
ing and merry-making, debates on 
leading political questions were held. 
In these Gambetta took a most promi- 
nent part. Here he started the rip- 
ples, which, by close cultivation, were 
to roll in waves of eloquence. Here, 
too, he sowed his wild oats, which were 
to grow bitter fruit in his afterlife and 
hasten him to a premature grave. 

In order the better to appreciate his 
thrilling career after this, let us trace 
the condition of France up to the 
point of his entrance on the stage of 
public life. From the beginning of 
the nineteenth century France has 
been the scene of changes and rup- 
tures. In 1848, amidst great anarchy, 
Louis Philippe was forced from his 
royal seat, and she became a Republic, 
with Louis Napoleon, the nephew of 
the great Napoleon, as her President. 
It had been the dream of this man's 
life to tread in the footsteps of his 
uncle ; and from the beginning of his 
Presidency he moulded schemes to 
make himself master of France. 

On the night of Dec. 2, 1851, the 
plot which he had been weaving, the 
great coup d'etat, a second St. Bar- 
tholomew's massacre, was put into 
execution. By this most of his oppo- 
nents were cut off or arrested, and the 
government fell absolutely into his 
hands. On Dec. 2, 1852, he was 
crowned Emperor, with the title of 
Napoleon III. But he often used his 
power despotically, and his rule grew 
more and more distasteful to the 


French. The freedom of the press 
and of speech was abridged. By these 
means he was inviting the same bait 
which brought death to Julius Caesar. 

It was in 1868 when a popular organ 
of Paris was prosecuted for opening a 
subscription for a monument in honor 
of a victim of the coup a" etat of '51. 
Gambetta, having just turned his 30th 
year, was engaged as advocate for the 
defendant. He boldly arraigned the 
government for abridging the freedom 
of the press and of speech, and raked 
up the sanguinary germs of its "origin, 
its ideas, its policy, and its vices." He 
pictured France " bound, gagged, and 
thrown bleeding at the feet of a vul- 
gar despot, and predicted that when 
she rose and snapped her bonds, her 
oppressor would fall before her." His 
speech on this occasion, delivered with 
burning eloquence, fell like a thunder- 
clap on his astonished hearers. He 
rose from his seat an obscure lawyer, 
and sat down with all eyes fixed on 
him as the coming man. He had al- 
ways been a staunch Republican, bent 
on the subversion of Csesarism, so 
noxious to France. 

The year 1870 was an eventful one 
to France, for it was to witness the 
Franco-Prussian war, and a radical 
change in French government, in 
which Gambetta was one of the prime 
instruments. Napoleon had long been 
conscious of his waning popularity, 
and was devising means in order that 
he might reinstate himself in the 
favor of his subjects. He concluded 
that if he could wage a successful war 
he might accomplish his ends. With 
that intent, then, he declared war 
against Prussia, on the ground that 
there had been talk of giving the crown 



of Spain to Leopold, a distant kins- 
man of the King of Prussia. Gam- 
betta, Thiers, and other prominent 
leaders of the "Left" in vain tried to 
avert the impending eruption. 

After several battles unfavorable to 
the French were fought, the German 
army pushed its way to the outskirts 
of Paris where a siege was begun. 
Meanwhile, Paris was in a state of fer- 
ment. Napoleon, as a commander in 
chief, had proved himself an imbecile, 
and the air of Paris bagan to be rilled 
with bitter cries of denunciation of 
VEmpreur. 'Twas at this uncture, 
when things were ripe for a change, 
that M. Gambetta and Jules Favre, 
the chief instruments, declared the 
government a Republic. The cry 
"Vive la Republique" ran like wild-fire 
through the streets of Paris. Gambetta 
was made Minister of the Interior. 

In the mean time the Germans were 
pressing the siege, and danger seemed 
more and more imminent. In this 
contingency, the men of high trust and 
honor were urged to take passage in 
balloons as a means of escape. Though 
many stout hearts shrunk from the 
risk of these aeronautic expeditions, 
Gambetta was prevailed upon to make 
the venture. It is said that on the 
day of his departure, Paris was in 
a fever of excitement. He entered 
the balloon-car amid deafening shouts. 
Though a man of nerve, but unaccus- 
tomed to the queer sensations inci- 
dent to a balloon trip, he clutched, it 
is said, the shrouding convulsively, 
and his color became almost livid. 

As the balloon rose majestically from 
the earth the aerial travellers unfurled 
the French flag, drawing a hearty re- 
sponse from the surging crowd below, 

and the waving of handkerchiefs from 
every window in Paris. Their voyage 
was an eventful one. When just out- 
side of Paris the balloon began to de- 
scend, and they threw out baggage, 
packages, &c, just in time to pass at 
a respectful distance over the Prussian 
troops. As it was, some gunshots were 
drawn, one load of which grazed the 
hair of Gambetta. Toward evening a 
thunderstorm came on them, and they 
were hurled into some friendly tree- 
tops, whence they descended and 
reached Tours safely. 

At Tours Gambetta was in safety, 
and became virtually dictator of all 
those provinces of France which were 
free from the German invaders. He 
now urged the people to continue re- 
sistance to exhaustion, and the 
thought of a defeat of the French 
overcame him. When the capitula- 
tion, with the cession of the provinces 
of Alsace and Lorraine to the Prus- 
sian Emperor was concluded, Gam- 
betta was indignant at the action, and 
immediately resigned his functions 
and went in retirement to Spain. But 
he was not to remain there long, for 
in the following year he was called 
back to France by the new elections. 
Thereafter, to the strengthening of 
the infant Republic, he bent all the 
resources of his capacious and virile 
mind, and his indomitable energy. 

It is noteworthy to record here that 
America heartily extended a sympa- 
thetic hand to the new Republic in its 
first struggles. Said one of the French 
ministers on that occasion, " America 
and France are sisters — sister Repub- 
lics. The ocean which separates us 
is less profound than the sentiment 
which unites us." Gambetta has al- 



ways been an ardent admirer of our 
government and institutions, and in 
all his labors in behalf of the French 
Republic he has kept before him 
our Republic as his model. But he 
did not enrich himself by covert 
means at the expense of his govern- 
ment, or invite pensions for himself — 
things which not all of our highest 
officials have escaped; but, a founder of 
la Republique Francaise, a Paris journal, 
he acquired what wealth he possessed 
by journalism mainly. Nor was he so 
fast tied to his own ends as to be 
prompted in all his actions by a mo- 
tive of self-aggrandizement, so com- 
mon in our day ; but it is generally 
held that his was a pure zeal for the 
common weal, and a desire to leave to 
posterity a monument of what genius, 
seconded by an honest purpose and 
energy, can accomplish. 

But with all Gambetta's greatness 
there was a dark side to his character ; 
for he was " dissolute and propense to 
voluptuousness and pleasures." He 
drank of the cup of the sweets and 
pleasures of Parisian life to its dregs. 
But they seemed rather to have whet- 
ted than dulled the edge of his mind. 
At his eleven o'clock breakfasts, where 
many leading politicians were wont to 
assemble, the table was always freight-, 
ed with the best that could be sup- 
plied from a French amine. Here, 
under the inspiration of the occasion, 
literary, artistic, scientific, and clas- 
sical subjects were freely discussed ; 
in all these Gambetta was well at 
home. Gambetta was a man of great 
individuality. In the forum he was 
always in his element. With a mar- 
vellous command of voice, ranging 
from an electric force of utterance to 

a soft, pathetic tremor, and enforced by 

natural and emphatic gestures, he had 
the power of holding his audiences 
u in the palm of his hand." As to his 
physique, Gambetta had a masculine 
and intellectual head, solidly imbed_ 
ded in a stalwart pair of shoulders ; a 
frame thick-set and muscular ; a coun- 
tenance attractive, of commingled 
thoughtfulness and audacity, frank- 
ness and haughtiness, yet full of the 
Italian sympathy ; an 'eye black, and 
penetrating, as it were, at times, " the 
very black spots on the horizon." 

At his death Gambetta was . only 
forty-four years of age. These few 
years stand in strong contrast with the 
seventy-three of the venerable Prime 
Minister of England, who, by loyalty 
to principle and by the purity of a 
well-ordered life, even yet prolongs to 
his country the blessing of his wise 
leadership. The report is affirmed by 
a few that the death of Gambetta was 
hastened by a pistol shot at the hands 
of one Mme. Lauvier. This woman, 
it is said, had loved him for some 
years previously, and, on his final re- 
jection of her, fired at him two pis- 
tol shots ; one, passing through his 
right hand, pierced his abdomen. 
At this writing, however, it is impos- 
sible to determine the amount of truth 
in this rumor. 

" In German eyes Gambetta has ever 
appeared the personification of re- 
venge. His name was associated with 
the sound of the war-trumpet. But 
there has ever existed in Germany a 
generous appreciation of foreign merit 
and greatness of character. Germany 
does not hesitate to lay a wreath on 



the bier of an enemy with whom she 
victoriously wrestled in a brave and 
honest struggle." 

Though for some time before his 
death Gambetta held no office under 

the government, he was the bulwark 
of the French Republic, and it now 
becomes the question, who will fill his 
pLace ? 


Who would have supposed that 
there could exist within the borders of 
the Old North State a town of so 
much cultivation and promise as 

franklin (Macon Co.), 
about which so little is said and known 
in the East? Its name and the spot 
it occupies on the map are all that 
many are acquainted with. And, when 
it is considered that it lies beyond 
those formidable ranges of mountains, 
and that the Cherokee Indians occupy 
an intermediate county, the task of 
exploring in that region seems so diffi- 
cult, not to say dangerous, that, per- 
haps on that account, but few have 
the courage to undertake it. But af- 
ter one whom duty has summoned to 
that spot has ^scaled and- overcome 
those dreaded heights, and without 
tomahawk, pistol, or even penknife 
has made his way through and around 
the pesky and blood-thirsty red men of 
the forest, without receiving a scratch, 
or seeing an Indian, other than the 
few engaged in working on the Duck- 
town Railroad, he feels inclined to 
make light of all future adventures 
whose difficulty rests merely upon 
common report. 

On reaching this town you are no 
little surprised to find that your map 

is correct in placing it upon the banks 
of the Tennessee River. It seemed a 
thing almost incredible to him who 
had found this river twisting and 
winding about and turning up in so 
many unexpected places by railroad 
and dirt road, near cities and villages 
and in any and all parts of the country 
east of the Mississippi, that its chief and 
highest feat in this line should be, as 
it is, performed when it is yet in its 
infancy and has not left the cradle. 
But, then, what other pranks and ca- 
pers than just such as it cuts up be- 
yond the Alleghanies, could be ex- 
pected of such an enterprising child ? 
Rising twenty miles away in Georgia, 
it winds its dark and muddy way 
around the base of hill and mountain, 
making for the Arctic Ocean as it 
passes Franklin, and whence — but we 
do not propose to follow it any far- 

In order to turn the cold shoulder 
to old Boreas, the early settlers of the 
county placed Franklin on the south 
side of a range of high hills, from the 
top of which, not from Franklin itself, 
the eye takes in as magnificent a moun- 
tain view as one could desire. The 
only drawback of a physical nature 
under which it suffers is that it seems 



to be the home of fogs — fogs of all 
sizes, shapes and degrees of density 
— fogs that dampen, that saturate ? 
that chill to the very bones — fogs 
which the Franklinites do not regard 
as much more than light rains, but 
which to strangers — however, let us 
not use harsh terms in dealing with 
this delicate subject. It must be added, 
however, that it increases the discom_ 
fort of the stranger that no one here ? 
not even the politest clerk in a dry 
goods store, offers an apology for these 
fogs. That might make them less in- 

But, then, the people — how intelli- 
gent and generally well-read they are. 
This is the centre of light for a large 
region of country beyond and around. 
And you will find as many refined 
homes here as at any other point in 
the State. They have managed to 
gather books and objects of art and 
antiquity, and display as thorough an 
acquaintance with current events as 
people living on the highways of travel 
and trade. Especially are you struck 
with the wonderful command of poetry 
recited from various authors, and so 
fluently by one old gentleman named 
Johnston. He knows. Burns by heart, 
and has perfect facility in the use of 
the Gaelic dialect. 

The hospitality of this people is 
simply unbounded ; their most cordial 
reception seeming to be reserved for 
those who sympathize with them in 
the great matter of education and 
moral progress. And whether the 
promised railroad ever extends from 
Clarksville, Ga., via Franklin, on its 
way to the "Ducktown branch" or not, 
they have within themselves the ele- 
ments of a society possessing all that 

makes life noble and good ; and with 
the Normal School kept up by their 
energy and good sense, and directed 
so wisely by Profs. Farmer and Ran- 
kin, they are in a fair way to elevate 
and revolutionize that whole moun- 
tain country. 

On a small mountain in the Nanta- 
halah range is a celebrated Mica mine, 
which you can visit if you are willing 
to climb a mile in order to overcome 
the almost perpendicular height Of 
iooo feet. This is accomplished after 
much panting and blowing relieved 
by an occasional lean against the sap- 
lings which hug the steep mountain 
sides and serve to prevent your being 
hurled to the bottom by a chance slip or 
failure to get a footing. And we are 
following, too, the narrow path by 
which the mica is transported from 
the mine above to the workshop be- 
low at which it is prepared for market. 
On reaching a point 100 feet from the 
top of the mountain you are halted at 
a miner's shanty, now deserted. After 
waiting a few minutes, however, a 
head is seen protruding from an open- 
ing in the rock, a few yards away, and 
after it comes the body and soul (per- 
haps) of the man. He encourages us 
to believe that by the aid of the light 
of a candle which he puts in Prof. 
Farmer's hand, we can make our un- 
guided way through the tunnel, com- 
ing out at the opening from which he 
had emerged. Nothing was easier. 
He described the circuit which we 
must make in order to reach the main 
opening, 300 yards away. "But how 
about the blasting going on in there?" 
u Oh ! they (the miners) will see you 
coming and hold on until you have 



passed beyond them to a safe dis- 
tance. Just then there was heard a 
deep underground rumbling, such as 
marks earthquakes generally. This set- 
tled our wavering minds. We determin- 
ed not to venture into that suspicious 
den without a guide, and after some 
hesitation the miner undertook to pi- 
lot us. 

If the reader will just bind reason 
and turn loose fancy, he will conceive 
it just what we found it — the wildest 
thing in art or nature. The opening 
itself seemed to have been planned for 
the entrance of tigers and savage beasts^ 
and the tunnel for their safe-keeping. 
Its mouth was lacking in height and 
width, and, within, it was dark enough 
to hatch treason. "Stoop low," "stoop 
low." We tried and at length succeeded 
Indeed, it became after a while so 
easy to walk in this doubled-up man. 
ner that T, for one, feared there was 
too much truth in the anthropoid-ape 
theory of man's descent, and even began 
to count the steps by which that ven- 
erated progenitor was removed from 
the "variety" homo. Absorbed as far 
as one could be in such weighty spec- 
ulations and lost in thoughts which 
shot out from the brain, in the direc- 
tion of the horizontal line assumed by 
the spinal column, I was suddenly 
brought back to my — speech by some- 
thing that was not in the programme 
— water, yes, a stream of water flowing 
through the tunnel an inch or two 
deep. Over this stream a narrow 
plank had been placed which you must 
plumb, or drop into the water. And, 
unluckily, the track was lost in the 
dimness of the light in Prof. F.'s hand 
and down plunged one of the trio into 
the cold liquid. 

A cry for help was mistaken for 
something less urgent, and was met 
by the response coming from afar, 
"Look ahead ! follow the light ! come 
on !" Now just about the hardest job 
I ever undertook to do is to "look 
ahead" while "coming on" in the bent 
posture so natural to our anthropoid 
ancestors. When a man {homo) is 
stooping to the very crown of his head, 
when eyes, mouth, and chin are in a 
line parallel with the surface of the 
earth, how can he look ahead} A 
lucky thought came to my rescue. 
Compromise matters by inclining the 
head ever so slightly upward, and at 
the same time continue to walk. But 
unfortunately while trying to execute 
this device, and trying to catch, it 
may be, a glimpse of the far off taper, 
I lost sight of the plank again and 
stepped off into the water with a jar 
which evoked an involuntary sigh of 
anguish. Then there were sounds ut- 
tered which had no dubious import to 
my companions. These were answer- 
ed at once by our kind guide, who pre- 
sented "me too" with a candle for my 
own use and behoof. Thus equipped, 
I boldly crept along the rock-ribbed, 
dark, low-ceiled way — crept, I say, for 
there were cropping out occasionally 
in consciousness some faint impression 
of an original, antedating even the an- 
thropoidal, to-wit, the reptilian, 
which it required no little effort to 
efface entirely. 

But, speculation about such deep 
mysteries excepted, I was occupied 
yet with the problem of sticking to 
the plank, which was my only hope of 
deliverance from the water. By keep- 
ing the candle lowered to a level with 



the plank, the route could be made 
out with some degree of certainty. 

How long this state of things con- 
tinued cannot be accurately deter- 
mined. To us then there was, practi- 
cally, no time-measurer. " Where was 
your watch?" How can spectacles 
for seeing the time be kept on a head 
whose face is at an angle of 45 deg. 
downward with its normal position? 
Add to this that sun-set and sun-rise 
are unknown in this tunnel, and you 
will see why this must ever remain an 
undecided question. 

After groping and plunging about 
for what might have been a day or 
more, sometimes ascending bluffs 
which you encounter unexpectedly, 
and sometimes descending by stairs 
cut in the rock, the ceiling meanwhile 
preserving its relative height, a faint 
noise is heard and a fainter glimmer 
of the faintest light from feeble tapers 
is barely discerned. At that sight, 
who, situated as we were, could fail to 
be moved ? " Onward !" was the word 
which passed along the lines, and on- 
ward we hastened. But we were not 
a little apprehensive that before our 
arrival at the -spot occupied by those 
ghostly forms which were seen mov- 
ing and flitting about just ahead of 
us, we might come within range of the 
missiles in the preparation for dis- 
charging which the ghosts were evi- 
dently busily engaged. But as soon 
as the ghosts were, by our proximity 
to them, transformed into begrimed, 
smutty men, we could see that they 
were engaged in drilling, and that 
sometime must elapse before blasting 
would be in order. We found the 
miners very obliging, and disposed to 
answer every question, and to explain 

in detail the process of mining for 
mica. Here, on each side of the pit 
in which we were standing, could be 
seen the ends of huge blocks of the 
mineral wedged in between tilted strata 
of sandstone and other rocks. These 
blocks could be extricated from their 
firm beds only by the shivering, loos- 
ening, and rending which the blast 

Operations were going on at a lively 
rate, and we were advised to move on. 
Our guide had by this time left us, 
and being assured that we could not 
miss the road, we moved off as rapidly 
as we could. But soon we met an un- 
looked for obstacle — the road seeming 
to terminate abruptly. On raising the 
candles above our heads, however, we 
discovered notches in the face of the 
rock before us, which gave signs of 
foot-work, and we clambered up cau- 
tiously and with difficulty, one hand 
only being available for grasping the 
points of rocks which were evidently 
made to protrude for that purpose. 
After performing this highly caprine 
feat, we felt that nothing could be re 
g a r d e d, hereafter, insurmountable. 
But to offset the joy of this triumph, 
we were oppressed by the thought 
that we were yet reptiles. Nor were 
we enlarged in spirit or erect in body 
until in the natural course of things 
our complete evolution occurred at 
that mouth of the tunnel from which 
the miner (our guide) had been evolved 
earlier in the day. 

The reader may imagine the cha- 
grin with which we learned, after com- 
ing out into daylight, that we had 
been only one hour and a half in the 




On our descent we went somewhat 
out of the way to visit these charm- 
ing Falls. Burningtown creek, in its 
haste to enter the Tennessee, is not 
content with meandering, as more pa- 
tient streams do, but it must here take 
a tripple leap down the bald pates of 
three monstrous rocks, lying one above 
another, each lower rock projecting 
some ten feet beyond its hard-headed 
superior. Perhaps one hundred feet 
would measure the height of the Falls. 
But, as intimated, there are three dis- 
tinct leaps made by the water. The 
width of the stream is about twenty 
feet. Its course downwards is some- 
what irregular, so that it is seen as a 
whole from no one point. The banks 
being lined with a heavy growth of 
forest trees and thick underbrush, it is 
difficult to see beyond any bend which 
the stream makes in its course. But 
this circumstance only serves to add 
the element of uncertainty, thereby 
giving it an air of mystery and en- 
hancing its interest. The observer 
finds it difficult to determine the 
height from which the waters fall, and 
fancy conies in to exaggerate. 

In a scene like this one fails to reach 
the bewildering ecstasy which the first 
experience of Niagara produces, and 
even the quieter sense of the mingled 
sublime and beautiful which Toccoa 
awakens, but, nevertheless, it charms 
and fascinates, it attracts and holds 
spell-bound. If our keenest enjoy- 
ments are those which are suggested 
rather than those which are directly 
produced by natural objects,then in this 
abode of Naiads and Undines,this dell 
whose quiet is broken only by the 

noise of rushing waters, this Carolina 
pic-nic ground, with giant rocks rising 
before you, down whose steep faces a 
river pours its romping waters — surely 
here there is something to enjoy. 

This we found to be simplicity itself 
— consisting of two small rooms fur- 
nished with baskets for holding the 
mica fresh from the mines, with knives 
for separating the layers, and with 
scissors for cutting into rectangles the 
sheets as they fall from the knives of 
the dissectors. For this work women 
are employed. And for it they are 
well adapted — showing the precision, 
delicacy of touch, rapidity of move- 
ment and deftness which characterize 
the sex. They seem to perceive at a 
glance how to apply the scissors so as 
turn out from a given jagged sheet the 
largest rectangular figure possible. And 
th*e parings and scraps are dextrously 
worked up into smaller figures by 
other hands. These sheets are valued 
in proportion to their size, and great 
care is observed in the separation of 
the laminae that they be of sufficient 
number to give the strength and text- 
ure demanded for service in the arts. 
"Hair splitting" in this as in all else, 
impairs and even destroys the value 
of the article. 

Cesar's head. 

This famous mountain, situated in 
Transylvania county, not far from the 
S. C. line, forms a section of the 
breastworks which nature has thrown 
up to guard from intrusion this en- 
chanted "Land of the Sky." It holds 
rather the relation to the whole that 
the towers erected at intervals upon 
the Chinese Wall hold to the wall it- 



self. Rising above all, and overhang- 
ing and frowning down upon the 
whole country to the southward with 
knit brow and threatening eye, its of- 
fice clearly is to deter would-be in- 
vaders and trespassers from touching 
the sacred soil of the old North State. 

Standing upon the rocky crown and 
turning the eye northward, you see 
the whole mountain system of N. C. 
And southward the eye is lost in the 
vast prospect of lands stretching out 
far below and without limit. Only 
here and there is a bump on the wide 
expanse discerned, as Paris Mt., or 
Parson's Knob, or such like pigmies* 
"stand up" for their rights in the 
plain of tame submission and acknowl- 
edged inferiority. This crown is a 
plat of perhaps twenty acres of nearly 
bare rock. On it is the Hotel at which 
many are accommodated during sum- 
mer. You need not leave your cham- 
ber many steps in order to be favor- 
ably situated to see the rising sun. 
And you have to go only a few hun- 
dred -feet to reach the outer edge of 
the crown, from which to obtain the 
famous "Ocean View." Perhaps one 
of the grandest visions which can greet 
the eye of man, is that of the sea of 
molten silver, boiling and seething, 
which sometimes covers the land be. 
low as far as the eye can reach, when 
the rising sun is sending its early rays 
upon the boundless fog-banks, formed 
and forming in every hollow, and set- 
tling down upon every hill-top in the 
vast "ocean" below : sunshine, mean- 
while, resting upon the head of Caesar. 

One feat which every visitor here is 
expected to perform is that of ap- 
proaching within a few inches of the 
precipice and peeping over into the 

unfathomed abyss below. And if, in- 
stead of looking down perpendicularly 
only, you bend the neck so as to fol- 
low with the eye the line of descent 
which the rock observes as it slopes 
inward, you must take care that your 
head is strong, or, else, you may share 
the fate of the lady whom curiosity 
prompted to try this feat. Tradition 
has it that no trace of her could be 
found except the fragment of a bon- 
net resting upon the limb of a tree a 
half mile below. 

No dream which the writer ever had 
(not even one about snakes) so moves 
and thrills as the oft-repeated one sug- 
gested by his attempt to look down 
into that awful chasm. The sensation 
once experienced follows you through 
life, and whenever recalled, by day or 
by night, fills with unutterable horror. 
It is always attended with the vivid 
remembrance of a felt invisible hand 
which was impelling you irresistibly 
and of a fascination that was luring 
you into the absorbing vortex. When- 
ever recalled, the situation stops for a 
moment the action of the heart, and 
the cruel spectre has to be instantly 
laid. And yet, strange to say, men, 
women, and children must view the 
landscape from the edge of this prec- 
ipice, even if they have to be assisted 
by friends holding their hands, and 
standing ready to rescue them if they 
show signs of giddiness. 


This you will find in the organ of 
Ideality (See Fowler) in this famous 
head — on the right side. Perhaps it 
furnishes colder flowing water than 
any spring on the continent. By what 
peculiar device of nature its tempera- 
ture becomes so low, is, for obvious 



reasons unknown. But about one 
point we are satisfied, that there never 
was a clearer case of " the right thing" 
in the wrong place. The only paral- 
lel to it is to be found in the case of 
a water-hole, sometimes called a well, 
sometimes a spring, which may be 
found anywhere on the marshy, 
swampy coast of the Carolinas, con- 
taining a liquid which has to be drunk 
for want of water, and which its pa- 
trons try to convince themselves is 
water. If we were called upon to dif- 
ferentiate the two, we would say that 
the latter is the " wrong thing in the 
right place." However, to make 
things even all around, where the 
" right thing" is found, sweet potatoes 
and peanuts do not flourish. 

But to leave liquids and come back 
to solids, suppose we look out from 
the top of Caesar's head, in a south- 
westerly direction, and get a good 
view of 


At this distance of ten miles, it is a 
full-grown mountain, standing in soli- 
tary grandeur and crowned with an 
immense rock — a feature so notable as 
to give name to the whole pile. The 
mountain seems to be encircling and 
climbing up the rock, and the latter 
seems to be struggling to disengage 
itself wholly from the folds of its giant 
captor. Atone point the rock emerges 
1,100 feet, at another 500, and at an- 
other 70, Its face is in the main per- 

We are going to visit it. But to do 
so, we must leave North Carolina for 
a while, as the Palmetto State has 
managed to run its line so as to cut 
off this spur of the Saluda Mountains, 
and appropriate it to itself. And we 

certainly have a share of the great Ap- 
palachian chain large enough to allow 
our neighbors a tidbit here and there ; 
especially as our friends across the line 
have so few advantages of this sort, 
and are so appreciative of greatness as 
well in nature as in the men whom she 
produces. And, too, however great 
this w r onderful mountain, with its 
rocky crown, may be, it is only a side- 
show in our grand circus, whose at- 
tractions are world-renowned. Indeed, 
if we did but know w r ith what affec- 
tion and pride our sister State views 
and cherishes all that belongs to her, 
and with what fondness she regards 
Table Rock in particular, we could 
not find it in our hearts to begrudge 
her the pleasure of its possession. 
From Charleston to Walhalla its 
praises are upon all lips, as if it were a 
Mont Blanc or Chimborazo. In the 
olden times the current proverb was, 
" See Table Rock and" — live. Indeed, 
that was a famous medical prescrip- 
tion given for the benefit of those 
whom the malaria and fevers of the 
multitudinous low lands and swamps 
of that rice-bearing State had, in the 
month of August, reduced to the verge 
of dissolution. Well, we pass down 
Caesar's Head, and take as straight a 
line as the broken country will allow 
for the foot of Table Mountain. On 
arrival at Pumpkin Town, an unpre- 
tentious place made up of two dwell- 
ings and a blacksmith shop, we stop 
for the night, hoping to find out the 
way and secure a guide. And herein 
is one marked difference between this 
foreign and our home curiosities. It 
is as if we were visiting the Alps, and 
must have a guide as all genteel trav- 
ellers do. In all our mountain explo- 



rations hitherto, we had had no pro- 
fessional guide, and now that we must 
have one, our pride was flattered and 
we could hardly sleep that night for 
thinking of the greatness thrust upon 
us. And our guide proved to be a 
specialist — a man of one idea, as he 
was a man of one business. He knew 
every nook and cranny of the great 
mountain. Here he had spent his life 
and found his life-work. 

He spoke with awe of its cliffs and 
crags, and evidently regarded it as the 
fountain of blessing to the country 
around — the head-centre of lightning, 
hail, snow, and weather, good or bad 
— Nature's throne. With such a guide, 
we start out early in the morning to 
achieve a task that requires a full day 
for its accomplishment. We had, how- 
ever, to exchange hack for saddles, the 
road being very steep and narrow. 
With hard work for horse and rider, 
we reached at length the top of the 
mountain proper, and were then but 
at the beginning of the real enterprise, 
which consisted in scaling the perpen- 
dicular rock which at this point tow- 
ered several hundred feet above our 
heads. Now it was necessary to climb 
afoot by a narrow path which marked 
the gradual rise of the mountain around 
the side of the rock up to that point 
where failure to compass its design 
was confessed, and the victorious rock 
raised its triumphant head full 70 feet 
above. Here, if at all, we must estab- 
lish our base of operations. And here 
we saw the need of a guide, if not be- 
fore. At first there seemed to be no 
method by which this 70 feet could be 
overcome. But by a slight change of 
place, and with a front view of the 
rock from this place, we discerned two 

stairways, one above the other, the 
foot of the higher one being situated 
full 20 feet to the right of the summit 
of the lower. These were formed by 
drilling holes in the face of the rock 
and inserting iron supports upon which 
steps were placed — the steps being 
flanked by railing. There is luckily at 
this point a slight inclination of the 
face of the rock. 

It was comparatively easy to mount 
the first set of steps. But as you must 
overcome the 20 feet between the two 
in order to reach the base of the sec- 
ond, and as this track is only three 
feet wide, cut out from the face of the 
rock, and overlooking, practically, a 
depth below of two thousand feet, 
with nothing to save you from annihi- 
lation, in case of slipping or tripping, 
the passage seemed to strangers fear- 
fully perilous. Some of the party (the 
reader must not ask us to give names) 
hesitated for some time to make the 
venture. But the most faint-hearted 
were shamed into it by the guide who 
paced to and fro upon the narrow 
track as if he were walking about in 
his dining-room. The exhibition of 
such perfect sang froid and sense of 
safety finally touched and infected the 
last one of the cowardly party, and he 
too, with head erect but heart bowed 
down, made the trip. The next day 
he pleaded as the reason of his hesita- 
tion, the fact of his being addicted to 
cramp in the big toe when he went in 

As might have been expected, we 
skipped like cats up the second flight 
of steps, and landed safe and sound 
upon the top of the rock. But when- 
ever, during that day, the thought of 
the return passage down those steps 



and over that three-foot track suspen- 
ded 2,000 feet in the air. occurred, it 
served to diminish materially the en- 
joyment of the present. 

The top of the rock embraces per- 
haps one hundred acres. One portion 
of it is concave, and here a soil has 
been formed on which trees have 
grown to about half their usual size. 
This furnishes a cool and delightful 
retreat at midday; and seated around 
the borders of a spring which, in the 
centre of this sylvan abode of fawns 
•and birds, gushes up from the bowels 
of the rock, more pleasure can be ex- 
tracted from cold chicken and biscuit 
than awaits many a surfeited guest at 

The crucial test of heroism here is 

this : There is growing out from a fis- 
sure in the rock, where it is said to be 
1 ,000 feet high, a cedar tree, whose 
outer limbs extend beyond the rock. 
Now this tree must be gone around 
by the hero. Only one of our com- 
pany attempted to perform the feat, 
and he succeeded. 

We will not pain the reader by de- 
scribing the return passage down the 
rock, which was even more fearful than 
the ascent, inasmuch as we were forced 
to face the danger all the while, the 
eye being directed towards the base 
of the mountain. Suffice it to say, 
one of the party came through safe, 
but perfectly content to view the 
mountain from afar for all time to 

EDITORIAL— North Carolina Shame. 




We hope the time will never come 
when we shall have to blush for the 
land of our nativity. We hear of State 
pride. Have North* Carolinians any 
of that article? More than one of 
her sons in sister States has been un- 
able to resent the covert sneer at her 
deplorable condition. 

We gave some statistics in our last 
issue concerning the standing of North 
Carolina in regard to illiteracy. Start- 
ling facts they were, and in part ex- 
plain the news, received since our last 
number, of the suspension of The New 
South because of insufficient patronage. 
At Home and Abroad has ex- 
changed hands, the senior editor ac- 
cepting the presidency of the N. C. 
College, the remaining editors being 
unwilling to incur the responsibility 
without their father's labors and cap. 
ital, and having already lost too much 
to risk any more. Now, these are 
State papers — papers worthy the pat- 
ronage of our people in every respect. 
The New South had an object differ 
ing from all our state papers, and an 
object which should have recommend- 
ed it to every man in the land who 
desired the advancement of North 
Carolina's interests. 

Devoted to the industrial, agricultu- 
ral, mineral, and educational develop- 
ment of North Carolina, it exercised 
a potent influence for bringing about 
a higher order of things. Its influence 
upon the young men of N. C. cannot 
be overestimated. The editor, a young 
man, endeavored to stimulate and en- 

courage other young men ; not only 
endeavored to do so, but there are 
hard facts, and sufficient, to attest 
what his success has been. No won- 
der we do not retain the best talent of 
our State. When young men of energy, 
talent, and will, have failed to succeed, 
solely from the want of sufficient pat- 
ronage, the failure materially affects 
the enterprise of other young men. 
And no other young man in Wilming- 
ton, however talented, would be will- 
ing now to attempt the publication of 
a paper, however favorable its pros- 
pects. The businessmen of Wilming- 
ton should have seen to it that an en- 
terprise so intimately connected with 
their best interests received the neces- 
sary support. 

At Home and Abroad is a magazine 
of sterling worth, and ought to be in 
every home in our State. So uncer- 
tain, however, is its success, that its 
editors feel unwilling to rely upon the 
doubtful patronage of an unapprecia- 
tive public. We do not say patronize 
home productions when you can do 
better elsewhere ; but when you get 
your money's worth, we do say let us 
stand by everything which tends to 
elevate our people and to cultivate 
among them a taste for literature, sci- 
ence, and the arts. If people who are 
able to appreciate the position of N 
C. do not adopt measures to stop the 
increase of illiteracy, we apprehend it 
will not be done. And we want no 
more conclusive evidence of the state 
things in N. C. than the suspension of 
The New South, and the valedictory of 
the former editors of At Home and 




— The Medal was awarded to Mr. 
W. H. Osborn, of Asheville, N. C. 
The conditions of the contest required 
that the competitors be students of 
the college, and that the judges have 
reference more to sperspicuity and 

simplicity of style than to any other 
quality. Mr. Osborn's article appeared 
in the December Student, being en- 
titled, "Lights and Shadows in the 
Land of the Sky." 


—Scarlet fever has caused the 
suspension of Colby Academy, Mass., 
but the school will reopen on the 29th 

— $50,000 has recently been added 
to the endowment fund of William 
Jewell College, Mo., and the Baptists 
of that State will do still more for their 

— Colorado reports an increase of 
school population during the past year 
of 8,404. The schools of the State 
employ 900 teachers, and are said to 
be admirably managed. 

— Governor Butler's suggestion in 
his inaugural address that the teachers 
in the lower grades should be better 
paid receives general commendation 
in Massachusetts and elsewhere. 

— It is reported that the citizens of 
Cambridge have given ^Harvard $250,- 
000, to be used in the erection of new 
dormitories, in which the room-rent 
shall not exceed $50 a year. 

— Rev. B. G. Maynard has recently 
resigned the presidency of Carson 
(formerly Mossy Creek) College, East 
Tennessee, and accepted the call to 
the Baptist church at Plattsburg, Mo. 

— A wealthy citizen of St. Louis has 
made an addition to his late gift to 
the Central College (Methodist), of 
Fayette, Mo., so that in the aggregate 
he has now given that institution 

— In Indiana last year 302 schoo^ 
buildings were erected, making 9,556 
in all, valued at over $300,000. The 
increase of houses was but small, how- 
ever, because most of the new build- 
ings were to replace the old ones. 

—The late Dr. C. C. Beatty gave to 
Washington and Jefferson College 
$50,000 when the two institutions rep- 
resented in its name united. He also 
endowed the Chair of Greek while liv- 
ing, and bequeathed an endowment to 
the Chair of Latin. 

— The administration and service 
of the library of Harvard College costs 
$20,000 a year, and as there is no en- 
dowment the cost falls practically on 
the tuition fees. The book funds 
produce about $12,000 a year. The 
library needs an endowment of $400,- 
000, says President Eliot. 

— Harper & Brothers have just 
published a seventh edition of Lid- 
dell & Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, 
a standard work with which every 
Greek scholar is familiar. The work 
has been carefully revised and several 
important articles have been rewritten. 
Professors Drisler, Goodwin, and Gil- 
dersleeve, who are well known Ameri- 
can authorities, have assisted Dr. Scott 
and Dr. Liddell in the labor of revis- 
Every student will be glad of 


this new edition of an almost perfect 


— The W. F. Institute, Staunton, 
Va., has suspended. Scarlet fever 
among the students is the cause. 

— In Atlanta there are four colleges 
for negroes, all in a flourishing condi- 

— The Athenceum announces that out 
of fourteen candidates, eight of whom 
were ministers, Mr. Donald McKinnon 
has been chosen to fill the new Celtic 
Chair in Edinburgh University. 

— MOSCOW has 43 public schools, 
containing 4,691 pupils, and St. Peters- 
burg has 88 schools with 4,074 pupils. 
Most of the pupils are under twelve 
years of age. The school year con- 
sists of 200 days of four hours each. 
Teachers are paid from $180 to $360 
a year and lodgings. Every teacher 
has 50 pupils assigned to him. The 
annual cost of each pupil is about $23. 

— MISSOURI has, next to Indiana, 
the largest amount of permanent funds 
devoted to school purposes in the 
Union. They aggregate $9,471,696, 
not including the annual apportion- 
ment of State revenue. The State 
has a school population of 741,632, 
and of this number 488,000 are en- 
rolled in the public schools. There 
are 8,822 schools in operation, con- 
ducted by 10,607 teachers, and last 
year $3,3,468,738 were expended upon 
the schools. Per cent, unable to write, 

— The establishment of evening 
schools in the towns and villages, as 
well as in the cities, is strongly urged. 
Young men are said to be growing up 
in ignorance in these places, not be- 
cause they prefer ignorance, but be- 
cause they cannot take time from 
working hours for instruction, and can 
get none at other hours. 

-Educational 257 

— " Several educational i n s tttu- 
tions in the South are seriously em- 
barrassed by the prevalence of small- 
pox in the regions where they are sit- 
uated. Roanoke College, Va., has 
suspended its sessions, and in Tennes- 
see and Georgia other colleges are 
threatened with a similar result." 
Work has been resumed at Roanoke 
College, and it gives us pleasure to 
state the visitation did no permanent 

— A movement is on foot at Yale, 
to put up a building on or near the 
college grounds .for religious uses, 
Young Men's Christian Association 
meetings, etc. It is believed that, as 
has proved true at Princeton, such a 
distinct building would become a cen- 
tre of good influences, as no mere lec- 
ture-room or other college public hall 
ever has or can. The cost is estima- 
ted at $25,000, and a canvass of the 
Alumni is under way in the hope of 
securing the needed sum. Wish we 
had such a building at Wake Forest. 

— The Catalogue of Colby Univer- 
sity shows that the Faculty of nine 
Professors and two instructors are all 
in their places, and 124 students are 
learning from them, 21 Seniors, 27 Ju- 
niors, 24 Sophomores, and 42 Fresh- 
men. Eight young women are among 
the number, none of them being in 
the Senior Class, however. There are 
but five partial course students in the 
University. Hon. J. Warren Merrill 
offers a special prize to the student 
who passes the best entrance-exami- 
nation next fall, provided he reaches 
a certain standard of scholarship and 
character. The prize will amount to 
$182 a year during the college course. 



— There are over 7,000 American 
students in the German universities. 

— In New England there is one col- 
lege student to every 165 families; in 
North Carolina one in every 400. 

— One hundred and seventy colleges 
in the United States where both sexes 
are admitted as students. — Ex. 

President Porter, of Union Col- 
lege, has offered three prizes to the 
students keeping the neatest, most 
elegant, and attractive rooms. 

— Mrs. A. T. Stewart is building 
a new college in New York, to cost 
$4,000,000. It will be the largest in 
America, co-educational, and expenses 
will be put at a very low figure. — Ex. 

— DR. G. D. Bernheim has resigned 
the Presidency of N. C. College, to 
which he was recently called. The 
college wil| be closed on April 1st, 
because of an insufficiency of patron- 
age. This argues strongly for the in- 
terest North Carolinians manifest in 
education ! 

— At the opening exercises of the 
term at Princeton College, President 
McCosh addressed the students con- 
cerning desired reforms and additional 
facilities and advantages lately given 
the institution. Speaking of the abuses 
arising from excessive indulgence in 
athletics, he said : " This is a matter 
which demands immediate attention. 
The fever has risen to such a height 
that the pulse-beats of it which I feel 
seem to me alarmingly strong and 
swift. When one walks across the cam- 
pus, the conversation he overhears 
bears no relation to the science and 

knowledge which we came here to 
pursue ; but it is this game and that 
game, this record and that record. 
The college papers, too, which are 
primarily literary organs, are devoted 
to gymnastics and athletics. Physical 
culture carried to a certain extent no 
sane man can censure ; but in this, as 
in most things, extremes are danger- 
ous.' ' — Exchange. 

— The new college at Cambridge 
University, in England, Selwyn Col- 
lege, bid's fair to be as brilliant a suc- 
cess at Cambridge as Keble has been 
at Oxford. Only sixty students can 
be accommodated so far, as the ^"38,- 
000 originally subscribed did not suf- 
fice to build more than the first block. 
Selwyn is the first new college added 

to the University during the present 

— THE Trustees of the University 
of North Carolina met on the 1st of 
February in Raleigh. In the evening 
of the same day the Alumni met in 
the Hall of Representatives to hear the 
annual address of Hon. John Man- 

— The following interesting statis 
tics are taken from the Census Bul- 
letin No. 303, setting forth per cent, 
of persons unable to write in the sev- 
eral states : 
















Connecticut. . 





















15. 1 

New-York . . t 





North Carolina48.3 














EDITORIAL— Literary Gossip. 


— In the February Atlantic Monthly 
there is a strong criticism, by E. R. 
Sill, of Herbert Spencer's theory of 
education as presented in his treatise 
written some twenty years ago. Mr. 

Sill thinks that Spencer would himself 
reject conclusions into which he was 
betrayed by the ardor of a reaction 
from an opposite extreme. 


By Phi. Sr. Editor. 

— The Bread-Winners is the title of 
an anonymous novel to appear soon 
in The Century. 

— A fac-simile copy of the first edi- 
tion of Robinson Crusoe has just been 
published in England. 

—It is said Mr. Crawford wrote the 
novel Mr. Isaacs in less than a month, 
and that the first edition is already 

— Mark Twain's new book of 
sketches on the Mississippi is about 
ready. It will make a volume the size 
of Innocents Abroad. 

— Washington Irving's Sketch 
Book is used as a text-book for classes 
studying English in the public schools 
of France. 

— Mr. James Russel Lowell has 
been accorded the rare honor of un- 
veiling a statue of Fielding in Eng- 
land. The English Press can see no 
reason for thus honoring an American. 

— The North Carolina Baptist Al- 
tnanac,edited by Rev. C. T. Bailey, and 
calculated by Prof. W. G. Simmons, is 
an improvement on the last one. It is 
truly a Baptist Almanac, and to Bap- 
tists its contents are peculiarly inter- 

— The Messrs. Harper will publish 
shortly Poe's Raven illustrated by a 
noted French artist, the late M. Gus- 
tave Dore. The illustrations were pur- 
chased from M. Dore some time ago, 
and are said to be exceptionally fine. 

—They say that Mr. W. D. How- 
ells's first contribution to The Atlantic 
was a little poem of eight lines. The 
$25 he received in payment made quite 
a sensation in Columbus, where he 
was then an editor. 

— We learn that a lady of Charlotte 
has in press two very entertaining 
novels. Then and Now also is a 
book recently written by a lady 
of North Carolina. The scenes are 
all laid in this State. We wish it 
were possible to devote a page to 
North Carolina literature, but the ma- 
terial is lacking. 

— Mrs. Foote's Led-Horse Claim, 
now running in The Century, is devel- 
oping in magnificent style. It is a 
story of action, as well as of love and 
character. The interest increases with 
each chapter. Her dainty pictures, 
tender pathos, the delineation of pas- 
sion, intermingled with romantic and 
elevated incidents, make it one of the 
most delightful serials now publishing. 



— Our Continent has become The 
Continent. Well, it is out West." 

— COL. Bob Ingersoll has been cho- 
sen to deliver the address before the 
Literary Societies of Kansas Univer- 
sity. What means this in a civilized 

— The remains of John Howard 
Payne, author of Home, Sweet 
Home," which were recently disinter- 
red from their neglected grave at 
Tunis and started for this country, 
will remain in charge of the United 
States Consul at Marseilles, France, 
until the monument which Mr. W. W. 
Corcoran, of Washington, is to erect 
in Oak Hill Cemetery is completed. 

— The plays attributed to Shak- 
speare in some instances bear marks 
of an inferior hand. Without doubt 
he was associated with other poets in 
the composition of some of them. An 
English woman has recently discov- 
ered among Bacon's manuscript notes 
some striking similarities to some of 
Shakspeare's plays, and has perpetra- 
ted another book on this question. 
We note that Prof. Delius, of Bonn, 
refuses to recognize any other hand 
in the plays bearing Shakspeare's 
name, except in Timon, Pericles, Troi- 
lus and Cressida, King Henry VI. and 
VIII. To this list we think most 
critics would add Hamlet. 

— A translation of Alphonse Dau- 
det's new novel, L 'Evangelist l e f is an- 
nounced by the Petersons. It is a true 
story. The Salvation Army enters in- 
to it, and from the description given 
by Daudet himself, it cannot but prove 
interesting. We copy from The Con- 
tinent a letter written by Daudet to 
some friends in Vienna: 

" I narrate this time the story of a 
Danish family in Paris. There is in 
Paris, you must know, a Scandinavian 
colony which has its own churches, 
coffee-houses, clubs, etc. This is all 
very characteristic and has never been 
described. The heroine of my novel 
is Eline Ebsen. She is engaged to be 
married. Some pjayer-books are sent 
to her for translation, three sous a 
prayer. The commission is given by 
Madame Anthemau, the wife of a very 
rich banker, who has a passion for 
proselytizing people. By degrees the 
young girl becomes a religious enthu- 
siast. She avoids her family. The 
marriage project is broken up. One 
day the girl disappears, leaving only a 
letter for her mother, who, left en- 
tirely alone, a stranger in a strange * 
country, applies successively to a law- 
yer, to the police, to the judge, but 
all in vain. The Anthemaus are too 
rich. And this every-day experience : 
the power of gold assumes in this book 
a cruel, and, I think, awful clearness. 
I have witnessed myself this family 
drama ; I see this mother every day, 
and shall never forget her tears. The 
picture of religious fanaticism is re- 
lieved by some interesting characters ; 
as in ' Fromont' a good-natured humor, 
a home-like tone, pervades the whole. 
In this manner are drawn the Aussan- 
don couple, a clergyman's family, 
charming, truly religious. I thereby 
avoid any aggressive tendency of the 
book. Above all, it is purely human, 
something like the cry of a despairing 
heart, to which I would impart as 
much genuine fervor of feeling as pos- 
sible. Should it prove a failure, I'll 
have myself locked up in a monastery 
' of Moravian brethren." 

EDITORIAL-Literary Gossip. 

— North Carolina furnishes two 
editors to the Va. University Magazine 
— Messrs. Caldwell and Bingham. We 
congratulate the Magazine. 

— The name "Caste" was first given 
to Mr. Howell's new story which is 
begun in the February Century. It 
was later altered to " A Sea Change," 
and, finally, to " A Woman's Reason. " 
Its theme is the problem of self-help 
among women. It has a positive moral 
purpose. Some critic has said it is 
"more of a moral novel, than it is a 
novel with a moral." 

— The novelists of our day are turn- 
ing to the region of the Himalaya 
mountains and the portions of Chi-na 
closed to foreigners for legends and 
illustrations. These portions are con- 
sidered fertile in interesting traditions, 
and as almost the only source from 
which novelists can derive something 
new. American archaeologists have de- 
veloped myths and legends in all re- 
spects comparable to those derived 
from eastern lands. Who knows aught 
of the vast store of legends buried 
among the Cherokees of our own 
State? What North Carolinian is to 
unearth this treasure? Within reach 
of us, we doubt not there is materia} 
for a work on Indian tales far excell- 
ing in taste and beauty Joel Chandler 
Harris' "Uncle Remus." 

— On taking charge of The Tarboro 
Guide, Mr. Dossey Battle wrote per. 
haps the shortest salutatory extant : 
" The trouble begins with this issue." 

— HON. S. S. Cox^is soon to deliver 
a lecture on " African Humor " before 
the Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, New 

— The beginnings of successful au- 


thors are always interesting. Miss 
Louisa Alcott says her first story 
brought her $5, and her second $10, 
with a request for more of her pro- 
ductions. She says: "One of the most 
memorable moments of my life is that 
in which, as I trudged to school on a 
wintry day, my eyes fell upon a large 
yellow poster with these delicious 
words : Bertha, a new tale, by the 
author of The Rival Prima Donnas, 
will appear in the The Saturday Even- 
ing Gazette. I was late ; it was bitter 
cold ; people jostled me ; I was mor- 
tally afraid I should be recognized ; 
but there I stood feasting my eyes on 
the fascinating poster, and saying 
proudly to myself, in the words of the 
great Vincent Crummies, ' This, this 
is fame !' That day my pupils had 
an indulgent teacher ; for while they 
struggled with their pot hooks, I was 
writing immortal works, and when 
they droned out the multiplication ta- 
ble I was counting up the noble fort- 
une my pen was to earn for me in the 
dim, delightful future. That afternoon 
my sisters made a pilgrimage to be- 
hold this famous placard, and finding 
it torn by the wind, boldly stole it, and 
came home to wave it like a triumphal 
banner in the bosom of the excited 
family. The tattered paper still ex- 
ists, folded away with other relics of 
those early days, so hard, and yet so 
sweet, when the first small victories 
were won, and the enthusiasm of youth 
lent romance to life's drudgery." 

— The introductory editorial in The 
Critic of Jan. 13th, entitled "The 
Critic as a Weekly," is one of the spi- 
ciest editorials that we have met with 
in some time. The inimitable strokes 
of pleasantry, the beautiful metaphors, 



and simplicity of expression makes 
one feel it is all too short. The editors 
speak but few words and they are qui- 
etly spoken, yet beneath it all you ob- 
serve they are conscious of success; and 
we are glad of it. None has a better 
right to it. War has been declared "on 
literary fraud in the name of literary 
merit." Carefully The Critic has pro- 
ceeded, "unlike Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
who dashed into the Egyptian wilder- 
ness before he had a steam engine to 
draw his trains or a mule to carry 
water for his troops." Too much was 
at stake to venture without due pre- 
cautions, for "had we not that good 
gray chieftain, whose drum-taps had 
roused the continent ? Were we not 
supported by the leader who alone 
could lift the sword of Thoreau ? Could 
we not count on all who were mighty 
in criticism, theology, science, and the 
arts ?" There will be an engagement 
with the enemy once a week. "No 
foul blow will be dealt, no harm done 
to those out of the contest." We 
give a lusty cheer for The Critic, and 
bid it " God speed." 

— Vanity Fair tells a story of how 
Mr. Anthony Trollope once heard two 
novel reading youths, in a wayside 
inn, discussing one of his "eternal" 
characters of whom they were tired. 
He rose, acknowledged himself to be 
the author, and promised to go home 
and kill the character. In the follow- 
ing instalment she died of apoplexy. 

— It is related of the late Henry 
James, that his son and namesake, the 
famous novelist, once said to him ; 
"Father, I am thinking of making 
painting my profession." To which 
he replied: "Henry, you make a very 

clever sketch, but will never get be- 
yond that." That seems to be true, 
??iutatis mutandis, of his work in liter- 

— Mr. Trollope died with two se- 
rial novels of his publishing. One of 
them, Mr. Scarborough 's Family, was 
finished, and the MS. is all in the 
hands of the publisher of All the Year 
Round. The other, The Land Leaguers, 
was all finished but a few chapters, and 
these are carefully mapped out, after 
the fashion he always adopted with 
his stories. 

— The Sun, of New York, says that 
almost all the poetry it is compelled 
to decline because it conveys immod- 
est thoughts or suggests indecent pic- 
tures, is submitted by women. It is 
some comfort to learn that the centre 
of this intellectual disorder is so far 
West as Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

— What are we to believe about 
Dr. GrimsJiazve 's Secret ? One day we 
read that it lets us into the chambers 
of Hawthorne's mind, where we can 
see the magician at his work, and that 
again we have the old, well-known 
charm of the great writer ; the next, 
we read, " A son could hardly have 
done worse by the memory of a great 
father than publish a work so hasty, 
so inferior, so comparatively valueless 
as Dr. Grimshawes Secret." 

— THERE is no question that The 
Youth's Companion, published in Bos- 
ton, holds the first place in the world 
among literary papers for young peo- 
ple. It reaches and delights not only 
the young, but also every member of 
the family. During the last year it 
entered on its books 91,000 new sub- 
scribers, and now sends out every week 

EDITORIAL- -Science Notes. 


more than 300,000 papers to actual 
subscribers. Says a correspondent of 
The Examiner : " Every Baptist may 
feel an honorable pride in the success 
of its publisher, who is also its editor; 
and all the more, because its large in- 
come is devoted with a rare consecra- 
tion to Christ and his church." 

— THERE are many reminiscences of 
a very amiable character which illumi- 
nate the memory of the Earl Beacons- 
field, especially the affectionate and 
grateful regard he always entertained 
for his wife, whom he always esteemed 
as the founder of his fortunes and 
the copartner of his fame. She was 
fond of travelling with him, and on 
his more public ovations, witnessing 
the exhibitions of triumph and honor 
which greeted him. A friend of 
the Earl was dining with him, when 

one of the party — a Member of the 
House for many years, of a noble 
family, but rather remarkable for 
raising a laugh at his buffoonery 
than any admiration for his wis- 
dom — had no better taste nor grace 
than to expostulate with Disraeli for 
always taking the Viscountess with 
him. I cannot understand it," said 
the graceless man ; " for, you know, 
you make yourself a perfect laughing- 
stock wherever your wife goes with 
you." Disraeli fixed his eyes upon him 
very expressively, and said : " I don't 
suppose you can understand it, B. I 
don't suppose you can understand it, 
for no one could ever in the last and 
wildest excursions of an insane imag- 
ination suppose you to be guilty of 
gratitude !" 


By Alumni Editor. 

—Falling from Heights.— It is a 
common opinion that a person falling 
from a great height is suffocated be- 
fore reaching the ground. Hence 
many suicides fling themselves from 
lofty columns looking, for easy death. 
This notion is contradicted by the 
dropping or diving of acrobats from 
60 to 120 feet upon a net without the 
slightest discomfort. Further, per- 
sons have sustained fatal injury 
by a fall, but lived some time after- 

—Oregon Mountains. — Joaquin 
Miller, in the February St. Nicholas y 

insists that the sublimest scene in all 
the world is presented by Mount Hood 
and his lesser brothers, " a well-raised 
family of seven snow-peaks." Some 
of the European mountains are quite 
as high as those of Oregon and Wash- 
ington Territory ; but, lying far inland 
and being set on the tops of other 
hills, they seem small in comparison. 
" Those of Oregon start up sudden and 
solitary, and almost out of the sea, as 
it were. So that while they are not 
much higher than the mountain peaks 
of the Alps, they seem to be about 
twice as high. And being all in the 



form of pyramids or cones, they are 
much more imposing and beautiful 
than those of Europe." 

A Formidable Shark. — S o m e 
fishermen at St. Paul, in the Island of 
Reunion, had seen it following their 
boats for some time. It was caught 
with a baited line, and pulled ashore 
by fifty men. It proved to be a fe- 
male of the species Carcarias priono- 
don, and measured 16 feet 8 inches in 
length, and 12 feet in circumference at 
the middle. It was stranded at a 
point where a man would be beyond 
his depth. 

— The Vital Spot. — One of the 
principal difficulties in the way of se- 
curing valuable specimens of sharks 
for the aquarium is their apparent 
preference of death to captivity, for 
they commit suicide by striking their 
noses against the sides of the tank. It 
is said that the nose contains nearly 
all the sensitive nerves of the shark, 
and that, while the fish will live for 
some time after being cut nearly in 
half, it will die almost instantly if 
struck on the nose. 

— Does IT Pay? — The following re- 
marks of Herbert Spencer concerning 
the high-pressure life of Americans, 
deserve to be remembered. The na- 
tion must, in the end, suffer from the 
consequent deterioration of its citi- 
zens. He writes : 

" Everywhere I have been struck 
with the number of faces which told 
in strong lines of the burden that had 
to be borne. I have been struck, too, 
with the large proportion of gray- 
haired men; and inquiries have brought 
out the fact that with you the hair 
begins to turn some ten years earlier 

than with us. Moreover, in every cir- 
cle I have met men who have them- 
selves suffered from nervous collapse 
due to the stress of business, or named 
friends who had either killed them- 
selves by overwork, or had been per- 
manently incapacitated, or had wasted 
long periods in endeavors to recover 
health. I do but echo the opinion of all 
observant persons I have spoken to, 
that immense injury is being done by 
this high-pressure life — the physique is 
being undermined." He adds, " Dam- 
aged constitutions reappear in children 
and entail on them far more of ill than 
great fortunes yield them of good." 

A PRIZE. — By decree, June 1 1, 1882, 
the French government instituted a 
prize of 50,000 francs in favor of the 
man who shall discover the econom- 
ical application of electricity in one 
of the following directions : as a source 
of heat, of light, of chemical action, of 
mechanical power, as a means of the 
transmission of intelligence, or of the 
treatment of disease. It will be award- 
ed in December, 1887, and until June 
30th of that year, the competition will 
be open to the savants of all nations. 
The Minister of Public Instruction 
will nominate the commission for the 
examination of the invention specified 
by each candidate. It is not inappro- 
priate in this connection to say that, 
in liberal aid to scientific inquiry and 
appreciation of its possible results, 
France stands in the front rank. 

— A Heavy Brain. — Many distin- 
guished men have had large brains, 
but that fact is no warrant for the 
opinion that a large brain invariably 
indicates extraordinary mental power. 
Indeed, the brains of persons not re- 

EDITORIAL.— Science Notes. 

markable for intellectual ability have 
occasionally equalled those famous for 
size and power. A few weeks ago 
there died in the hospital of Columbus, 
O., a mulatto named Washington Nap. 
per, aged 45 years, whose brain was 
found to weigh 68 3-4 ounces, nearly 
five ounces more than that of the 
great Cuvier. He had been a slave 
till 1862, and had never been regarded 
as particularly intelligent. He was 
illiterate, but reserved, meditative, and 
economical. He was six feet in height ; 
his lips were thick, and the lower jaw 
was prominent; but the forehead of 
the massive* head was large and well 

— The Cormorant has a unique 
way of feeding its young. The hungry 
fledgling is allowed to poke his head 
down the parental throat and draw 
out of the stomach the partly digested 

— The Number of Earth-worms. 
— In Darwin's Vegetable Mould, it is 
calculated that there are 53,767 worms 
per acre in garden mould, and about 
half that number in corn-fields. But 
in a late communication from New 
Zealand we have a much larger esti- 
mate founded upon many tests on va- 
rious parts of the fields. These tests 
showed from four to twenty-six 
earth-worms in each square foot. The 
alluvial flats, slopes, and richer por- 
tions of the upper lands averaged eight 
to the square foot, or 348,480 to the 
acre. The number of these lowly crea- 
tures helps explain the enormous 
changes which in time they effect in 
a given locality. It is stated that in 
New Zealand the worms not only 
leave their burrows, but climb up trees 
in search of food, chiefly in the night, 

but till a late hour on damp, warm 

— Glass Soluble. — The slightly 
soluble character of glass is a point 
which has proved of special concern 
to photographers. Independent of 
the action of moisture in destroying 
the surfaces of the lenses, the manner 
in which the surface of the glass plates 
is acted upon is a matter of great im- 
portance, so many are the cases where 
stains in negatives are due to what 
might be termed "corroded" glass 6 
Recently a paper was read before the 
London Chemical Society, giving an 
interesting account of the phenomena 
of glass in relation to certain reagents. 
In these experiments the hardest Bo- 
hemian glass was employed, and the 
substances were sealed up and then 
exposed to heat for some days. On 
being taken out and analyzed, the con- 
tents showed the following most re- 
markable and unexpected result : One 
hundred grams of simple water dis- 
solved ten milligrams of the glass, the 
same amount of strong ammonia from 
seven to eight milligrams, and weak 
ammonia forty-two milligrams. — The 

— Paper from Bark. — The strong- 
est and commonest of the several 
Japanese papers is made from the 
bark of the Mitsuma, a shrub which 
attains about a yard and a half in 
height, and blossoms in winter,thriving 
in a poor soil. When the stem has 
reached its full growth it is cut off 
close to the ground, when off-shoots 
spring up, which are again cut as soon 
as they are large enough. A paper 
of superior quality is made from the 
Kozu, a . shrub of the mulberry family, 
which grows to the height of two 



and a half yards. It is a native 
of China, and has not long been im- 
ported into Japan, where it is now 
much cultivated. The stocks are plant- 
ed two feet apart, often serving as 
hedges for separating the fields. The 
shoots which, under good conditions, 
attain their full size, are cut down in 
October, on the fourth or fifth year 
after planting. Paper is made with 
these two descriptions of bark in the fol- 
lowing manner : The twigs are steeped 
in water for a fortnight, when the outer 
portion becomes detached, and is car- 
ried away, if in running water. The 
inner bark is removed, washed and 
dried, and then subjected for three or 
four hours to the action of steam and 
boiling water, which softens it. It is 
then struck with staves, until a fine 
paste is formed, which, mixed with 
water, serves to make paper by a proc- 
ess similar to that employed in Europe. 
Kozu paper is very strong in the direc- 
tion of the fibres, and to obtain paper 
of equal resistance in every direction, 
two, three, or four thicknesses are su- 
perposed with their fibres running in 
different directions. It is thus that 
the strong papers are obtained, that 
serve for covering umbrellas and other 
similar purposes, as well as artificial 
leather. — Scientific A merican. 

— ALUMINIUM.-Next to silica there 
is, perhaps, no more abundant mineral 
than alumina. It exists in all clay 
formations, and is the prominent ma- 
terial in many of the common rocks. 
Its metallic base is aluminium, which 
science has succeeded in obtaining 
pure. But the cost of production is 
great, so that an ounce is worth from 
fifty cents to a dollar. It is better 
adapted for many purposes than iron, 

being little heavier than the hard 
woods, and strong as steel, and not 
affected by heat or cold. It will 
doubtless supplant iron in the arts if 
the reported discovery in England of 
a cheap process for its manufacture 
proves true. It is more abundant in 
nature than iron, and, therefore, the 
cost of preparation being the same, 
must be cheaper. 

Cigarette Smoking. — Scarcely 
less injurious, in a subtle and generally 
unrecognized way, than the habits of 
taking "nips" of alcohol between 
meals, is the growing practice of smok- 
ing cigarettes incessantly. We have 
not a word to say against smoking at 
suitable times and in moderation, nor 
do our remarks at this moment apply 
to the *use of cigars or pipes. It is 
against the habit of cigarettes in large 
quantities, with the belief that these 
miniature doses of nicotine are innoc- 
uous, we desire to enter a protest. 
The truth is that, perhaps, owing to 
the way the tobacco leaf is shredded, 
coupled with the fact that it is brought 
into more direct relation to the mouth 
and air-passages than when it is smok- 
ed in a pipe or cigar, the effects pro- 
duced upon the nervous system by a 
free consumption of cigarettes are 
more marked and characteristic than 
those recognizable after recourse to 
other modes of smoking. A pulse- 
tracing made after the subject has 
smoked, say a dozen cigarettes, will, 
as a rule, be flatter and more indica- 
tive of depression than one taken after 
the smoking of cigars. It is no un- 
common practice for young men who 
smoke cigarettes habitually to con- 
sume from eight to twelve in an hour, 


and to keep this up for four or five 
hours daily. The total quantity of to- 
bacco used may not seem large, but 
beyond question the volume of smoke 
to which the breath organs of the 
smoker are exposed, and the charac- 
teristics of that smoke as regards the 
proportion of nicotine introduced into 
the system, combine to place the or- 
ganism very fully under the influence 
of the tobacco. A considerable num- 
ber of cases have been brought under 
our notice during the last few months, 
in which youths and young men who 
have not yet completed the full term of 
physical development have had their 
health seriously impaired by the prac- 
tice of almost incessantly smoking 
cigarettes. It is well that the facts 
should be known, as the impression 
evidently prevails that any number of 
these little " whiffs" must needs be 
perfectly innocuous, whereas they of- 
ten do infinite harm. — Lancet. 

— " Footprints on the Sands," 
ETC. — A correspondent of the Nash- 
ville American tells of some curious 
footprints in sandrockat a place about 
twenty miles west of Nashville. "At 
this point Harpeth River forms a 
horseshoe bend, making a circuit of 
six miles, and doubling back on itself 
to within 80 or 90 yards. In the heel 
of the shoe rises a ridge, forming al- 
most a perpendicular bluff on both 
sides, extending about half a mile 
south in the direction of the toe of the 
shoe. It rises to the height of about 
400 feet, and at the highest point is 
not more than eight feet wide on the 
top, with a perpendicular face on the 
east side for 100 feet or more — that is, 
a plumb line suspended from the edge 
of the precipice at the top would hang 

Science Notes. 267 

clear for 100 feet or more before it 
would encounter any obstruction. The 
ridge at the bed of the river is some 
90 yards wide, but the slope which 
brings it to that width at the bottom 
is mostly on the western side. 

"At the highest point on the crest 
of this ridge is a flat surface rock, and 
on that rock are imprinted six and a 
half tracks of human feet. These 
tracks are indented into the rock as 
much as a quarter of an inch, or in 
some places more. The tracks are of 
bare feet, toes all pointing in the same 
direction — toward the east. Most of 
the tracks are as perfect as if they had 
been imprinted on moist sand or earth. 
They are in three pairs. The first or 
largest pair is furthest north. They 
are less than the average size man's 
foot, and larger than the average size 
woman's foot, one a little in advance 
of the other. The next pair is on the 
south side, but near to the first. In 
size and appearance they represent 
the tracks of a child fifteen or eighteen 
months old. The track of the right 
foot of this pair is turned in a little at 
the toes, and the toes of that foot are 
turned down, as we often see children, 
when first learning to walk, seem to 
endeavor to clutch the floor with their 
toes, as if to avoid falling or slipping. 
The topographical relation of these 
tracks to the large ones indicates that 
the child might have been holding to 
the finger or hand of the larger person. 

" South of these little tracks, but 
near them, is the third pair, indicating 
a child some four to six years old. 
These last were made by a beautiful 
pair of feet, and are as pretty tracks 
as a child ever made in the dust or 
soft earth. All of these tracks are 



within three or four feet of the edge 
of the precipice on the eastern side, as 
already described. But I have said 
there was a half track, which is the 
most interesting feature on the tablet. 
This half track is printed on the very 
edge of the precipice, and represents 
the heel and hinder part of the foot 
from the middle of the instep back, 

and would indicate that the toes and 
front part of the foot projected over 
the precipice, or that the rock had 
broken off at that point. This half 
track is of the large size foot, or foot 
of the adult person, and is immedi- 
ately in front of the large pair of 
tracks already mentioned." 


By Eu. Sr. Editor. 

— This issue comes out just on the 
eve of Anniversary. Will give full 
report in our next. 

— Mr. Marion Purefoy and Miss 
Lucy Brodie were married on Thurs- 
day evening, Jan. 25th, at 8 p. m. It 
was done so quietly that this is all we 
could find out about it. 

— Prof. Taylor is back again, and 
will remain a short while. He gives 
interesting accounts of his trip North, 
though it snowed every day but one 
while he was gone. 

— It gives us pleasure to see among 
us again Mr. Robert E. Royall, class 
of 'yo, who has left the scene of his 
labors near Eastman, Ga., to visit 
home, friends, and Alma Mater. We 
wish him a pleasant visit, and many 
happy returns. 

— We are looking forward with 
much pleasure to the arrival of the 
new books for the Library. The Fac- 
ulty will make a larger purchase this 
time than ever before. The list is al- 
ready made out, and in a few weeks 

we hope to be turning the fresh pages 
of some of the charming books refer- 
red to in our "Literary Gossip." 

— Since our last number we have 
had some fine sermons, which we wish 
thousands in North Carolina could 
have heard. In this connection we 
wish to express our gratification at 
the marked improvement in the at- 
tendance upon the Sunday-school. 
The teaching force has been fortunate- 
ly augmented by the services of Prof. 

— The boarding and day school of 
Mrs. A. V. Purefoy continues to be 
well attended. It numbers at present 
about forty. We consider any chil- 
dren fortunate in having such a teacher. 

— We wont say who wrote this be- 
cause we don't know; but it is good 
advice for some parties in and about 
the College : 

Don't Use Big Words. — In 
promulgating your escotrk cogitations 
or articulating superficial sentimental- 
ities and philosophical or psychological 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


observations beware of platitudinous 
ponderosity. Let your conversation 
possess a clarified conciseness, coales- 
cent consistency, and a concatenated 
cogency. Eschew all conglomerations, 
flatulent garrulity, jejune bubblement 
and asinine affectations. Let your ex- 
temporaneous descanting and unpre- 
meditated expatiations have intellibil. 
ity and veracious vivacity, without 
rhodomontade or thrasonical bombast. 
Sedulously avoid all polysyllabic pro- 
fundity,pompous prolixity, psittaceous 
vacuity, ventriloquial verbosity, and 
vaniloquent vapidity. Shun double 
entendres, prurient jocosity, and pes- 
tiferous profanity, obscurant or appa- 
rent. In other words, talk plainly, nat- 
urally, sensibly, truthfully, purely, and 
don't use big words. 

— Dr. William T. Brooks died at 
his residence on the Hill, on the 16th 
of January. The funeral services oc- 
curred at ii o'clock on the 1 8th. A 
number of friends from Raleigh and 
other places came out on the morning 
train to be present. Prominent citizens 
were the pall-bearers. The selection 
of Dr. Wm. Royall to preach the fu- 
neral sermon was peculiarly appropri- 
ate. His text was Acts, 11:24: "For 
he was a good man, and full of the 
Holy Ghost and of faith : and much 
people was added unto the Lord." 
The preacher said that twenty years 
ago four preachers supplied the 
churches in this vicinity; three of 
them were gone, and it was now the 
duty of the last one to conduct these 
sad services. He made an analysis of 
goodness, and showed how its elements 
were all illustrated in the life and 
character of Dr. Brooks. He made 

similar application of the other points 
in the text. At the conclusion of the 
sermon, Dr. Skinner, at the request of 
the family, made remarks which show- 
ed his high appreciation of the de- 
ceased as a man and as a preacher. 
The exercises of the College for the 
day were suspended, and there was a 
large attendance of our people and 
those of the neighborhood. There will 
be a sketch of the life of Dr. Brooks in 
our next issue. 

— OUR roll shows 167, distributed 
as follows : Latin 93 ; Greek 67 , 
Mathematics 109, and Natural Science 
58. These are merely the leading 

— We acknowledge the receipt of a 
handsome invitation from the C. O. 
V. A. and P. N. A. Societies of the 
Chowan Baptist Female Institute, to 
attend their concert on the 13th inst. 
Many thanks, Masdemoiselles. We 
would be especially pleased to at- 

— The members of the New York 
Medical Club were recently treated to 
the following classic invitation to at- 
tend a regular meeting of Dr. Paine's 

" Sciens, Socialite, Sobriete." — Doctores ! Du- 
cum nex mundi nitu Paines ; tricitum at ait. Ex- 
pecto meta fumen tu te and eta beta pi. Super at- 
tento uno Dux hamor clam pati, sum parates 
homine, ices, jam, etc. Sideror Hoc. "Festo reso- 
nan floas sole." 

Now, fellow students, answer with- 
out concealment ; wouldn't you have 
gone on such an invitation} 

— We are glad to inform the many 
friends of the College, that Rev. Geo. 
C. Lorimer, D. D., of Chicago, has ac- 
cepted the invitation to deliver the 
Annual Sermon before the graduating 



class of '83. He is a native of Scot- 
land, the land of orators and scholars, 
and is widely known throughout the 
North and South, having been pastor 
of churches in Louisville, Ky., Albany, 
N. Y., and Boston, Mass., as a popu- 
lar minister, a genial Christian, and a 
brilliant orator. 

— Reading Room. — We notice on 
the tables of the College Reading Room 
many of the foremost magazines and 
papers of this country, some of the most 
important of which we give below : 

On the Magazine Table : The Prince- 
ton Review, The North American Re- 
view, The Eclectic Monthly, The Atlan- 
tic Monthly, Harper s M agazinepx\A The 
Century. On the Journal Table : Har- 
per s Weekly, Frank Leslie's Weekly, 
The Continet, Scientific American, The 
Examiner, The Witness, Religious Her- 
ald, and others. There are also The 
Daily N. Y. Herald, The Daily Ava- 
lanche, The Daily News and Observer 
and The Daily Morning Star. 

— With this issue, W. F. Marshall, 
former Senior Editor of the STUDENT, 
from the Eu. Society,retires from duty, 
and Mr. G. C. Briggs takes charge. Mr. 
M's labors as assistant teacher in Latin 
and Greek, and Natural Science, ne- 
cessitates his resignation. He says he 
will work on hygienic principles, pre- 
scribing "exercise" for the former class- 
es, and dosing the latter class with 
"physic(s)". While we are sorry to 
lose Mr. M., whose services have been 
so efficient,, we are happy to welcome 
to our editorial ranks such an experien- 
ced and facile writer as Mr. Briggs. He 
was Associate Editor last year, and 
now for no other reason than his ster- 
ling worth he is called to us again as 
Senior Editor. 

THE following handed us by a lady 
friend has been in print before, but 
every one will see that it is timely and 
sensible : 

— Gigglers in Church. — Giggling 
is described in the dictionary as the 
act of "laughing with short catches of 
breath," as " laughing idly, tittering, 
grinning. " It is silly and childish 
enough anywhere, but in church it is 
abomniable, and yet there is no place 
where giggling is more common. It 
is natural in school girls, but when 
met in young women of nineteen or 
twenty it is unpardonable. It is fre- 
quently a characteristic of young men 
with incipient moustaches, who think 
they qualify themselves for manhood 
by affecting contempt for what their 
elders revere. They giggle at any- 
thing. If they catch the eye of an 
acquaintance, they giggle ; if an old 
woman rises too soon for a hymn, they 
giggle ; if a baby cries, they giggle ; 
if some one drops a book, they giggle ; 
if the clergyman coughs, they giggle ; 
if the plate is handed to some one 
who puts nothing in it, they giggle; if 
some one near them sings out or re- 
peats the responses loudly, they giggle; 
if the choir makes a mistake, they gig- 
gle. In fact, nothing is too small or 
insignificant to arrest their notice and 
produce a giggle. 

— The following was found. Of 
course every one will recognize it as 
coming from some railroad man who 
has been wrecked, and is giving his 
views on the accident : 
" My once dear little Girl : 

" And has it come to this? Oh, is 
it only a dream? Is it, oh can it be 
that she who was once my life, my 
pride, my hope, my joy, my all, and 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


to whom has been offered a heart so 
true that it has its first time to de- 
ceive, could now be so cruel as to re- 
fuse such a heart and such love? Can 
it be that that little spark of love 
which was rapidly growing into some- 
thing far nobler must now be forever 
extinguished ? Must all of those joy- 
ful anticipations of a bright and happy 
future, which have been entertained 
so long be now blighted by the very 
one that was to give this joy? Must 
I only look upon these as things of 
the past, never to be realized again ? 
Oh, how can I ? 

" Darling of my heart, do come back 
to me, and say you will not leave me 
thus to suffer. Oh, for the sake of 
him who loves you, and would die for 
you, say that you will at least give it 
one moment's thought ! But you say 
you can never love me; and I know it 
is but too true. 

" I despair to write more — I die !" 

— The following letter in the Bibli- 
cal Recorder of July 29, 1835, will, 
no doubt, be as interesting to many of 
our readers now as it was to those of 
its day. We give it in full, just as it 
appeared : 

" Dear Sir : 

" It may be gratifying to some of 
your readers to learn that the birth- 
day of American Independence was 
celebrated at the Wake Forest Insti- 
tute by the Philomathesian and Euze- 
lian Societies. We were all roused at 
the usual time in the morning by the 
ringing of the bell, and as we hurried 
from our various rooms to the chapel, 
wide awake, we congratulated each 
other on the fine appearance of the 
morning. In the chapel a few pithy 

remarks were made by the Principal 
relative to our deportment during the 
day — the benediction of Heaven was 
then invoked, and we were dismissed. 
The early part of the morning was 
employed in the activity of prepara- 
tion. About 10 o'clock, the company 
began to assemble, and the young gen- 
tlemen were seen moving through the 
grove, or standing in groups, distin- 
guished by their peculiar badges- 
some with the blue rose, and some 
with the white. In the grove north 
of the dwelling, was the place fixed 
upon for the celebration. Here the 
Committee of Arrangements had 
erected a rostrum, which for its taste 
and simplicity, commanded the admi- 
ration of all beholders. The pillars 
and arch were covered with white pa- 
per and wreathed with ivy. In the 
centre of the arch was a boquet, with 
the badge of each Society. In front 
were the seats for the company, en- 
closed by benches placed in a semi- 
circular form, for the members of each 
Society. As the company made their 
appearance, they were conducted by 
the members of the committee to this 

" At half past 10 o'clock, the bell 
rang for the assembling of the Socie- 
ties. The Philomathesian first formed 
in the chapel, and marched round in 
front of the balcony. Here the most 
interesting ceremony took place. The 
Societies were to receive their banners. 
The standard-bearer now advanced, 
supported on the right and left, to re- 
ceive the banner from the hands of 
Mrs. Wait. Mrs. W., in presenting it, 
delivered the following address : 

" ' Sir : — In committing to your pro- 
tection the banner of the Philomathe- 



sian Society, permit me to express my 
sincere desire that all the members of 
this association may become highly 
distinguished in the Arts and Sciences 
and Literature, and that you may ever 
cultivate all the principles of the gen- 
tleman, the scholar, and the Christian. 
Let the pure white of this standard, 
the emblem of purity and innocence, 
characterize your future lives. Ever 
bind that Gospel to your hearts, which 
you have, by the very significant em- 
blem on one side of this banner, pro- 
fessed to hold in the highest venera- 
tion. You are among the first sons of 
Wake Forest Institute. Its future 
character, in a great degree, rests with 
you. Act nobly, and become its pride 
and its glory' 

" The banner was then handed to 
the standard-bearer, the band playing 
' Hail Columbia.' The speech, the 
silken folds of the banner gracefully 
waving in the breeze, the countenances 
of the young men intensely interested, 
the music, the silent wave of the hat, 
produced a sensation that forced eyes 
to glisten in their tears. The Philo- 
mathesians then marched off, and were 
succeeded by the Euzelians. The same 
ceremonies were now repeated, and 
the following address delivered by the 
same lady : 

" ' Sir : — In committing to your care 
the banner of the Euzelian Society, al- 
low me to express my ardent desire that 
the Arts, and Sciences, and Literature, 
and an honorable course of extensive 
usefulness may ever characterize the 
members of this association ; and that 
you may ever cherish all those kindred 
virtues, which happily blended, form 
the basis of true excellence and true 
greatness. You have chosen your 

course. The motto of this banner 
proclaims that you will surmount every 
opposing obstacle which may impede 
your progress in the pursuit of knowl- 
edge. Go on ; and while the vital 
spark shall continue to animate your 
throbbing bosoms, set no limits to 
your researches, and when you shall 
have passed the boundary of time, 
may it be yours to explore new fields 
of knowledge in the regions of unsul- 
lied felicity.' 

W. " The same interest was felt, and the 
same effect was produced. The So- 
cieties now proceeded towards the 
grove, the Philomathesian taking the 
right. On the extreme left were the 
officiating clergymen, the two presi- 
dents, and the reader of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the Orator 
of the Day. If now you can conceive 
of a hundred young men paired off 
according to size, two deep, and six 
feet apart, moving to a slow march, 
and two splendid banners waving to 
the breeze, you may form some idea 
of this youthful band. In the grove 
were assembled the beauty and fash- 
ion of the Forest, and of the surround- 
ing country; and when it was known 
that the line of march was commenced, 
every whisper was hushed, every ear 
listened for the first notes of the music, 
and every eye looked for the first 
sight of the banners. And now the 
music, floating on the breeze and soft- 
ened by the distance, first reaches the 
ear, the crescent of the white banner 
glistens in the sun, and through the 
distant foliage the banner gradually 
rises to full view. Now the crescent 
of the blue appears, then the white 
banner is distinctly seen, and a long 
line of young men present themselves 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni. 


by a slow march. The effect was 
electrical. When the right reached 
the stand, a halt was commanded — 
the columns opened, and an inward 
countermarch was performed, which 
brought the extreme left to the stage. 
The Clergymen, the Reader, and the 
Orator were conducted on the rostrum 
by the two Presidents. The Societies 
then advanced to their appointed seats, 
under their respective banners. The 
banners were placed one at each end 
of the rostrum, and the music at the 
extreme of the company, directly op- 
posite the front of the rostrum. After 
the music ceased, Mr. Dennis offered 
an appropriate and feeling prayer. 
Mr. Reyner then rose and read the 
Declaration of Independence, with a 
distinct voice and happy emphasis. 
After appropriate music, W. Dockery 
rose and delivered the Oration. Much 
might be said of his performance, but 
the Oration will be published, and the 
public can judge for themselves. After 

the ceremonies were closed, the Socie- 
ties left in the same order in which 
they came on the ground. The invi- 
ted guests remained in the grove while 
the tables were being set in the Stu- 
dents' Hall. About 2 o'clock, the 
Societies returned to escort the ladies 
to the dining hall. They were formed 
into open columns — the music and 
banners in front, and the ladies, three 
abreast, advanced between the col- 
umns, and as soon as they had passed 
the rear, an outward counter-march 
was performed, which kept them with- 
in the columns until they reached the 
hall door. After dinner an hour or 
two was spent in rich enjoyment in 
the grove. Here were the feasts of 
raisins and flow of lemonade. At five 
o'clock Wake Forest Institute was the 
same quiet and retired spot as usual. 
Much credit is to be given to Mr. 
Wise and Mr. Johnson, the marshals 
of the day. 

A Student." 


—'57. Mr. Chas. S. Ellis formerly 
of Wilmington, N. C, but now of Sa- 
vannah, Ga., was married in the latter 
city on the 1st of February. He is still 
merchandising. While here he had 
the reputation of being one of the 
most brilliant students Wake Forest 
ever had. 

— '60. Rev. Dr. F. H. Ivey a few 
weeks since resigned the important 
pastorate at Goldsboro to assume the 
executorship of the estate of his wife's 
father. While performing the duties 

of this position, he will be in Atlanta, 
Ga., and necessarily deprived of the 
regular ministration of the Word. Of 
course when this business is finished he 
will remember to return to North Caro- 
lina. It is the opinion of a recent vis- 
itor in Goldsboro that there is but one 
preacher in the State who has won 
greater esteem from the other denomi- 
nations in his community than Dr. 

— '61. Col. T. F. Toon is in the 
Legislature representing Columbus 



— '62. Rev. George W. Sanderlin, 
who a number of years ago filled so 
acceptably a pastorate in Baltimore, 
has lately moved from his country 
home in Wayne county to Goldsboro. 

— '75. Rev. R. C. Sandling is pas- 
tor of the church at Mt. Olive, and of 
others in the vicinity. 

— '77. Mr. James W. Denmark, 
under the firm name of J. W. Den- 
mark & Co., has opened a book-store 
in the city of Raleigh. He occupies a 
commodious room in the Recorder 
building on Hargett street, and is, we 
understand, "well fixed up." Soon 
after his graduation his predilections 
looked this way and toward this busi- 
ness, for which he seems specially 
qualified, he has been steadily gravi- 
tating. We wish him the large suc- 
cess which he deserves. 

— '79. N. Y. Gulley, Esq., is not 
now in charge of the graded school in 
Franklinton. He still resides in. that 
town, but devotes himself to the prac- 
tice of his profession, the law. He 
runs up to Wake Forest now and 

— '80. We are pleased to learn that 
Mr. J. T. Alderman has a flourishing 
school at Fork Church, Davie county. 
While a student at college he was 
often seen with two or three little 
children in a game or off for a walk; 
and we doubt not that his fondness 
for the little ones makes success in his 
chosen work sure and easy. 

— Alumni Association. — We take 
the liberty of making the following 
extract from a private letter of Rev. 
A. C. Dixon, of Baltimore, written 
Jan. 20th. He certainly has a right to 

speak, and many will be interested to 
know what he thinks on this subject. 

"As to the Alumni Association, 
something must be done. I suggest 
an Alumni supper given either by the 
people of the Hill, or by subscriptions 
from the Alumni, or by the two Soci- 
eties. The Association might be a 
power for good. As it is, it is worse 
than a cypher. Stick to it that none 
but graduates are Alumni. If the sup- 
per idea has good objections to it, as 
it may at this juncture, how would an 
"Alumni Reception" do on Tuesday 
night after the Address? Have it in 
one of the Literary Halls or Library, 
where some little refreshments-, as ice- 
cream, etc., might be served. Let it 
be understood, I beseech you, that we 
will never again, while the world 
stands, have an Alumni meeting in 
the afternoon. It strikes me that it 
would be very appropriate to have an 
" Alumni Reception " in the Library 
just after the Address on Tuesday 
night, when, for an hour, we could be 
entertained with ice-cream and five 
minutes speeches." 

There, gentlemen Alumni! what 
say you to that programme for the 
next commencement ? The commit- 
tee must soon decide upon some pro- 
gramme for that occasion, and would 
be glad of a general expression of opin- 
ion beforehand. We confess that the 
suggestion presented above, viz. : the 
"Alumni Reception," seems to us at 
present to be the most feasible and to 
promise the best results. W. L. P. 

— Alumni Association Again. — 
Messrs. Editors : — I have been greatly 
enjoying the discussion in the STU- 
DENT and Recorder recently upon this 
subject. Am glad to see so many and 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni. 


so earnest men taking hold of the 
matter. Am still more delighted that 
most of the suggestions take such a 
practical turn. This is what is most 
needed. The Association, if it ever 
accomplishes anything, or amounts to 
anything worth the name, must have 
a definite end in view. 

I agree with Bro. Mills, that there 
is no connection between an Alumni 
Association and a big dinner ; and yet 
it is pleasant to have these social re- 
unions. We need to know each other 
better, and by putting our hearts and 
heads and hands and pocket-books to- 
gether in free and social converse, the 
views of many a modest man can be 
gained, which we otherwise might lose. 
As the brother intimates, I am in fa- 
vor of making the repast secondary, 
or, if necessary, " tertiary." 

As to the membership, I guess it 
will have to be left open, until we can 
have a meeting, and then come to a 
determination. Of course, the limi- 
tation will cut off some whom we 
fondly love, and yet it will not wound 
the feelings, nor impair the zeal, of any 
true heart, which, under other circum- 
stances, would come to our aid. Every 
candid mind must see the necessity of 
the course. 

But what is the most tangible thing 
upon which we can expend our efforts 
for the present ? I mean between now 
and next June. As some have sug- 
gested, the campus, the library, the 
laboratory, the course of study, &c, 

are all objects for our consideration. 
And yet it strikes me that there is yet 
another still more claiming our atten- 
tion under the circumstances. And, 
while I admit that it may be no more 
the duty of an alumnus to endow the 
College than of any other citizen who 
is a well wisher to education, yet I 
should be glad to see before the next 
Commencement $10,000 or $15,000 
added to the endowment by the 
Alumni. And this can be easily done 
by an effort on the part of all. What 
say you to this proposition ? The 
Faculty are putting forth mammoth 
efforts to raise the remainder of $100,- 
000 necessary to the partial endow- 
ment of our Alma Mater, and this is 
what Wake Forest needs now more 
than anything else. Now, will we not 
come to the rescue and interest our- 
selves specially in this movement ? 
Some of us can give $100, some $200, 
some $500, and others $1,000. But by 
all means let all give something. What 
say you, my brethren, to such an un- 
dertaking? Don't you think it will 
stimulate others to aid in the good 
work, when they see us putting forth 
special efforts in this direction ? At any 
rate, suppose we try it. I will give $100, 
to be paid in between this date and 
the Commencement next June, and to 
be known as a part of the " Alumni 
Fund." Who will second the motion, 
and make a speech of $ioo, $200, $500, 
or $1,000? 

John E. Ray. 





— We have a suggestion to make 
to our college exchanges which 
we hope will meet with their approval. 
We desire to enlarge our exchange 
list, and we are aware that several 
other college magazines likewise de- 
sire to do so. We know there are 
many whose address we have not that 
are meritorious. If our exchanges 
would give the address of the different 
magazines when they notice them 
among their exchanges, it would en- 
able all of us to exchange. We have 
just begun our career, and there are 
many magazines in the lists of our ex- 
changes with which we would like to 
exchange, but do not know where they 
are published. 

— The Virginia University Magazine 
comes with a choice selection of con- 
tributions — more so than usual. Othel- 
lo writes "A Christmas Scene" in an 
entertaining style. " Government and 
Compulsory Education " was a sensible 

We don't exactly see how the edi- 
tors find so much poetry lying about 
the premises up there. Losing verses 
must be as natural with the University 
folks as losing buttons with ordinary 

— The Philo. Star makes its articles 
short and pithy, and in this respect is 
a model college paper. The article 
" Pins in the Wall of the English Lan- 
guage," combines practical utility with 
entertainment. We would be afraid 
of trouble if we were to make our lo- 
cals as personal as the Stars. The 

versified rejoinder to the Crescent was 
among its happiest " twinkle. " Guess 
the Crescent doesn't want the " little 
Star" to twinkle thus again. However, 
we shall watch with pleasure the po- 
lemics between these two luminaries. 

— The Academy, the exponent of 
Salem Academy, Salem, N. C, is con- 
ducted by girls ; but in ability is by no 
means behind many of those edited 
by the so-called " lords of creation." 
It is one of our spiciest exchanges. 

— The January number of The Wil- 
liam Jewell Student is perhaps the 
most interesting number yet received. 
The editorial department is ably con- 
ducted; the appearance of this paper 
is neat and tasteful. In Co-education 
the most cogent reasons are brought 
to bear upon this all important sub- 
ject — stating in perspicuous terms the 
evils inevitably to follow. It contains 
several articles worthy of special men- 

— The Delaware College Review is a 
magazine of decided merit. On every 
page is clearly seen that great care 
has been displayed by its editor. 
The editorials are rjeh, rare, and racy, 
short, sticky and pertinent. This 
number is full of good things, the ar- 
ticles are well written ; and as a whole 
we like it much. 

— The Pennsylvania University Maga- 
zine informs us of the death of vice-pro- 
vost Dr. Krauth of that university. 
By all means let that memorial of him 
be a scholarship ; if this cannot be se- 
cured, let it be a prize ; if this cannot 
be done, then let it be a window. We 
envy the Freshman class those 
" Health " lectures. 

EDITORIAL— Exchanges. 


— St. Marys College Journal, Ky., is 
a sprightly little semi-monthly at $i 
per year, and well worth it. We liked 
the piece on " Genius and Talent" best. 
We learn from its locals that there is a 
singing school in its vicinity. We 
sympathize with you, dear friends — 
though we have never looked into your 
eyes— and with anybody else who has to 
come within earshot of an enthusiastic 
gathering while practising the rudi- 
ments of vocal music (?). 

— With The Adelpliian, we must 
close this department. It comes with 
a tasty frontispiece designed by Prof. 
Whittaker. We looked in vain for 
those " remaining two cuts" by the 
students of the art department. Bro. 
Adelphian, please send us a copy con- 
taining them. We, too, hope that ev- 
ery issue of your paper will contain 
contributions from the Art Depart- 
ment. Just another friendly word, 
please. What made you let that mur- 
derous-, sacrilegious parody beginning 

u I want to be a senior, 
And with the seniors stand" — 
find its way into your columns ? Did 
it ever occur to you that such a thing 
as this amounts not only to mockery 
of the mother's love that taught the 
little song, but to something worse ? it 
borders on Ingersoll-ism. 


— The Blue Ridge Baptist, is a lively 
weekly, the organ of the Baptists of 
Western North Carolina. We welcome 
heartily this little weekly visitor from 
across the Blue Ridge. For various 
reasons we appreciate sermons like the 

Conversion of the Areopagite " more 
than the one published more recently. 

— The Caucasians comments on the 
address of Dr. Curry are timely. The 

I map of Clinton, published in this paper, 
I suggests what? That there ought to 
be a map of Wake Forest. 

— We are always glad to see The 
Orphan s Friend. This paper, formerly 
under the charge of Rev. J. H. Marsh, 
has now passed into the hands of Rev. 
L. H. Gibbons. We wish him much 

— THOUGH only two of the five 
| editors smoke, we find a pleasant fla- 
vor about The Gold, Leaf from Hen- 
derson. It is among the most valued 
of our State exchanges. 

— We are sorry that the number be- 
! fore is the last of The New South. It 
was a meritorious journal, and deserved 
to succeed. See editorial in this issue 
| of The Student on "North Carolina's 

— The Raleigh Christian Advocate is 
another welcome exchange. It is the 

| organ of the North Carolina Confer- 
j ence of the M. E. Church, South, and 
does its work well. It cannot receive 
too warm a support from the people 
it benefits so greatly. " V. A. S." 
gives some keen criticisms on the sta- 
tistics given by The N. C. Baptist Al- 
manac. We presume, however, that the 
statistics are given in good faith, and 
are in the main correct. But we were 
surprised at the carelessness that ad- 
mitted that extract from The N. C. 
Presbyterian. One of the editors is 
known to the writer to be a preacher 
of stirring warmth and eloquence, and 
a man whom he greatly esteems, and 
from whom he expected better things. 
The ridicule which The N. C. Presby- 
rian man attempts to throw upon the 



translation of baptizo falls but little 
short of gross irreverence. We have 
examined three different sizes of Lid- 
dell & Scott (including the late seventh 
edition), and find that the writer on 
" Immersion" is right in saying that 
baptizo means to dip. Liddell & Scott 
does give baptizo to mean " dip under," 
and gives " soaked" as a metaphorical 

meaning of the perf. pass. It seems 
to us that any one who says the au- 
thority above mentioned does not give 
the meaning " dip" and only gives 
11 soaked," states what he does not 
know to be a fact. Sorry to see The 
R. C. A. laying itself liable by such 


The attractions in The Cojitinent in-' 
crease, and we are glad to see signs of 
improvement. It is a " weekly mag- 
azine " and no more welcome periodical 
reaches us. Mr. Hawthorne's " Dust " 
has ended, and Rhoda Broughton is 
treating the drama of life from a femi- 
nine standpoint in " Belinda. " Among 
the many readable articles of the past 
month may be mentioned " Art for 
Enthusiasts, " which conveyed a good 
deal of fresh information and sugges- 
tion. The etchings given along with 
this article extend through two num- 
bers, and are the finest specimens this 
country has yet produced. The Con- 
tinent well merits the success it has 

— The February Eclectic Magazine, 
the best periodical in American liter- 
ature, overwhelms us with its store of 
interesting articles. It always contains 
the choicest essays of the English 
magazines. The Fallacy of Material- 
ism, Four Months in Morocco, Charles 
Dickens, A Lesson on Democracy, 
Goethe's West-Eastern Divan, Walt 
Whitman, Ensilage, are the most no- 
table articles. To those interested in 
Ensilage, we commend the last named 

— The first article in The North 
American Review is a symposium on 
"The Revision of Creeds." A half 
dozen divines participate in this dis- 
cussion and the article has length to 
recommend it, if nothing else. Among 
the best articles, may be noticed "The 
Experiment of Universal Suffrage" and 
" The Political Situation. " " Physical 
Education in Colleges, " by Dr. D. A. 
Sargent, is on a pertinent theme and 
worthy a careful perusal. The Stand- 
ard Oil Company, by Senator Camden 
& J. C. Welsh, has called forth more 
favorable remarks from the press than 
perhaps any other article of this num- 

— At Home and Abroad, our little 
" pink colored visitor," contains the 
portrait of W. E. Hidden as a frontis- 
piece, also a sketch of the life and la- 
bors of Prof. Hidden, discoverer of the 
famous new gem, " Hiddenite." Writ- 
ten by the editor, it is one of the most 
interesting articles of all our maga- 
zines. The contents : The First Editor, 
To Randolph Shotwell, Miss Lindseys 
Amanuensis, University Education for 
Women, Across the Atlantic, &c. In 
Love's Livery, a translation from the 
German, by Miss L. C. Bernheim, is 
begun in this number. The magazine 
will hereafter be under the proprietor- 
ship of Chas. R. Jones, Miss L. C. 
Bernheim being retained as editor. 

EDITORIAL- -Periodicals. 


— One of the finest literary maga. 
zines of the present day is The Atlan- 
tic Monthly, which is devoted to Lit- 
erature, Science, Art, and Politics. 
The first piece in the February num- 
ber is " Michael Angelo" (part second). 
This dramatic poem was written by 
the gifted man of letters, Henry Wads- 
worth Longfellow, who was more than 
ten years in preparing it. There is a 
sweetness and simplicity breathed 
through this poem which nothing but 
time and care could have given it. 
Many other pieces, the merit of which 
can be easily imagined from the ability 
and popularity of their authors, ap- 
pear in this number. Only the pro- 
ductions of such authors as Haw- 
thorne, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and 
Charles Dudley Warner can find their 
way into The Atlantic Monthly. 

— T H E February number of St. 
Nicholas, the charming illustrated 
magazine for young folks, is as inter- 
esting and attractive as usual. Its con- 
tents are varied, containing such arti- 
cles and stories as will interest and 
amuse the young and the old. Its il- 
lustrations are rich and bold ; and its 
printing neat and clear. We were es- 
pecially struck with " In the Land of 

Clouds" ; perhaps more so, because 
we have a weakness for the mountains 
and cloud-bearing peaks of our own 
State. But this is a fine and sprightly 
piece of description. Mount Hood, 
piercing the clouds and sheeted with 
snow, standing in sublime isolation, 
was enough to inspire the writer (Joa- 
quin Miller). 

— UNUSUALLY attractive is The Cen. 
tury for February. The popular author 
of " A Chance Acquaintance," " Their 
Wedding Journey," " A Modern In- 
stance," and others equally interest- 
ing, begins a new international novel 
in this number. The scene of this 
novel is laid in America, having for its 
principal character a young Boston 
girl who is poor, and seeks to earn her 
living by her own efforts. The novel 
is intended to bring out some of the 
most prominent phases of modern 
Caste. Indeed, its first name was 
" Caste," but by the law of evolution 
it has gone through two or three 
stages: from " Caste" to " A Sea 
Change," and from this to "A Wo- 
man's Reason." We are looking with 
expectancy to see what name it will 
assume next. 





[From The Literary World.] 

In the face of Professor Morley's as- 
sertion that the times are ripe for the 
advent of a great literary genius, comes 
the opinion of a brilliant French critic, 
M. Renan, that literature has had its 
day, and that a hundred years from 
now everybody will be studying the 
natural sciences. Critical and histor- 
ical studies, all that is worthy of the 
name of pure letters, are, it would 
seem, irretrievably doomed. Man in 
the future is to devote himself to the 
accumulation of facts. The world is 
to be desillusione. No one will listen 
to the poet who sings of love and nature, 
unless he bases his rhymes on phys- 
iology and the chemistry of change 
That this view is popular with a large 
class of intelligent people, there can 
be no doubt. In anticipation of the 
golden era of materialism, institutions 
of learning are founded to exclude 
" mere literary instruction and educa- 

A leading English journal does not 
hesitate to say that a century hence, 
not the production alone, but even the 
reading, of belles-letters, will be confined 
to a few eccentrics. Posterity will 
then turn to Darwin or Huxley as we 
turn to Homer or Shakespeare. To 
this view it is not strange that Mr. 
Matthew Arnold, a representative man 
of letters, should enter his protest 5 
and his Cambridge lecture or " Liter- 


ature and Science" so thoroughly dis- 
poses of all idle prophecies of the sort 
mentioned, that we need offer no ex- 
cuse for stating the substance of it. 
Mr. Arnold, with instinctive iteration, 
relies upon his well-known definition 
of culture, " to know the best that has 
been thought and said in the world, " 
further qualified to include " what in 
modern times has been thought and 
said by the great observers of nature." 
| And in support of this theory, an ap- 
; peal is made to the constitution 
of human nature itself — to that uni- 
versal tendency toward co-ordination, 
that disposition to generalize, which 
is innate, comprehensive, and which, 
instead of degenerating, is developed 
more and more with the advancement 
of culture. 

" Following our instinct for intellect 
! and knowledge, we acquire pieces of 
I knowledge ; and presently, in the gen- 
erality of men, there arises the desire 
I to relate these pieces of knowledge to 
! our sense for conduct, to our sense for 
I beauty, and there is weariness and dis- 
satisfaction if the desire is balked. 
Now in this desire lies, I think, the 
strength of that hold which letters 
1 have upon us." 

Is it possible to believe that this de- 
sire, this longing for emotional activ- 
ity, will be permitted to die ? Where 
one man is impressed with Professor 
Huxley's assertions " that the world is 
not subordinated to man's uses, " and 
that " nature is the expression of a 



definite order with which nothing in- 
terferes " — where one man is satisfied 
with these, or with the observations 
that lead to their formulation, will not ! 
thousands be moved by the poet's 
picture ? 

"The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The solemn temples, the great jjlobe itself, 
Yea, all which it inherit shall dissolve, 
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, 
Leave not a rack behind." 

For ourselves, we prefer to believe 
that, in the future as in the past, Po- 
etry shall forestall Science ; that to 
paraphrase the characterization of 
Emerson's works by a scientist whose 
ardor for facts has not overcome his 
sense of beauty and order, it shall be 
in time to come the mission of Liter- 
ature " to take her brother Science by 
the hand, and cheer him with immor- 
tal laughter." 


[From The Princeton Review.] 
Education should begin with simple 
ideas and proceed to those which are 
complex. The child proceeds thus in 
its own efforts at study; and in begin- 
ning any new subject, even in more 
advanced life, this is a good rule. We 
should avoid beginning with " first 
principles," which are not beginnings 
at all, but results arrived at from col- 
lection and comparison of facts. We 
must have the facts first, and then go 

on to the conclusions. We must be 
empirical first, afterwards rational ; 
gaining the materials of knowledge 
before arranging them in scientific 
formulae. In all this the learner must 
be active, not passive ; he must have 
interest in the subject, pleasure in add- 
ing to his stores of knowledge, satis- 
faction in working them into scientific 
form and practical use. If " cram" can 
be defined to be " partaking of food 
without previous appetite or subse- 
quent digestion," true education must 
be the reverse of this. Above all the 
educator must bear in mind that the 
pupil is alive and growing. The teacher 
is not an artist hewing wood or mar- 
ble into a statue ; he is a cultivator 
training a growing plant. If this fact 
of constant, continuous growth is neg- 
lected, there can be no true education ; 
or, in other words, the growth itself 
will be the education, and the work of 
the so-called educator will be a mere 
patching of extraneous matter upon 
it, like tying artificial flowers or leaves 
on a living plant. There may be some- 
thing worse than this ; for if the work 
of education runs counter to the 
growth of the pupil's mind, the result 
may be like that of laying a board or 
tile over a tender plant, a struggle 
against the interference, which ends 
in a growth blanched, deformed, and 
stunted, and perhaps neither beautiful 
nor useful. 





When on my day of life the night is falling, 

And, in the winds from unsunned spaces blown, 

I hear far voices out of darkness calling 
My feet to paths unknown, 

Thou who hast made my home of life so pleasant, 
Leave not its tenant when its walls decay ; 

0 Love Divine, O Helper ever present, 
Be Thou my strength and stay ! 

Be near me when all else is from me drifting— 

Earth, sky, home's pictures, days of shade and shine, 

And kindly faces to my own uplifting 
The love which answers mine. 

1 have but Thee, O Father ! Let Thy spirit 
Be with me then to comfort and uphold ; 

No gate of pearl, no branch of palm, I merit, 
Nor street of shining gold. 

Suffice if it — my good and ill unreckoned, 

And both forgiven through Thy abounding grace — 

I find myself by hands familiar beckoned 
Unto my fitting place. 

Some humble door among Thy many mansions, 
Some sheltering shade where sin and striving cease. 

And flows forever through Heaven's green expansions 
The river of Thy peace. 

There, from the music round about me stealing, 
I fain would learn the new and holy song, 

And find, at last, beneath Thy trees of healing, 
The life for which I long. 

„ _ 

f ?l 

Table of Contents. 

MARCH, 1883. 

M m. 



The New South, Thomas Dixon. 283 

Loose Links, N. R. Pittman. 292 

Creeds, Dr. Wm. Royall. 294 


No Conflict between Science and Revelation, G. C. B. 301 

Short Speech, W. H. O. 303 

Gentleness, _ _ 304 

Educational, _ _ 305 

Literary Gossip, _ 309 

Science Notes, _ _ __ 314 

In and About the College, _ 316 

Wake Forest Alumni, 323 


The Progress of Female Education,. _ The Century. 326 

In the Old Church Tower, T. B. Aldrich. 328 

Again, _. _ Frazer's Magazine. 328 

Don't take it to Heart, Tinsley's Magarine. 329 






Short Sack Diagonal Suits, Four Button Cutaway Suits, White Vests, Nobby Style Walking Suits, 
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Furnishing Goods, Hosiery, Gloves, Neckwear, Notions and Small Wares is also complete. 

3D- (3- WAITT, 

52 Fayetteville St., RALEIGH, N. C. 

J. W. Denmark. 

Edwards, Broughton & Co. 



^Booksellers and Station-ere, 

No. 2 Recorder Building, RALEIGH, N. C. 

School and College Text Books, Religious, Lata 
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Opp. Post Office. 




March, 1883. 

Vol. 2. WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, N. C. No. 7. 



Senior Editor __G. C. Briggs. Senior Editor. E. S. Alderman. 

Associate Editor D. M Austin. Associate Editor. __H. B. Folk. 

Alumni Editor Prof. W. L. Poteat. 

Contributions must be written on one side of paper, and accompanied by the name of author. Direct 
all contributions to Editors Wake Forest Student, Wake Forest College, N. C. Matters of 
business should be addressed to H. B. Folk. 



[Address of the Euzelian Orator on the occasion of the Anniversary of the Literary Societi< 

February 16, 1883.] 

I shall ask you to go back with me 
some twenty-five years, and we'll take 
a little trip from Columbia to Wash- 
ington, to see the country. As we 
journey we find the South presenting 
a different picture indeed from the 
present. Her wealth astounds and 
her beauty charms. No bleak hillsides 
mar the landscape. Where the old 
field pine and red gulley flourish, we 
find waving fields of ripening grain or 
acres of snowy cotton. We pass vast 
plantations tilled by busy slaves, while 
on yonder sloping hill, with shady 
grove and carpet of green, lives the 
rich old planter, with an ease and lux- 
ury the art of which this age has for- 
gotten. There the matron and her 
daughters know no drudgery. We pass 
by the University and find its halls 
crowded with six hundred students 
supported in affluence. Arrived at 
Washington, we find the superiority 
of Southern representatives univer- 

sally acknowledged. Though a mi- 
nority, they sit as despots in the leg- 
islative assembly. The voices of our 
peerless orators ring throughout those 
two chambers, and a nation stands 
entranced. Whether enchanted by 
the silvery tongues of Clays, or writh- 
ing beneath the sarcasm of a Ran- 
dolph, whose squeaking voice and 
bony finger made nerves tingle, or 
spell-bound by the magic tones of a 
Yancey, they feel themselves in the 
hands of masters. 

But by-and-by our Northern friends 
held little meetings around, and, after 
they "whereased" several times, finally 
"resolved" that they did. not approve 
of our institutions and ideas of gov- 
ernment — in fact, that they were 
wrong. Trouble was coming. And 
it came. The Devil loosed a demon 
spirit — the wild spirit of war — whose 
thirst could be quenched by blood 
alone. It seized the people, and rea- 



son fled. The young and ambitious 
went mad, mature men were intoxica- 
ted, old age forgot history and expe- 
rience. War, which Sherman says " is 
hell," was inevitable. The drum's 
loud call is heard as the long roll is 
beat, the bugle's shrill voice rings over 
hill and dale, and from every city, 
town, village, hamlet and country seat 
they came — the yeoman with the 
millionaire, the student with the farm- 
er boy — high and low, great and small, 
they came — to die. The sullen roar 
of those cannon at Sumpter reverber- 
ated over the Gulf States, and their 
sons heard the summons, and from 
the Lone Star's farthest plains came 
her matchless horsemen ; it echoed up 
the valley of the Mississippi, and 
thence over the tomb of Washington, 
and his children's children rallied be- 
neath a strange flag. Then, all was 
gay and hopeful. We marched to 
meet the enemy with banners waving 
and bands of music to stir the soul 
and fill the air with melody. Two 
years of the most brilliant victories 
that ever emblazoned a warrior's es- 
cutcheon crowned the colors of the 
South. But the poetry of war had 
passed away, and left us face to face 
with its grim realities. Practically 
without railroads, telegraph, or even 
the means for furnishing the necessi- 
ties of life, we had undertaken to con- 
quer a people numerically much 
stronger, occupying a country run by 
steam and electricity, which, with its 
ports open to the world, had for its 
granary the inexhaustible West. We 
were thrown upon our own limited 
resources. Then was evinced the 
spirit that has marked Southern char- 
acter as historic — that spirit which is 

to-day working wonders. Surrounded 
by all these obstacles, we proudly 
(perhaps not wisely) scorned the nu- 
merous compromises offered by the 
enemy, and began to sacrifice and in- 
vent. Without a navy, or the money 
to build one, native talent constructed 
a little craft able to cope with the 
heaviest ironside of the North, and in- 
vented the system of torpedoes which 
immediately revolutionized modern 
naval warfare. Without lead, the tubes 
and vessels of our laboratories, and 
the bells from our church towers, were 
moulded into bullets and sent on their 
mission of death. Even when the 
shadows of approaching doom began 
to deepen — when Albert Sidney John- 
son, Ashby, and Jackson were num- 
bered with the dead — when the ranks 
of our army were daily growing thin- 
ner and thinner, with not even old 
men and boys at home to fill them — 
the spirit of our people was yet un- 
broken. As Lee's ragged and half 
starved veterans lay in their trenches 
around Richmond, they heard undis- 
mayed the heavy tramp of marshalled 
thousands coming to crush them, and, 
clutching their bright muskets, the 
smile that played on their weather- 
beaten faces said, " Come on." Saying 
we would do or die, we walked to the 
very brink of ruin, and, gazing into its 
awful depths, made the final plunge. 
As long as men shall continue to read 
of the deeds of their fellows, so long 
will the sons of the South who figured 
in that sublime tragedy be known as 
heroes. With poor equipments, fight- 
ing against fearful odds, they achieved 
victories whose splendor stands with- 
out a parallel in history. Half paid, 
half clothed, not fed at all, they fought 



to the bitter end with a desperation 
truly wonderful. They had carried 
the bonnie blue flag triumphant over 
a hundred blood-stained fields, and 
but a handful were left to furl it in 
dust and gore on that fatal spring 
morning at Appomatox — the rest were 
dead, and many who remained envied 
their lot. Such implicit faith had they 
in their great leaders, such confidence 
in their own prowess, they had not 
thought of surrender, though starving 
and surrounded by an army five times 
their superior. The memory of our 
dead soldiers we will forever hold as 
sacred. Well has Theo. O'Hara sung: 

14 On fame's eternal camping ground, 
Their silent tents are spread, 
And glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of the dead. 

No rumor of the foe's advance 

Now swells upon the wind, 
Nor troubled thoughts at midnight haunt 

Of loved ones left behind. 

No vision of the morrow's strife 

The warrior's dream alarms ; 
No braying horn, no screaming fife, 

At dawn shall call to arms. 

The neighing troop, the flashing blade, 

The bugle's stirring blast, 
The charge, the dreadful cannonade, 

The din and shout, are passed. 

Yon maxble minstrel's voiceful stone, 

In deathless song shall tell, 
When many a vanquished year hath flown, 

The story-how you fell : 

Nor wreck, nor change, nor winter's blight, 

Nor time's remorseless doom, 
Can dim one ray of holy light 

That gilds your glorious tomb." 

We staked all, and from the wreck 
saved only honor. And around that 
honor flocked some lonely companions, 
whose names were Poverty, Misery, 
Woe, Desolation. The political fabric 
was torn into atoms. To make the 

social midnight darker, six millions of 
ignorant slaves were loosed upon the 
secne. Wealth vanished like a phantom. 
In one day two billion dollars' worth of 
property was swept away. Our proud- 
est cities lay mouldering in ashes. 
Ghostly chimneys upon hills hardened 
by the tramp of soldiers, and the can- 
non's heavy wheel marked the spots 
where once the vine-clad cottage or 
princely residence stood. Not a home 
but had been darkened by the shadow 
of the Black Angel's wings as he had 
spread them over the land of sunshine 
and flowers. Old men who had been 
reared and had lived in affluence, woke 
to find themselves paupers — and died. 
Cutting want, if not famine, was 

To complete our ruin, the vultures 
came. A proud and sensitive people, 
goaded to desperation by taunts and 
insults from low-born ruffians, and 
galled by the power of former slaves, 
at length could endure no more. A 
great league was formed. It spread 
like lightning. Within three months 
from the date of its organization two 
hundred thousand men answered its 
roll-call. From its secret chambers 
went forth mandates that made the 
minions of the power it hated pause 
and tremble at their work. It was a 
master-stroke at the National power, 
and, as Tourgee says, was a concep- 
tion of such magnitude and sublime 
daring, that it could have been con- 
ceived and executed only by the 
Southern people. But it was unlaw- 
ful, and grievous were its fruits. It 
outlived its purpose. The latter days 
of the Invisible Empire not only dis- 
graced the South by its acts of need- 



less violence, but placed us again un- 
der the bayonet, thus, for a period, 
stagnating business and paralysing 
every industry. 

Could it be possible that amid all 
this confusion there were lying dor- 
mant the seeds of prosperity which 
would ultimately spring up, blossom, 
and mature? Such was the case. 

Those of you who think that I have 
reviewed to-night the melancholy past 
to stir feelings of sectional animosity, 
to produce sad thoughts of the cause 
we lost, have made a mistake. In 
making this review, I have only in- 
tended, as the first proper step in the 
thorough examination of the new 
plant, to analyze the soil out of which 
it has sprung, and from whose life- 
giving principles it now receives daily 
sustenance. No ! The things about 
which we have spoken are past, dead ! 
Would to God our people to-day real- 
ized that solemn fact ! — that they 
could have realized it long ago ! 

In speaking of the New South, I 
wish to give no rose-colored picture 
of fancy to please and delight, but 
deceive. The truth, as it is, is what 
we want. We discover in the pre- 
liminary examination of this new plant 
that it is no foreign sprout. When 
the old tree was hewn down, an abor- 
tive attempt was made to engraft upon 
it — to reconstruct and patch it up — 
but the old trunk had been cut too 
close to the ground, and we had to 
wait for another growth. 

What is the first indication of a new 
South ? A new spirit is abroad. You 
see it in the quickened step of. the bu- 
siness men, in the straightened fence- 
row, and new cultivator of the farmer ; 
the press pulsates with it ; you hear it 

from the platform, see it in the smiling 
face and hear it in the cheerful tones 
of our citizens; you feel it in the very 
atmosphere we breathe — it buoys us 
up, invigorates and nerves us for ac- 
tion. Whence comes this spirit? Are 
the ruling principles of the great peo- 
ple of the North being disseminated 
in our midst ? Is it their spirit that 
has reached us and is infusing life? 
I do not believe it. Nor do I say so 
because of any prejudice against that 
section. Northern ideas have not as 
yet penetrated the great mass of our 
people. That our advancement would 
have been more rapid had we adopted 
some of their principles, I have not 
the slightest doubt. But we have not 
done it. What has been done has 
been principally the work of Southern 
men. This spirit, then, is the revival 
of hope. It is the first gleam of the 
rising sun after twenty years of dark- 
ness. Our people have been engaged 
in a life-and-death struggle with pov- 
erty. They are just now getting on 
firm ground — on dry land, and the 
world looks brighter, the flowers 
fresher, the birds sing more sweetly, 
and the pulse beats quicker and 
stronger, infusing new life. 

What is this new spirit doing ? First, 
it is developing the South material- 
ly. Business is awakening in every 
department of industry to its minutest 
ramifications. Our farmers are becom- 
ing more intelligent, wealthy and hap- 
py. Agricultural fogyism, with its 
thriftless ways, is yielding to progress- 
ive and economic plans. The old 
wrought iron plow is giving way to 
the new cultivator, the scythe and cra- 
dle to reapers driven by horse power. 
The old-fashioned three-cornered har- 



row, with a log on it and two little 
negroes a-straddle of the log, has seen 
its best days. 

Within the South are to be found 
the richest deposits of coal, iron, lead, 
copper, silver, gold, and precious 
stones. New and rare gems have been 
recently discovered in abundance. 
Corporations are being formed daily 
for the operation of these mines, which, 
with the modern appliances for the 
management of ores, yield as rich re- 
turns as those of California and Ne- 

Our railroads are coining money 
and improving their facilities for the 
accommodation of passengers and the 
rapid transfer of freights North and 
South. New companies are forming, 
and our legislatures are being besieged 
with petitions, asking that new char- 
ters be granted for the construction of 
thousands of miles of roads, cutting 
our territory in every direction. Many 
of these roads are already more than 
prospective, and their early comple- 
tion is a certainty. Where they are 
penetrating, antiquated towns, as quiet 
and unobtrusive as Rip Van Winkle in 
Sleepy Hollow, are waking to new life. 

The manufacturing industry of the 
South is becoming varied and profit- 
able. Though speakers may tell you 
that everything we use is made at the 
North — our knives and forks, cups, 
saucers, dishes, chairs, tables, hoes, 
plows, rakes, pins, clothes, buttons, 
shoes, pens, pen-knives, pencils, and 
tooth-picks, I say though much of this 
be the sad truth, a mere glimpse at 
the number and variety of enterprises 
that have sprung up within the last 
few years, will astonish you. Besides 
the cotton mills, there are in success. 

ful operation in different States of the 
South, many factories for the produc- 
tion of oil and oil cake from cotton 
seed, artificial stone, ice, fertilizers of 
various kinds, medicines, paper, toilet 
preparations, flour, tobacco, beer, 
whiskey, lime, cement, soap, soda wa- 
ter, artificial legs and arms, saddles, 
sashes, blinds and doors, furniture, 
lumber, wagons and carriages, plows, 
steam engines, boilers, cane and sugar 
mills, cotton presses, iron store fronts, 
cotton gins, staves and barrels. The 
production of oil from cotton seed 
promises to develop into a business of 
gigantic proportions, one that will coin 
millions for the South. 

Among all our industries the only 
boom proper is in cotton mills. The 
movement seems to be wide-spread — 
universal. At last it takes a firm hold 
upon the people. There is not a city, 
town or village of any importance 
throughout the length and breadth of 
the South whose business circles have 
not been agitated within the last two 
years by an enthusiastic movement for 
the erection of a cotton mill. Many 
of these agitations have been success- 
ful. Companies have been formed 
with sufficient capital to sustain im- 
mense operations. The enthusiasm 
continues to spread. Just one month 
ago to-day, there met in the city of 
Atlanta a large number of our repre- 
sentative manufacturers from all parts 
of the South, who organized the 
Southern Cotton Manufacturing As- 
sociation, whose object is the advance- 
ment of this great industry. The 
theories of Northern statisticians are 
being fast exploded, and we are prov- 
ing that the manufacture of cotton 
goods near the fields does pay, and that 



we lose when they are made in New 
England. The statistics for the State 
of South Carolina may be taken as an 
average, and illustrate the enormous 
proportions of the new movement. 
They tell us that within the last two 
years her mills have more than doubled 
their capital and capacity. Old compa- 
nies are enlarging their capacity and re- 
placing their old machinery with the 
Lowell-made of the latest and most 
improved construction. Some of these 
powerful corporations are now inter- 
fering with, and will soon rival the 
factories of Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island. Their goods are consumed 
faster than they can make them. They 
ship large quantities to New York, 
Chicago, Shanghai, and other remote 
parts of the world. All things point 
to success. 

Our tobacco trade, already enor- 
mous, is increasing with astonishing 
rapidity. The finest grades of tobacco 
in the world are grown and manufac- 
tured in the South. In new regions 
the weed is being successfully cultiva- 
ted, and there factories are springing 
up. Dull little villages of two hun- 
dred inhabitants are suddenly trans- 
formed, as if by magic, into bustling 
towns of three thousand. It is need- 
less to say that the business of many 
of our great houses is immense. The 
sign-boards of Southern firms are seen 
across the streets of Shanghai and 
Canton, in Montreal, and the cities of 
South America, beyond the Atlantic, 
in the Boulevards of Paris, and the 
streets of London and Berlin. The 
Autocrat of Russia and the Sultan of 
Turkey, the Kaiser of Germany, and 
the Emperorof China, know the merits 
of our brands, and smoke accordingly. 

There is one other industry I must 
mention, which I would omit but for 
its universality and importance. It 
numbers in its stockholders the mill- 
ionaire and the single " gallused" cop- 
eras-breeches clod-hopper who mod- 
estly tills the soil with his little red 
steer. The commodity is manufac- 
tured or sold everywhere. Somehow, 
they nearly all love it. Babies cry for 
it, old men sigh for it, and the mature 
man has been known to die for it. 
Once upon a time, a certain foolish 
people sought to put it away, but they 
nearly all voted for it. There is an in- 
definable charm in the music of the 
stopper, as it is drawn from the bottle, 
that attracts our people with a fatality 
as certain and fearful as the voice of 
siren did the sailors of old. Persecu- 
ted by law, the smoke of its furnaces 
ascends from mountain fastnesses, 
hollows, and caves. If the women and 
our few sober men finally succeed in 
driving it from the face of the earth, 
men will burrow into the depths un- 
der the earth, and make it there. 
When smoked out of this retreat, the 
last great problem of the age — aerial 
navigation — will be solved. They will 
construct a machine in which they 
will migrate to the moon. If the moon 
is a free country, they will establish a 
regular line of communication with 
earth, send back missionaries to tell 
the good news, and depopulate this 
globe in less than twelve months. 
Heaven has given the Southerner a 
warm, genial, and sympathetic soul, 
endowing him with social qualities 
which rank him superior to any 
race of men yet evolved. The Evil 
One has invented this accursed poison 
to deform those beautiful traits. At 


this point only I lose patience with 
the New South — she is yet joined to 
her idols. 

The new spirit has touched politics. 
Do not understand me to say that the 
fundamental principles of our party 
faith have recently undergone radical 
change — for there are no fundamental 
principles to be changed. War anni- 
hilated the one great principle upon 
which the Democratic party was 
founded — -that of State Rights in one 
form or another. Our politicians have 
spent their time in attempting to 
breathe life into the old ghost. The 
Republican party has perpetuated its 
life upon the carcass of slavery. 
Stunned by a blow so terrible and far- 
reaching in its effects as that of the 
war, our people are just now begin- 
ning to accept as a reality its results — 
that it is useless to howl about the 
centralization of power, when the bay- 
onet has decided that question. 
Whether for better or worse, the fact 
is patent enough, that we are gradu- 
ally deserting the principles of the 
Jeffersonian Democracy to embrace, 
with more or less enthusiasm, the 
Hamiltonian theories of the North. 
Vain hopes, long deferred, have been 
postponed indefinitely, and then aban- 
doned. To-day we are all asking the 
National Government to assist the 
cause of education with its money, 
thereby acknowledging the right of the 
General Government to interfere with 
the business of separate States. Upon 
the whole, less attention is given to 
politics and more to work. The peo- 
ple find it doesn't pay, and prefer the 
more tangible. 

Sectional hate is dying. I know it 
will be late in the evening when the 

heroes who carried the Palmetto Tree 
in triumph over the fields of Manassas, 
Chancellorsville, and a hundred more, 
and who saw its tattered folds sadly 
furled at Appomatox, will be ready to 
give a hearty handshake over the 
bloody chasm ; but a new generation 
I has grown up, who know of that war 
I only as tradition or history, who ad- 
I mire — even worship its heroic actors, 
but whose minds partake of the prosy 
and practical. Their fathers were once 
wealthy ; they have been reared in 
| poverty, amid dreams of wealth. In 
j visions they have walked in magnifi- 
| cent residences, whose velvet carpeted 
halls gave no echo, and they mean to 
see those visions realized. Mark the 
words and actions of young men as 
they grasp the helm of the Press. Are 
its columns filled with bitter references 
to a dead past ? No ! They seize the 
living, breathing, pulsating questions 
of the day. The young South loves 
the memory of the old, but will not 
perpetuate the endless quarrel with 
which it was burdened. There is no 
time for it. Had we the power we 
could not turn aside to pay off the 
old grudge ; for greater questions de- 
mand attention — questions upon 
whose speedy and successful solution 
may depend the very existence of this 

In the social world the new spirit is 
felt. Pride has been humbled by ne- 
cessity, and ideas of sham gentility 
have yielded to a wholesome recogni- 
tion of the true dignity of labor. The 
Southerner is naturally lazy— our warm 
sunshine and a bountiful nature make 
it so. But we are becoming more ac- 
tive and energetic. Since the last 
census the cause of education has 



received new impulse. Mammoth 
graded schools have been organized 
in almost every important town, and 
are doing great service. Notwith- 
standing the startling figures on illit- 
eracy, the South has done well. Our 
colleges are better attended, and are 
all enlarging their capacity, extending 
their influence, as well as elevating 
the standard of scholarship. The mu- 
nificence of Johns Hopkins, the mer- 
chant prince of Baltimore, has estab- 
lished within our borders the highest 
University in America. At this in- 
stitution, which is yearly growing 
stronger, are assembled the elite from 
Harvard, Yale, Amherst, and other of 
our higher seats of learning, as well as 
students from the great Universities 
of Germany and France. The students 
graduated from the institutions of the 
South are of better material, and are, 
in fact, better equipped for life than 
the average Northern collegiate. They 
are poor, have made sacrifices, appre- 
ciated their advantages, know what 
hard work means, and this nation will 
feel their power. 

The noblest womanhood that ever 
graced this earth is being evolved on 
Southern soil, nourished by our sunny 
clime. The Southern woman has acted 
her part nobly, grandly ! It was her 
prayers and undying devotion that 
sustained the stricken South, as she 
walked through the valley of the 
shadow of death, and her words of 
inspiration to-day are urging the young 
South to the achievement of a grand 
destiny. Of the Southern maiden ^niy 
personal knowledge is exceedingly 
limited, but I have seen and read and 
thought much of her. I do not mean 
to depreciate those who live elsewhere, 

but somehow I have a notion that I 
like our girls better. O ! there is a 
gentleness and a delicate sweetness 
about their nature that I almost wor- 
ship. I hope that however much they 
may progress, those natures will re- 
main the same, at least for a few years. 

Upon the whole, our advancement 
has been phenomenal. Go search the 
annals of history, and find, if you can, 
the record of any nation presenting 
such a spectacle as the South in her 
present prosperity. But a few years 
ago the garrisons of a victorious army 
held every foot of her blasted and 
desolate soil — her bravest and best 
were dead on the battle-grounds of 
Virginia, leaving a nation of women 
and children — all form of government 
gone — society a wreck — her surviving 
citizens plunged into bankruptcy and 
ruin — presenting to the eye one vast 
ocean of chaos and death. Still, we 
have progressed. In one sense our 
achievements have been marvellous ; 
in any another they are small. They 
are small when we compare South- 
ern poverty with Northern wealth. 
The New South is grand and poetic, 
not in what it is, but in what it prom- 
ises — what it WILL be ! We have 
done well ; we are doing well, but we 
can do better, we will do better. 
How? What do we need ? 

We need more hard work. We say 
" Labor to Live." Our neighbors' 
motto is, " Live to Labor." They 
believe in the omnipotence of labor — 
they all work, men, women, and chil- 
dren, with a ceaseless grave-popula- 
ting avidity. I do not say carry it to 
the extreme they do. The rosy cheek, 
sparkling eye, and soft, rounded form 
of the daughter of the South need not 



be changed to hollow-eyed and pale 
victims of overwork. No ! Ten thous- 
and noes ! I had rather we should live 
and die as poor as Job's famous old 
gobbler, who had to lean against the 
fence to gobble, than that we should 
become a nation of Rothschilds at 
such a sacrifice. Yet, we might all 
work a little harder without serious 

She needs men and money. We 
are poor, exceedingly poor. Capital 
is needed to be invested in cotton 
mills and the thousand undeveloped 
industries which could be made suc- 
cessful. Our schools and colleges 
need millions. Hear the President 
of Harvard call for only $400,000 to 
endow the library. We have been 
striving fitteen years for $100,000 
with which to endow this whole Insti- 
tution — Library, Reading Room, Col- 
lege, Boys, Faculty, John and Len ! 
Our neighbors have the money. How 
are we to get it now ? By quarrelling ? 
Not much. Collections made on that 
basis will never amount to millions. 
The fact is, while older heads have 
been quarrelling, young men of talent, 
of promise, of sense, have been leav- 
ing. As they have reached years of 
maturity and scanned the broad hori- 
zon that stretches before the young 
American, they have chosen more in- 
viting fields in which to cast their lot. 
Men of the South, if you expect to 
hold these boys, you must wake up ! 

What is the destiny of the New 
South? The sons of the men "who 
met the red storm of blood and fire 
at Chancellorsville," who piled their 
corpses around the heights of Gettys- 
burg, and made the sublime record of 
'6i to '65 — the sons of such men, nour- 


ished by such mothers as they have 
had, cannot but achieve a noble des- 

The last spark of sectional hatred 
will soon die away. The two great 
political parties that now divide this 
Republic will soon sleep side by side 
in their graves. For that day, I shall 
thank God ! I shall hail it as the 
bright, bright harbinger of a brighter 
future. They have both outlived their 
usefulness, and are doomed to certain 
death. One will soon rot of its own 
corruption. The other, in its* final 
rush for the White House, wills tum- 
ble and break its neck, and they will 
both be buried in the same grave. 
Then we will have a revival, and take a 
new start. The fiat of war has said : 
"This government shall be more cen- 
tralized." Let it be so. I am willing 
to spell nation with a big N. South- 
ern people are born leaders, born ru- 
lers of men, and just as certain as this 
Republic stands, just so certain will 
the supremacy of Southern oratory and 
statesmanship again assert itself 
at Washington. Southern brain will 
again shape the nation's policy. 

Unincumbered by the burdensome 
and unprogressive institution of 
slavery, the South has begun to as- 
cend. With a territory extending 
from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, 
embracing within its enormous boun- 
daries an area of over 100,000 square 
miles, more than all the free States 
east of the Rocky Mountains — with 
such an area, she will be developed. 
The boundless prairies of the South- 
west will be transformed into fields of 
grain and cotton, and acres long left 
idle will again yield their due increase. 
Railroads will cut the great piedmont 



sections of the Blue Ridge and Alle- 
ghany, and piercing their passes will 
form a net work of trade lines connect- 
ing West, South, and North. The 
ascending smoke from ten thousand 
lofty chimneys will tell us of so many 
manufactories transforming timber 
from our forests into furniture, vehi- 
cles, and implements of agriculture. 
The low hum of millions of spindles 
will tell us that every pound of our 
fleecy product is being converted into 
the finished fabric. The depths of the 
earth will yield up their treasures. 
The world's commerce lies within our 
grasp. Mexico, South America, and 
the Dark Continent across the waters, 
all require the products of our fields, 
mines, and factories. Her destiny! 

Ah ! That is the thought that thrills. 
As I peer into the future, I see the 
lights gleaming on high, and they 
shine only the brighter because of the 
dark back-ground that lies behind. I 
see a picture out yonder whose beauty 
and grandeur would even send a glow 
to the cheek of the old man whose 
hopes are dead and whose heart is 
broken. The days have been dark and 
dreary, but we will be the better for 
them. There can be no full man who 
has not tasted sorrow's bitter cup. 
The memories of the terrible past will 
be hallowed and wholesome. 

" Yes, give me a land of the wreck and the tomb, 
There is grandeur in graves, there is glory in gloom, 
For out of the gloom future brightness is born, 
As after the night comes the sunrise of morn." 



WHY ? 

That inconvincible why? with its 
interrogation point. " Peter's cap." 
'Peter's' is a proper noun. Why? Pos- 
sessive case. Why ? Why ? — a 1 1 
through the interminable school 
books. Why? — all over all the black 
boards. Laughing through the thick 
walls of penitentiaries. Flashing across 
the sky. Burning in the volcano. 
Plaguing the angels of Heaven. Stand- 
ing a pitiless piece of statuary between 
the worshipper and his God. Why? 
Do you stop and tell the inquisitive 
thing why you pray, why you love, 
why you laugh, why you weep, why 
you long to lose "yourself in the In- 
finite ? 

Why "Loose Links?" A sunny 
spring morning marching through the 
world with singing birds and wreaths 
of flowers and pretty clothes and sweet 
faces can never stir up any feelings 
like a visit to a blacksmith shop. 
Why? There again. One must ra- 
tionalize sentiment, and worse than 
Bellerophon must ride Pegasus. Of 
course, there is no special fascination 
in the unwritten history of Tubal- 
Cain. No wealthful " Alpha and 
Omega" in the busy life of Elihu 

But the broken traces and worthless 
bits of files and saws and worn-out 
scythes and axes and rusty nails. 
There they are, thrown away. They've 


had their day. So shall we. A black- 
smith shop of a world is this. And 
poor jobs do some of the smiths turn 
out. Well it is that God has a forge 
where things may be mended. 


Marie and I were on the joggling 
board in the porch. Mrs. C — was in 
the parlor playing on the piano and 
singing of that wonderfully constant 
woman who said, 

"I just tell them they needn't come wooing to me 
For my heart, my heart is over the sea." 

As an interrogation point only is this 
radiant Marie like John Randolph. 
The clouds had been thick on the sky 
a dreary week. 

" What's a-doing behind the clouds, 
you reckon ? Wonder if the sun is 
gone a-wooing to the moon?" 

Marie is not too old nor too prim 
to artlessly make you wish to kiss her 
a thousand times. And you know 
how like lingering forever close to 
some dear one you do feel, when the 
sunshine goes away and stays. 

Poor, wayward, thoughtless thought 
that tries to know everything but it- 
self. What's a-doing behind the 
clouds? behind the sun? behind the 
sky? behind the vast unseen? Avery 
beauty is in such vagueness. The sun 
and moon and their family of sky chil- 
dren have been vexed with the criti- 
cisms of thousands of human genera- 
tions. And to-day that honest sun 
looks this guilty world out of counte- 
nance. But who does not get tired of 
perpetual publicity? Behind the 
clouds let them hide from the world's 
tireless scrutiny. 

They are shining behind the clouds. 
All things are not visible. All visible 


things are not seen. There are Grays 
elegiac, Miltons mute, inglorious. 
America was behind the clouds four- 
teen hundred and ninety-two Chris- 
tian centuries. Unwritten histories 
are behind the clouds. Great, grand 
lives there, too holy for the mutilation 
of earthly biography. They are writ- 
ten in Heaven. 

Avalanches of clouds plunging in 
the wake of cataracts of sunshine down 
the mountains. And down under the 
bewildering, chaotic clouds have I 
gone, when above me was a fair, sun- 
ny sky. Carlyle and Bonaparte had 
stomachs! With clouded brain, Napo- 
leon thought more of digestion than 
of victory at Leipsic and Borodino. 
Stuffed mutton darkened his sunny his- 
tory at Dresden. He who could proudly 
say, ' There should be no Alps !' surren- 
ders ambition and fame before a dish 
of onions and mutton. Verily, Esau 
hath an Oliver. I take it that though 
one may be very loftily intellectual, 
and very severe against the base flesh- 
liness of unfortunate Esau, yet, in 
sweet confidence, he might wittingly 
tell of a certain rain of tears that fell 
from the dismal smoke-clouds of a 
mess of pottage. 


The dictionaries have put it on the 
superannuated list. Little does that 
matter in the land of the free — in the 
land of post mortem excruciation and 
post mortem coronation. I wanted a 
word with the anthem of a March 
storm in it. One gets wearied out 
with these slow, monotonous winter 
clouds, and wants swift, business-like 
March to scatter them somewhat. 
Quite a lively winter in the main 



April showers melted January snows. 
Taurus and Capricornus tangled up 
the zodiac in the Baptist Almanac. 

Does not take much salt for the 
metaphors in rhetoric and poetry. 
Takes more grace than salt to save the 
whole world of porkish things that 
come bleeding from the shambles of 
literati butchers. But don't you ad- 
mire the meteoric genius of Coleridge ? 
His zigzag modus operandi ; his loose 
links ; his luckless laxity ? He didn't 
ride a hobby to death ! In one of his 
transcendental moods, he said in con- 
clusion, "Life is not a thing, a sub- 
sistent hypostasis, but an act and a 
process." He did not see the wind 
back of the windmill. Can the river at 
Buffalo keep back from the rapids at 
Niagara? One's volitional machinery 
is a mysterious vastness. We may see 
the hand writing the " rnene, rnene, 
tekel, upharsi?i " without seeing the 
writer. Coleridge saw the acts — not 
the tiling. 

But Dr. Dickinson declares that one 
preacher under the wide heavens stuck 
to his text, and received a ten dollar 
wager for performing the miracle. That 
text, if I mistake not, is in the third 
chapter of Romans and the first part 
of the second verse, and reads per- 

spicuously, " Much every way." No 
spargefaction, no Jack Surprise, no 
wild, cloud-tossing March wind in that 
sermon. Bless the veteris vestigia 
flammae ! " Beware of dogs." Dogs 
are new things. Beware of the untrod- 
den hedges ! Much as we weaklings 
can do to hold our own. Better to get 
a text and stick to it, and never open 
ears or eyes to hear or see anything 
else. This be a dangerous age. Like 
and lack practical conservatism. Apo- 
theosize regularity and worship at its 
shrine through the ages. Be sure to 
get the spirit of the editor who was 
in my sactum sanctorum twenty-four 
hours ago. He said that his boyhood's 
almost mortal trouble was the thought 
that he would have to wash his face 
every morning as long as he lived. 

A jaded joy. The shadows were 
growing short when I began to write. 
Now they are lengthening for the sun- 
setting. It has been a battle with the 
clouds all day. But as he goes down, 
the sun shines back a radiant blessing 
upon the clouds that had sought to 
impoverish his wealth of light. So did 
the world's Redeemer. So did St. Paul. 
So may we. 



The word " creed" has come to be 
restricted in its application to that pe- 
culiar form of doctrine which is held 
or supposed to be held by any .Chris- 
tian denomination or sect. As soon 

as difference of opinion about the 
teaching of God's word at any point 
began to be developed, it became nec- 
essary for the parties concerned to de- 
fine their respective beliefs. This they 



were forced to do largely in the use of 
terms which were extra-biblical. Be- 
cause the controversy generally orig- 
inated in the divergence of views re- 
specting some biblical terms. The 
question to be settled, was: In what 
sense is this term to be accepted? The 
words or phrases which the Holy 
Spirit employed to impress divine doc- 
trine, were derived from the vocab- 
ulary of two languages mainly — the 
Hebrew and the Greek. These words 
may have been clearly intelligible to 
those who used these tongues, at least 
to the more cultured and better edu- 
cated classes. But^it is reasonable to 
suppose that foreigners would need 
instruction in regard to the use and 
signification of many of them, even 
supposing them acquainted with the 
languages in which they were found. 

Indeed, it is true that most technical 
terms are to be accepted in a peculiar 
sense — represent ideas which are 
modifications of those which they are 
known originally to have suggested. 
Some of them, too, are manufactured 
for the purpose of expressing a thought 
in science or literature which is either 
absolutely new, or has a new applica- 
tion. The honest thinker must ac- 
knowledge that one of the marvels of 
Revelation is, that with such a theme 
— so grand — so heavenly — so spiritual, 
and so new to the world at large, there 
should be such clear and fitting words 
found in human speech for its expres- 
sion, statement, and unfolding. 

The wonder is not that Paul once 
heard things that are " unspeakable, " 
but that he, or even a greater than he, 
ever found the terms in which to " tell 
us of heavenly things." By what 
process short of the divine could Gre- 

cian learning and Grecian mythology- 
be made to furnish the vehicle for con* 
veying a knowedge of the mysteries 
and the deep things of Redemption 
and of Heaven and of the Christ, to 
the ignorance of man ? Surely, to have 
accomplished this, was no less a mira- 
cle than to raise the dead. 

Is it at all strange, then, that men 
who differ so much even in regard to 
objects which address themselves to 
the senses, should soon differ in their 
interpretation and use of Scripture 
terms, when, from the causes just hint- 
ed at, we see the room for disagree- 
ment and for difference on every page ? 

The Holy Spirit has doubtless given 
us as clear an exposition of the doc- 
trine of the Trinity, e. g., as is possible 
under the circumstances. But because 
the doctrine is one in itself above our 
comprehension, it is not to be sup- 
posed that all will alike and to the 
same extent comprehend the terms 
employed in detailing to us the part 
which every person in the Holy Trin- 
ity performs in the grand scheme of 
Redemption. And when the lines are 
clearly drawn between these, it then 
becomes necessary for each party to 
define his understanding of Scripture 
phraseology. And as each party may 
conceive that the particular view which 
he holds on this one subject colors and 
modifies the whole system of divine 
truth, so he is under obligation for 
truth's sake, to draw up a scheme of 
doctrine which shall be consistent with 
itself, and present what he regards 
the faith " of God's word in its pro- 
portions." All the leading formularies 
of the different Christian denomina- 
tions have had this history. 

The terms which have provoked 



most discussion, and given rise to the 
more important creeds, are the follow- 
ing: Trinity, Justification, Redemp- 
tion, Repentance (Penance), Imputa- 
tion, Transubstantiation (Consubstan- 
tiation), and Eternity. Upon disagree- 
ments with reference to the meaning 
of such of these as are scriptural, and 
with reference to things thought to be 
found in the Bible represented by 
others, turn most of the controversies 
that have been had among theologians 
and sects. And the creeds differ es- 
sentially upon points of doctrine and 
systems of theology which hinge upon 
one or more of the cardinal truths 
symbolized by these terms. If we add 
to this the minor differences founded 
upon rites and forms which do not af- 
fect necessarily vital truth, but which 
serve oftentimes in no small degree to 
modify systems as a whole, we think 
there is fairly before us the ground 
upon which we are authorized to pro- 
ceed to make a few remarks suggested 
by the question : " What is to become 
of our Creeds ? " 

But before answering this question, 
it may be proper to further pave the 
way thereto by considering what ends, 
good or bad, creeds have served in the 

I. Being attempts to formulate and 
systematize Divine Truth, they have 
gratified a desire natural to the human 
mind, and pertaining to all objects of 
knowledge revealed or unrevealed. 
Order is pleasing to even the rudest 
and most unlettered. And we seldom 
rest until we have classified and ar- 
ranged upon some principle the facts 
which we have gathered. There are 
great advantages, too obvious to need 
mention, connected with this practice. 

This much we may say : it is easier 
to grasp a system as a whole, and to 
recall its parts, than to understand and 
treasure up these same parts as they 
lie scattered up and down in Nature 
or in Revelation. 

And yet this attempt, so natural 
and generally so profitable, becomes 
the fruitful source of evil when ap- 
plied to the Bible. As in nature space 
is limitless, and lines that shoot out 
from us as centres are lost in the far 
off regions, and we are forbidden by 
the nature of the case the pleasure of 
putting boundary lines around the uni- 
verse, so the attempt to force The- 
ology — the doctrine of God and of 
Divine Truth — within the limits of 
even as many as " The Thirty-nine 
Articles," or of the " Larger Cate- 
chism," should be set down as a fail- 
ure ; or, at least, a feeble attempt to 
do the impossible. Why, the lines of 
Divine Truth which converge upon 
Calvary reach away into the depths 
of the remotest Infinity, and angels' 
eyes fail to follow them as they sweep 
out towards the ever receding shores 
of the unbounded. Who, then, can 
hope to form a system of Divine 
Truth, in the proper sense of that 
term? And yet it is claimed to have 
been done by several men ; and their 
followers have striven to force their 
"Articles of Faith," their " Systems 
of Divinity," their " Creeds," upon 
others as containing the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the 

The tendency has been, so soon as 
these creeds have had a respectable 
following, to regard them as of equal 
authority with the Bible itself; and 
if one dared slightly to deviate from 



the " Standards" of the Church in their 
interpretation of God's word, or in the 
" Imperative Definition" which they 
have given of a term, such as " Impu- 
tation," his relations to the brethren 
became exceedingly uncomfortable. 
And if fire is not called down upon 
him " from heaven," it is no fiction 
that the time was when he was liter- 
ally roasted by earthly fire ; or, worse 
still, figuratively roasted by scorn, 
contempt, and ridicule. 

2. It may be as well to bear in mind 
that veneration for the compiler of a 
creed sometimes leads to his semi- 
deification. At least this has been 
the case in the past almost invariably, 
It would be invidious to mention in- 
stances which exemplify this tendency. 
The man regarded as an embo'diment 
of his doctrine, and that doctrine re- 
garded as divine, it follows that the 
man himself must be more than hu- 
man. His opinion, his slightest word 
of comment, or of criticism, is law ; 
and the dome of St. Peter's or St. 
Paul's trembles at his nod. And as 
the human soul is finite, and can only 
take in so much of the divine and no 
more, it follows that when the God- 
like Bellarmine or the Demi-God Au- 
gustine enters, there is a quantum suf- 
ficit of the Ineffable for a poor mor- 
tal — as much as one human soul can 
contain. Thus Paul, and Apollos, and 
Cephas, are, even in the face of their 
most urgent protestations, exalted to 
thrones, and " lord it over God's heri- 
tage." It is really painful to think 
how the spirits of the " The Fathers," 
who are theoretically at rest, must be 
disturbed as they, if they can, view 
the homage which is paid to them, 
which they now know even better than 

when " they sojourned here below," 
belongs to Him at whose " feet they 
cast their glittering crowns." 

Is it any wonder that creeds, the 
productions generally of one man, 
have led men away from the Bible, 
and that a word from him who frames 
a creed counts for as much as, or even 
more than, a word from Him " who 
spake as never man spake " ? And is 
it strange that the " jealous" God, 
who " will have no other gods before 
him," should tolerate an Iconoclasm 
led on even by infidel scientists, here- 
tics, schismatics, and sensationalists— 
that God who wrought out his highest 
purposes of mercy through the agency 
of a Pharaoh and a Judas? He whose 
" ways are not as our ways" can de- 
liver his elect from the Moabites by 
loosing the tongue of the " dumb ass" 
of Science, if his rider will not hear 
" the heavenly voice." And the dis- 
coveries and revelations which Nature 
makes of herself to those who study 
her laws, may so enlarge and liberal- 
ize hearts that they will not be pent 
up within the narrow limits of dog- 
matic theology. 

3. This leads us to say farther, that 
creeds in their conceptions of Divine 
Truth, in so far as they employ " man- 
made" words and phrases to express 
them, are liable to become " old and 
vanish away." Divine Truth is ever 
new, never changes ; but finite appre- 
hension and comprehension of it may 
vary — must be expected to vary from 
age to age, with increasing light and 
added knowledge. The diminutive 
vessel which a christianized Hottentot 
holds out to catch and receive the 
divine doctrine, must be replaced by 
one more capacious when it is to be 



transferred to the full grown Christian 
of England and America. And, so, 
as light and knowledge flow into the 
soul, it outgrows what is merely hu- 
man in Creeds or Confessions of Faith, 
and clamors for a terminology which 
shall express more nearly the higher 
conception of Truth which Christian 
experience and closer study of the 
Book and of Nature bring. 

This is no mere theory. It is a fact 
which we are witnessing to-day, as his- 
tory informs us of it in the past. The 
Christian sects are outgrowing their 
founders and creed-makers, and not 
even the threat of inquisitorial or pur- 
gatorial fires can much longer put off 
the day of judgment. 

4. And the tendency of things in 
this direction is not at all affected by 
the consideration that almost all of the 
creeds contain saving truth, and are 
upon the whole in accord with the 
genius and spirit of Christianity. If 
these creeds were accepted only as 
summaries of so much of divine truth 
as the human intellect could take in, 
and not as full and complete systems 
of biblical truth, it would be well. 
But they have generally been received 
in the latter view. And, in conse- 
quence of this, whatever error, great 
or small, may have found its way into 
the system, has tended to modify and 
weaken the power of the truth con- 
tained in the system ; as a tiny rock 
thrown into the mill-hopper will sadly 
derange the machinery, and be felt 
clogging the wheels and interfering 
withjproper action throughout. 

So that it is not strange that a 
wrong view of an ordinance or of wor- 
ship when forced to align itself with 
the " doctrines of grace " which a creed 

contains, will, as we have seen it do, 
strain the machinery so unnaturally 
that it will be found easier and make 
things work more smoothly, to reverse 
the process, and to make the "doc- 
trines of grace " align themselves 
with this wrong view of the ordi- 
nance or other matter pertaining 
to worship or to the externals 
of religion. And is it surprising 
that rational beings should insist that 
doctrine be systematized on logical 
principles, and that each part of the 
system be construed with reference 
to all the other parts, and that if an 
ordinance have an undue importance 
attached to it in the system, its influ- 
ence be felt as legitimate in modifying 
and even degrading the "doctrines of 
grace " ? 

And although thinkers in all denom- 
inations whose creeds partake of this 
character, strive to break the logic in 
the given case, and thus save the 
" doctrines of grace, " such is the re. 
lentless spirit of the "dictum de omni 
et nullo, " the conclusion must and will 
come out from the premises to the 
utter dismay of the believers in the 
creed, and to the serious detriment of 
the truth itself. As this article is not 
intended to provoke controversy or 
"injure feelings," we are forced to 
speak in general terms ; but to all ob. 
servers of the times and readers of 
history, predicaments of the kind de- 
scribed, into which creeds and their 
advocates have fallen, abound. Who 
has not been pained to see and hear 
the fruitless efforts of church dignita- 
ries to put such a construction upon 
one article in a creed which has refer- 
ence to some foundation truth as shall 
make it harmonize with one, teaching 
something quite different, in reference 



to an ordinance or an external act of 
worship or mere rite ? And who has 
not at times witnessed the converse of 
this ? 

5. As creeds have crystallized and 
become fixed, they have imparted 
something of their fixedness — have 
stamped their definitive impress upon 
those who have accepted them — have 
produced in some instances peculiar 
types of piety and a distinctive re- 
ligious spirit. But especially is this 
effect seen in the ministry of the dif- 
ferent creed-holding denominations. 
It extends here, not to externals only, 
but to the very spirit and life. There 
is an air and bearing and mode of ap- 
proaching and handling divine things 
so marked, sometimes, that the most 
casual observer at once determines the 
particular denomination to which the 
man belongs. Now, as the great Head 
of the Church provides amply, we sup- 
pose, for the diversified needs of man- 
kind and for the different orders and 
classes of men by the " diversities of 
gifts " he has bestowed upon those 
called to work in his vineyard, we 
must think that whatever goes beyond 
the measure of diversity he has estab- 
lished is to be regarded as ultimately 
injurious to his cause. Or, to state it 
somewhat differently, it may please 
the Head of the Church to carry on 
his work through men " of like pas- 
sions " with us — men of different tem- 
peraments, degrees of education and 
orders of intellect, so that each may 
be reached by being brought into sym- 
pathy at some time or other with one 
like himself. And this is enough. The 
preacher, as an individual man, reaches 
the man who sympathizes with him 
at this vital point. But the preacher, 

as the exponent of a sect, reaches him 
at a point with which personal piety 
and allegiance to God as such have 
nothing to do. 

6. But have not creeds served to 
indicate at once and without doubt 
the status of those who hold them, 
and by vouching for their orthodoxy 
facilitated the work of the Church, and 
especially of the ministry? Have they 
not served as a letter of introduction, 
to the stranger and his message, and 
given him at once a hearing, and his 
message a favorable reception? It is 
so easy for an avowed believer in the 
Bible to preach error — fatal error — to 
an unsuspecting audience, and there 
are so many who handle the word of 
God "deceitfully," that it would seem, 
highly proper to indicate in some way 
what is " the faith" of the man who 
proposes to preach to us, and what 
especially are his views of questions 
of vital importance, such as Sin, Re- 
demption, Rewards and Punishments, 
and others which will readily occur to 
the reader. 

And now we are better prepared 
to answer the question, " What is to 
become of our creeds ?" The answer is 
based upon the assumption that we 
are intent rather to find out what 
ought to become of them, than what 
will become of them. And yet in ar- 
guing with Christians there should 
practically be no difference between 
the questions. 

First, then, some creeds will be dis- 
carded altogether. Such as enter mi- 
nutely into the rationale of Divine 
Truth, and require you to receive it 
only as methodized and systematized 
by some leading mind, will be aban- 


doned altogether. Our reasons for 
this have been already stated. 

Secondly, some creeds will require 
more or less revision to accommodate 
them to the divine idea as expressed 
in the language of the Bible, this idea 
having been better apprehended than 
it was originally. Whether they will 
be revised depends somewhat upon 
the will of man, but, fortunately, not 
altogether. Divine Providence is re- 
vising these in his own way. If the 
denominations holding such creeds do 
not eliminate human matter from 
them, then God eliminates his elect 
out of such denominations, and leaves 
the denomination stranded upon the 
rocks of a " High Churchism" as bleak 
and desolate as St. Helena. 

Thirdly, the creed of the future ex. 
ists in posse. It is useless to aver that 

j you have no creed. From the very 
I manner of Divine Revelation, if you 
have faith in it, you must have a 
creed. You may say, " I believe in 
the Bible ; that is my creed." But 
when you come to tell me in your own 
words what you think the Bible 
teaches, then you give me your creed. 
It may not be written. That is not 

Now, then, when we have the 
" credos" of the whole of God's saved 
ones voiced in the words of God's 
Book, arranged so as to point to the 
great Central Figure, Christ, we shall 
have the " Creed" upon which all 
" who see eye to eye and speak the 
same thing" shall unitedly stand. And 
the day that shall witness this grand 
event is in its early dawn. 

EDITORIAL— No Conflict Between Science and Revelation. 301 



There has ever been a constant war- 
fare between science and religion. 
Not because the science of Religion 
and the science of Nature are contra- 
dictory and incongruous, has this war- 
fare existed ; but because, in every age 
and in every clime, bgiotry and nar- 
row-mindedness have never been ab- 

The theory of the rotundity of the 
earth was for centuries received with 
contempt and ridicule, and as antag- 
onistic to the teachings of Holy 
Writ ; so much so that its champions 
and believers' were put to the rack and 
the stake as heretics and infidels un- 
til in the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury a bold and daring sailor, ambi- 
tious for renown, started from one 
point, and, sailing in one direction, ar- 
rived at the same point whence he set 
out. The Copernican doctrine also, 
was received with scoffs and mockery, 
and was claimed to be unscriptural, 
because Joshua commanded the san 
to stand still. And for a long time 
the belief that the universe was cre- 
ated in six natural days was incorpo- 
rated in religious articles of faith, and 
deemed necessary to salvation. Such 
have been some of the so-called con- 
flicts between science and religion, 
due rather to the ignorance of the 
teachings of Revelation bearing on the 
subject or theory in question, and es- 
pecially to the existing popular opin- 

ion, than to any real antagonism be- 
tween science and Revelation. 

The progress of thought and scien- 
tific discovery has been so rapid and 
startling, however, that it is not sur- 
prising that apparent conflicts should 
arise even between science and science, 
as well as between science and Rev- 
elation. Indeed, the world may be 
profoundly astonished that the har- 
mony is so complete, the differences 
so small, and the incongruity so 
meagre, when it is remembered how 
bold and daring the researches and 
achievements of the one, and the im- 
mensity and incomprehensibleness of 
the other ; how limited and incomplete 
the one, and how complete the other. 

The most interesting and amusing 
war in the religious and scientific world 
for some months past is that waged by 
Dr. Talmage against the Agnostic 
School of Evolution, the champions of 
which are Huxley, Tyndall, and Her- 
bert Spencer. He caMs them atheists 
and infidels, and playfully reminds 
Mr. Spencer of the sumptuous feast 
given in his honor recently, consisting 
of turkey, lamb, pig, beef, etc., or in 
other words, his (Spencer's) illustrious 
ancestors and kinsfolk. He ridicules 
the idea of the " survival of the fittest," 
in a manner sarcastic as well as ludi- 
crous ; but at the same time, in some 
respects, incommensurate with his 
powers of reasoning and convincing. 
" And so we go right on up forever. 
Beautiful! Garfield dead in Septem- 
ber — Guiteau surviving the following 



June. " If this is what is meant by 
the "survival of the fittest, " we must 
confess that we have less respect for 
the great champion of science than 
ever before. Did Darwin mean that 
armies of desperate and crazed men, 
buzzards of the national capital, should 
be turned loose upon society, armed 
with dog pistols and short sabres 
killing and slaying the best citizens, 
when he said that the best in nature 
survives and the weakest disappears ? 
This would evidently be suspending 
the regular order of things for a vio- 
lent manifestation of Mr. Darwin's fun- 
damental principle of science, a thing 
which, in our opinion, is not taught or 
even implied in his theory. 

However unhappy the reference to 
the "survival of the fittest, " it is but 
too amusing, how he took up the pot 
of protoplasm and hurled it in Mr. 
Huxley's face with a force which must 
have made the latter imagine that, for 
once, he had realized the happy dream 
of his life, namely, " spontaneous gen- 
eration;" but of its taking place in the 
region of the eyes and nose and mouth, 
and just in this way, he had, perhaps, 
never dreamed. ? 

This, however, is no issue between 
science and Revelation; because Athe- 
istic Evolution is not science. It en- 
deavors to make a world and people 
it out of matter only — no, out of noth- 
ing only. Nor is Agnostic Evolution 
science ; for while it may be a little 
more greedy than the other, in that 
it must have some few germs of life 
in the little bit of matter it takes for 
a basis, it falls in the same category. 
Kant says : " Give me matter and I 
will explain the formation of a world ; 
but give me matter only, and I cannot 

explain the formation of a caterpil- 
lar." Yes, and it is thus with all those 
who have leaped the bounds of science 
proper, and have striven to account 
for all natural phenomena without 
recognizing divine power in it. And 
it is just on this ground that we 
claim there is no conflict between 
science and Revelation. Is it not very 
plain that it is not the part of science 
to create worlds and endow them with 
life and activity? And is it not equally 
plain that it does belong to God ? This 
is what evolution — a certain kind of 
evolution — tries to do; and in doing 
this virtually denies the exercise of 
divine power in natural develop- 
ment. So if this does not belong to 
science and does belong to God, then 
is there no conflict between science 
and Revelation ; for there can be no 
revelation without a divine something 
to reveal. Likewise, if evolution be 
true, then there is no God, and, there- 
fore no Revelation, and, therefore, no 
conflict, &c. So the same conclusion 
is reached by either process. Indeed, 
were these hypotheses true, the ques- 
tion of Divinity and Revelation would 
be removed from the field of conflict, 
and the contest would be between 
science and evolution alone. 

-Having disposed of evolution, and 
shown what is not the province of 
science, the question arises, what is 
its mission ? Science and Revelation 
are two things, separate and distinct, 
having missions differing as widely as 
the fields in which they work. The one 
triumphs in the natural or physical 
universe, while the other rules in the 
spiritual. The one seeks and searches 
out the truths which are hidden in the 
earth and nature, and investigates the 


laws which govern them, while the 
other is truth and law itself. One 
cannot take the place of the other; 
yet, they are in harmony. While 
science seeks to know the occult forces 
and laws which govern the universe, 
Revelation sets forth in unmistakable 
language the great sources of these 
phenomena. They are handmaids to 
each other. Every new discovery and 
every fresh achievement in science are 
but so many testimonies of the unmis- 
takableness of the truths of Revela- 
tion and the eternity and omnipotence 
of its Author. 


As a writer of keen-witted observa- 
tions, Mr. John Burroughs, the essay- 
ist, has no superior. He lends to 
every day sights an unwonted charm, 
and gives to things that lie in the 
pathway of all a flavor which they 
were not known to possess. In his 
presence the birds sing to a more mu- 
sical key ; the flowers emit a sweeter 
perfume; the brook teems with new 
forms of life ; and the woods speak a 
diviner language. He can sit by the 
stream or lake and patiently glean 
facts, which, when passed through the 
heart or the imagination, are given to 
his reader in coin of poetry. And 
what he has to offer is served to his 
guests in such a manner that it carries 
with it a double relish. 

His last article in the March Century 
on "Signs and Seasons," is one of the 
finest specimens of that art of which 
he is master. He knows how to make 

-Short Speech, 303 

us take an interest in what he writes 
about ; instead of beclouding our 
minds with the misty froth of words, 
he draws away the veil and lets us see. 
His is " no science peddling with the 
names of things." The wonder is that 
with the scientific accuracy of his ob- 
servations he keeps clear of that freight 
of verbiage with which science is too 
often beset. In the essay mentioned, 
we took the pains (it was rather a 
pleasure to examine the tools of one 
in whose hands they were so well 
kept) to note the character of the 
words used. Out of eight thousand 
and eighty words which it contained, 
six thousand five hundred and twenty 
were monosyllables. This makes near- 
ly eighty-seven per cent, of monosyl- 
labic words. 

In this choice of language, we think 
the writer shows his own wisdom no 
less than he delights those who seek 
to follow him into the enchantments 
whither his instinct is wont to lead. 

He wants to show us some bits of 
things which are infinitely small, and 
elude us in our eager grasp for the in- 
finitely large ; and to let us into the 
secret nook where truth lies hid, or to 
some retreat where beauty has hid her- 
self from the vulgar gaze, his guides 
are little folks, else they could not en- 
ter and invite us in. Were they the 
burly creatures that bespeak a Latin 
or Greek ancestry, they might not be 
able to get into these deftly cut niches 
of nature's recesses, or getting in, be so 
bulky themselves, as to shut out the 
only worthy companion of words. 

To what end are words, any way ? 
In the hands of another they are mere 
symbols, by which an intelligent being 
would acquaint us with the lessons he 



has learned from nature. Those sym- 
bols serve to that end only so far as we 
know for what they stand. What 
think you of a man who should take 
you into a museum and talk to you 
however learnedly about the various 
specimens in a tongue which you did 
not understand? Life, as well as na- 
ture, is a great museum, and those 
who speak to us of what is contained 
therein should send along with their 
thoughts such guides as may be able to 
interpret what is in anyway involved. 
Besides, it shows a healthy state of 
mind to use a curt and intelligible 
speech, if Emerson's diagnosis may be 
trusted* He says : " Spartans, stoics, 
heroes, saints, and gods use a short 
and positive speech. They are never 
off their centres. As soon as they 
swell and paint and find truth not 
enough for them, softening of the 
brain has already begun." 


It is characteristic of men, women, 
boys, and girls, to have aspirations to 
accomplish such objects as their innate 
desires may prompt. Various notions 
are entertained as to the most success- 
ful way to accomplish them. Some 
believe that wealth is a special pre- 
requisite to position and esteem ; but 
this is not necessarily so. It is a 
noted fact in almost all history that 
many of the most eminent men have 
arisen struggling against the greatest 
opposition — such as poverty, illiteracy, 
and want of true friends. Extended 
intelligence is a boon to be coveted, 
but even without this many have been 
able to occupy honorable seats, and 
hold sacred trusts. It is possible for 
a man to have his safe full of coin, his 

thousands of acres of land, has grana- 
ries filled with the fruits of the soil — 
and yet fail to make life enjoyable to 
himself and others. How often we 
meet those who appear as if every- 
thing were going wrong, and in fact 
life were a miserable failure after all. 
Such persons are usually shunned on 
every walkway and in every sphere of 
life. Some of them see so little in life 
to be appreciated, that they likely 
reach the conclusion of Elijah, as he 
lingered under the juniper tree: " And 
he requested for himself that he might 
die. " When you think of congenial 
spirits this class of rough, uncouth, 
grumblers is entirely left out. If you 
wish to steal away from the active 
duties of life for a little recreation, the 
home of the gentle is sought, because 
there you feel the warm welcome pre- 
•sented by those of gentle demeanor. 
If gentleness has attraction, is it 
not true that every one who is en- 
deavoring to reach prominence or 
usefulness would be helped on by 
possessing such a trait of character. 
Gentleness is a natural and also a cul- 
tivated grace. He who has this prin- 
ciple well developed is never without 
position, friends, or words of commen- 
dation. When places of trust are to 
be filled, it is not always the million- 
aire, or the man of gigantic mind 
who is solicited, but more frequently 
he who has ingratiated himself into 
the affections of those with whom he 
has been thrown, at the very small 
cost of gentleness. 

The man of gentle demeanor is of- 
ten permitted to hold stations in life, 
that money, birth, friends, reputation, 
all combined fall to purchase for others. 
Railroad officials have picked up boys 

EDITORIAL - Gentleness. 


and placed them in business for their 
politeness. Merchants have called in 
the tattered street boys, clothed them, 
placed them before the public for their 
politeness in demeanor. It gives po- 
sition in the social circle, in politics, 
and nowhere is its influence more de- 
cided than in religion. Pastors have 
gone from good fields to bad ones, 
just for the want of a little more of 
the spirit of gentleness. It is a me- 
dium by which the usefulness of men 
is determined. This world of ours has 
too many attractions, too many varied 
pleasures, for us to put on long faces, 

fail to see beauty in anything, and 
sternly turn from everything that is 
calculated to make us and those about 
us happy. Men have lived who were 
so fully developed in gentleness, that 
they have entirely revolutionized com- 
munities, towns ; yes,nat ions have felt 
the tender influences stealing over 
them as the breezes of the morning. 

The names of Sir Philip Sydney, 
Lord Chesterfield, and others, can 
never be forgotten, on account of their 
influence on society, the result of their 
gentleness of spirit. 


— One thousand and four hundred 
students are attending the different 
departments of Oberlin College, O. 

— Princeton College has sustained 
a grievous loss in the death of Prof. 
Lyman H. Atwater, D. D., LL. D., 
who filled the chair of Logic and 
Moral and Political Science. 

— We have never seen so much in- 
terest in the subject of education 
shown in the press of the country. It 
is discussed in the reviews and jour- 
nals from The North American down. 
We take it as a hopeful sign. 

— Hon. John C. Scarborough, 
State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, has issued in neat cloth 
binding his Biennial Report for the 
years 1881 and 1882. It contains 196 
pages. The earnestness of his nature 
and his devotion to the cause of edu- 
cation in North Carolina are manifest 
in all he says. 

— The Senate passed, on February 
16th, a bill establishing a normal 
school at Boone, Watauga county. 

— Rev. N. B. Cobb has been elected 
President of Judson College, Hender- 
sonville, N. C. That is a fine open- 
ing for a grand work. He has not yet 
made known his acceptance. 

— North Carolina's population is 
1,399,750. Of her voters, there are 
145,294 who cannot read the ballots 
they cast. The number of illiterate 
voters in 1870 was 101,780. In- 
crease in ten years (1880), 43,514. 
It is, however, to be remembered that 
the total population in the same pe- 
riod increased 328,389. 

— Commencement at Trinity Col- 
lege, N. C. : Dr. A. G. Haygood, Pres- 
ident of Emory College, Georgia, will 
preach the annual sermon, and Mr. 
James W. Reid, a rising young lawyer 
of Wentworth, N. C, will deliver the 
literary address. 



— Prof. W. W. Carson has re- 
signed his professorship in Davidson 
College to enter business in Memphis. 

— Heidelberg and Konigsberg, 
two prominent German Universities, 
lately disagreed and determined upon 
the ancient plan of settling the mat- 
ter by a contest between three repre- 
sentatives of each institution. Ko- 
nigsberg won, drawing blood fourteen 
times in the presence of a delegation 
from all the German universities. Who 
does not think of the Horatii and 
Curiatii ? 

— The Academy, of London, has 
this to say of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity : " We have never read a more 
encouraging report than that just is- 
sued by President Gilman, of Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore. Only 
next after teaching and study is the 
duty of publication. In this respect, 
Johns Hopkins may claim to be do- 
ing better work than any other insti- 
tution in the world." It publishes 
regularly a Journal of Mathematics, 
a Journal of Chemistry, and a Jour- 
nal of Philology. 

— The most promising trait of 
modern politics is the general spread 
of education. Nations seem once 
more united in one common aim. It 
is a crusade against ignorance. It is 
a pacific rivalry and contest that may 
end in securing everywhere the solid 
victories of peace. — Eugene Lawrence, 
in Harper s Weekly. 

— THERE are in North Carolina 
thirteen towns and cities w r hich have 
graded schools: Charlotte, Durham, 
Fayetteville, Franklinton, Goldsboro, 
Greensboro, High Point, New Berne, 
Raleigh, Rocky Mount, Salisbury, Wil- 

mington, and Wilson. Of these, eight 
were organized within the past two 
years. The amount of aid received 
from the Peabody Fund for the graded 
schools of the State for 1882 is $2,900. 

— In the State Normal College at 
Nashville, Tenn., there are twelve 
students from North Carolina holding 
scholarships given by the Trustees of 
the Peabody Fund. These scholar- 
ships are worth $200 per year, besides 
free tuition, and are continued for 
two years, provided their conditions 
are complied with. 

— The National Free School 
Advocate begins its course with the 
issue of February. It is to be pub- 
lished monthly at Washington, and, 
judging from its appearance, we should 
say it would succeed. It calls itself 
the organ of the common school sys- 
tem. These are two planks from its 
platform : " We are in favor of fixing 
a definite date after which all who 
who become voters shall be able to 
read and write. " " Ignorance is the 
fertile soil in which crime is bred. 
We are therefore in favor of compul- 
sory education, supplemented by 
generous appropriations of public 
money for common schools. " The 
existence of such a paper is evidence 
of the growth of these sentiments. 

— It is frequently said that the dif- 
fusion of intelligence will diminish 
crime ; and in the present state of so- 
ciety in the United States it is, in our 
opinion, true. But it may be well to 
bear in mind that in France an anal- 
ysis of the criminal classes is declared 
to show — 

1. That the degree of perversity in 
crime is in direct ratio with the amount 

EDITORIAL— Educational. 


of instruction previously received by 
the criminals. 

2. That in the departments in which 
instruction is most disseminated crime 
is greatly more prevalent. 

3. That relapse into crime is much 
greater among the instructed than the 
non-instructed portion of the commu- 

If these statements are correct they 
are no argument against education, but 
are a strong demand for more and bet- 
ter instruction in morals. 

— Eight more Sophomores, making 
twelve in all, have been expelled from 
Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me., 
for hazing. 

— Brown University has 
chosen Dr. Edward Everett Hale as 
the Beta Kappa orator for next Com- 

— The Alabama Legislature has in- 
creased the school appropriation $100,- 
000, and will also give $60,000 to the 
University and $30,000 to the Agri- 
cultural College. 

— The Chapel Hill Trustees at their 
last meeting in Raleigh decided the 
troublesome dancing question. After 
the next Commencement no college 
building will be used for the purpose 
of dancing. 

— Samuel Willets, a leading 
member of the Society of Friends, 
who died recently in New York City, 
left an estate of $3,000,000, and be- 
queathed nearly $600,000 to educa- 
tional and charitable objects, $100,000 
of which goes to Swarthmore Col- 
lege, Pa. m 

— Co-E D U C A T 10 N. — The experi- 
ment began in Oberlin with its first 
college class in 1834. It has been re- 
peated now by about two hundred of 


the chartered institutions of the Uni- 
ted States, or more than half the 
number that claim the name of col- 
lege, exclusive of those under the care 
of the Roman Catholic Church. Many, 
indeed, are colleges in little else than 
name ; but among those which are best 
known are the Universities of Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Indiana, Cali- 
fornia, Mississippi, and Vermont ; 
Cornell and Syracuse Universities in 
New York, Washington University in 
Missouri, Wesleyan University in Con- 
necticut, and Boston University. — 
North American Review. 

— Twenty-one Colleges, east and 
west, were canvassed and the follow- 
ing figures give some of the results: 
In the 21 schools there are a total of 
6,638 students, of whom 2,236 are in a 
course of preparation for the college; 
of the whole number, 3,280 are pro- 
fessed Christians, but of these only 
360, or 1 in 18, are proposing to enter 
the gospel ministry ; and if it is said 
that some who are not written down 
as ministerial students, will, no doubt, 
in the end, find their way into the 
ministry, we answer, and so, also, a 
larger number of those now having 
the ministry in view, will, in all prob- 
ability, fall out by the way, and never 
enter or prosecute the work. As to our 
own schools, the statistics for the year 
1883 have not yet come to hand, but 
those for 1 882 were as follows : In seven 
theological seminaries, 447 students, 
all proposing to enter the ministry ; 
in twenty-nine colleges, 557 students 
for the ministry ; and since the course 
in the seminaries is, in general, three 
years, we may expect from this source 
149 each year to supply the demand 
for 26,000 churches. — Central Baptist. 



— Dr. Carter has raised $100,000 
for Williams College in the two years 
he has been its president. — Ex. 

— It is stated that the income of 
the University of Wisconsin was over 
$125,000 last year. 

— THE University of California is 
endeavoring to establish a course of 
Spanish in its schools. 

— Princeton College, N. J., is hav- 
ing many of her buildings repaired ; 
and it is said that it is work long 

— A college has been opened in 
Persia under government protection. 
The professors are all graduates of 

European colleges, — Ex. 

— The Board of Trustees of Colum- 
bia, with the exception of President 
Barnard, are unanimous in condemn- 
ing the co-ed. system. — Exchange. 

— During last month fire broke out 
in the building occupied by the male 
students of the Hamline University, 
near Minneapolis, and consumed it. 
Loss estimated at $65,000. 

y — Prof. Clifford R. Bateman, of 
Columbia College, died on February 
6th. The Chair of Administrative 
Law, which he filled, was created for 
him, and was the first established in 
America. — Central Baptist. 

— The the accessions to the Library 
of the Pennsylvania University for 
the past year amounted to 9,192 vol- 
umes. The present number of vol- 
umes is 296,066, and of pamphlets 

— The University of Vermont has 
received a bequest of $115,000. A 
handsome gymnasium is to be erected. 
A bronze statue of Lafayette, who 

laid the corner stone of the Univer- 
sity, is soon to be unveiled on the 
campus . — Exchange. 

— The public school system of New 
York State cost the people $11,181 ,980 
last year. A million and a half of this 
went for new buildings, repairs, etc. 
The remainder employed 31,232 teach- 
ers and furnished free schooling for 
1,047,000 scholars. The value of 
school property owned by the State 
has reached the large sum of $30,333,- 
641, and the school district libraries 
number 705,812 volumes. — Central 

— Some statistics furnished by the 
delayed report of the, National Com- 
missioner of education for the year 
ending June, 1880, are of interest as 
noting the progress of American edu- 
cation. The report shows the aggre- 
gate school population of the states 
to be 15,351,875, and of the territories 
184,405. In the thirty-eight states, 
the number of pupils enrolled in the 
common schools is 9,680,403, and in 
territories 109,118. The number of 
scholars in daily attendance upon the 
schools, however, was only 5,744,188 
in thirty-four states, and 61,154 in 
eight territories. Twenty-one states 
report 561 ,209 pupils in private schools. 
The total colored school population 
in the South is 1,803,257, of whom 
784,709 are enrolled in 16,669 schools 
for black children. The number of 
teachers in all the states is 280,034^ 
about equally divided between the 
two sexes. The public school income 
for the states is $82,684,489* and in the 
territories $1,255,750. Thirty-three 
states have a permanent school fund 
aggregating $119,184,029, and the es- 

EDITORIAL— Literary Gossip. 


timated value of public school prop- 
erty, including buildings and sites, in 
thirty-one states and seven territories 
is $180,069,427. The report shows 
that the appropriations of land made 
by Congress from time to time amount 

in the aggregate to 7,658,438 acres. 
This vast domain, if turned to profit- 
able account, should render many of 
the states practically independent of 
other revenue for educational pur- 
poses. — National Baptist. 


By Phi. Sr. Editor. 

— Richard Wagner, poet and 
composer, died at Vienna Feb. 13th. 

— A COPY of Petrarch's songs, print- 
ed at Venice in 1470, and consequent- 
ly very scarce, brought the neat sum 
of $9,750 at a late London sale. 

— The Continent has begun the 
issue of a monthly part, made up of 
its weekly issues. 

— The Pall Mall Gazette treats some 
recent American novels roughly, and 
says in particular that it is better for 
young people who read romance to be 
interested in the sorrows of the Bride 
of Lammermoor than in the jealousies 
of an ill-tempered American woman 
whose husband drinks too much beer. 
— Ex. 

— Mr. Anthony Trollope leaves 
his wife about $130,000. 

— THEY are fussing over the exact 
day on which John Howard Payne 
died. Mr. Corcoran who is erecting the 
monument says April 10th, 1852. The 
tombstone at Tunis was dated April 
1st. Harrison, his biographer, gives 
April 9th as the date of his death. 

— A Greek translation of Hiawatha 
has appeared at Leipsic. 

— An impatient reader exclaims 
that if Mrs. Burnett expects her serial, 
now publishing in The Century, to run 
" through one administration " only, 
she must rely upon a " third term." — 

— Mr. J. O. Davidson is travelling 
in the South for the purpose of mak- 
ing sketches for Harper s Weekly. The 
article to accompany his pictures will 
be written by Southern writers, and 
will aim at giving clear and correct 
ideas of the character, resources and 
prospects of the South. 

— The Century for February con- 
tains a pleasing sketch of Mr. George 
William Curtis. He is the editor of 
Harper s Weekly, and occupies the 
" Easy Chair " in Harper s Monthly 
Magazine. He was born in Providence, 
R. I., Feb. 24th, 1824. 

— John Ruskin is in the Chair of 
Art at Oxford, England. He declines 
to lodge in any of the crowded brick 
streets of the town, and resides in the 
country. His friends are all pleased, 
for they take his acceptance of the po- 
sition as a sign of his restoration to 



— The citizens of Leaksville, N. C, 
are not a little proud of their towns- 
woman, Miss Annie Johns, the author 
of Cooleemee. She has visited England 
and travelled much in the United 
States. She interests herself in the 
welfare of her community, being par- 
ticularly prominent in the temperance 
cause. Of the merit of her novel, 
which was published in Leaksville, we 
are unable to speak from personal 

— The printer made us say in our 
last issue a very naughty thing about 
The Continent, viz. : "Our Continent has 
become The Continent. Well that is 
* out West. ' " That welcome maga- 
zine is in comfortable and reputable 
quarters in the East, nor do. its con- 
tents partake of the character of fron- 
tier productions. This fact we men- 
tion by way of atonement : it is more 
in demand than any publication that 
reaches our Reading Room. 

— Mr. P. M. Hale has written a 
book on the Woods of North Carolina. 
It is said to be a credit not only to 
the author, but also to his State. Our 
wealth of timber is as a sealed book ; 
and probably the main result of this 
work will be the influx of capital to 
utilize the unbounded material which 
it reveals. 

A Statue of Edgar A. Poe is to be 
unveiled this spring in the city of New 
York. Prominent men in literature 
will be invited to be present. Mr. 
Cable, of New Orleans, and Mr. Hayne, 
of Georgia, will be among the South- 
ern literati. 

— Mr. GROSSCUP, who is engaged 
with Mr. Ziegler in the preparation of 

the book now in press entitled The 
Heart of the Alleghanies ; or Western 
North Carolina, is now in Asheville, 
where he will remain some weeks. His 
work will be out about the middle of 
March. Messrs. Alfred Williams & 
Co., of Raleigh, have been made the 
Southern publishers, and it will be 
handled in the North by the American 
News Company, of N. Y. 

— The Bystander, a quarterly of ob- 
servation and criticism, is the most 
independent of Canadian journals. Its 
j editor, Mr. Goldwin Smith, possesses 
I remarkable literary and historical ac- 
complishments, which, if not given to 
some important historical period, are 
then best given to the elucidation of 
his own times. Its field of observa- 
tion and criticism is the world, and, 
according to Harper s Weekly, that 
field is watched by no acuter eye. 

—Sir Walter Scott, during a 
prolonged and painful illness, dictated 
the greater part of The Bride of Latn- 
mermoor, the whole of The Legend of 
Montrose, and almost the whole of 
Ivanhoe. He sometimes groaned while 
he finished the sentence in the same 
breath. But when a dialogue of ani- 
mation was in progress he rose from 
his couch, and walked up and down 
the floor, giving to his words a spirited 
and natural intonation. 

— This remark by Harper s Weekly 
is worthy of a place in the memory of 
every aspiring young man: " If any 
one should be disposed to argue from 
the stormy and irregular life of Gam- 
betta that moral strength and loyalty 
to principle and purity of well-ordered 
life are not essential in great political 

EDITORIAL— Literary Gossip. 


leadership and statesmanship, he has 
but to look from the dead Frenchman, 
exhausted at forty-four, to the great- 
est of living Englishmen at seventy- 
three guiding with increasing wisdom 
and undiminished power the political 
destiny of his country. " 

— Dr. Edward Judson, of New 
York City, is writing the life of his 
father, the great missionary to India. 
That certainly must prove a satisfac- 
tory biography. 

— The April Century from all ac- 
counts promises to be a most interest- 
ing number. Among its contents we 
note an article on "Visiting the Gyp- 
sies, by Chas. G. Leland ; a poem by 
the late Sidney Lanier, the most novel 
feature of which will be Mr. Elbridge 
Kingsley's full-page wood engraving, 
"At Sea," designed and engraved 
without drawing or photography. 
Special mention was made of this re- 
markable piece of work in a recent 
lecture at Chickering Hall, by Dr. Sey- 
mour Haden. 

— Joel Chandler Harris, author 
of Uncle Remus, will have in an early 
number of The Century, a new story 
entitled * At Teague Poteet's. " It 
will be printed in two or three parts. 
We are anxious to judge of its merits, 
for it is the author's nearest approach 
to an extended work of fiction. 
"Teague Poteet " is a moonshiner, 
and the story is the raiding of the 
mountains by government officers in 
search of illicit whiskey. 

— The little Latin monthly, Latine, 
noticed by us in a recent number, is 
making a decided hit. Its suggestions 
are good, and it gives many reliable 
hints to students of Latin. Among 

its supporters are college professors of 
fifteen states. 

— The Quarterly Review has in its 
last issue along, and on the whole ap- 
preciative, notice of American Liter- 
ature. Judd and Simms, Brockden 
Brown, and other worthies of former 
times are praised, and the writer seems 
not insensible of the attractions of 
some of the novelists of the present 
day, such as Mrs. Burnett, Mr. Cable, 
and Mr. Edward Eggleston ; but he 
singles out from his praise Mr. How- 
ells and Mr. James. Their novels, he 
declares, are prosy, devoid of incident, 
&c and have no story to tell. The 
whole essay is interesting. — Critic. 

— A GOOD many people will be as- 
tonished to learn that 105 editions of 
the New Testament in Greek, and 
sixty-nine editions of separate parts 
of it, have been published in this coun- 
try. Of these twelve were printed 
abroad. The number of these editions 
testifies to the widespread interest in 
the study of the New Testament in 
the original among the clergy and 
laity of this country. 

— The Publisher s Weekly gives a 
review of the publications of last year, 
with a statistical summary, from 
which we cull a few facts of special 
interest. The " Weekly Record " kept 
by that journal includes 3,472 entries 
of books, exclusive of new editions, or 
an increase of 481 over 1881. The 
publishing business reached its min- 
imum in February and its maximum 
in December. The books of the year 
comprised 767 in fiction, 337 in belles 
lettres, 326 in theology and religion, 
278 "juveniles," 261 in law, 221 edu- 



cational works, i88in medicine, 185 in 
travel, 184 in biographies, 118 in his- 
tory, and 218 in science. The large 
preponderance of fiction is largely due 
to the popularity of the various " Li- 
braries " in cheap reprints, but even 
with these fiction embraces but a lit- 
tle over 20 per cent, of all the books 
published — which is not a discouraging 
fact, especially when the excellent 
quality of most of the fiction of last 
year is considered. 

— WORKS of fiction do not bring 
their authors so much money now as 
formerly. The London Truth says 
the prices now paid for works of fic- 
tion are small compared with those 
of 20 years ago. Mr. Anthony Trol- 
lope received more than £8,000 for two 
of his principal novels written between 
i860 and 1865. Mr. Wilkie Collins 
received more than 5,000 guineas for 
Armadale before a line of the book 
had been written. George Eliot re- 
ceived £15,000 for one of her works, 
and on none did she make less than 
£8,000. At the present time Mr. Wil- 
kie Collins probably makes most mon- 
ey by his books, but then he only writes 
at the rate of one in two years and a 
half. Novel writers who are dissatis- 
fied with their returns may console 
themselves by remembering that £250 
was the highest price ever received by 
Miss Edgeworth for a tale, and that 
Sir Walter Scott only obtained £700 
for Waverley ; for the copyright of Ev- 
elina Miss Burney was paid £20! 

— The first volumes of a complete 
edition of Martin Luther's works will 
be brought out this year in Germany, 
in time to celebrate the four-hundredth 
year of his birth ; and three volumes 
a year will be published thereafter. It | 

is a pity that the project was- not un- 
dertaken at an earlier date, so that the 
completion of the edition, instead of 
its beginning, might have occurred 
at the coming anniversary. 

— A Norwich publisher announces a 
book by the Hon. James G. Blaine, 
to be entitled Twenty Years in Con- 
gress, covering the period from 1861 
to 1 88 1. The book will bean inside 
view of the political history of the 
country during Mr. Blaine's public 
life, prefaced by an elaborate essay on 
the causes of Civil War. The work 
will make two octavo volumes, which 
will be profusely illustrated. This an- 
nouncement awakens much curi- 
osity as to the contents and value of 
the forthcoming book. 

— Mr. Charles H. Phelps makes 
in the last number of the The Nation 
a circumstantial charge that Mr. Hu- 
bert Howe Bancroft is parading in 
borrowed plumage. His books, it is 
said, are written by under-secretaries, 
Mr. Bancroft doing little more than 
revise the proofs, and not always even 
that. At most he is only the editor 
of the work done by a corps of ill-paid 
subordinates. Mr. Bancroft says the 
charge is untrue. The magnitude 
of the task requires the employ- 
ment of assistants, but he writes 
at least one half of the mss., besides 
thoroughly revising the rest, and mak- 
ing it his own. It will be remembered 
he is writing the history of the Pacific 

— A letter from Shelley, recently 
published, describes a visit to an Ital- 
ian convent where Allegra, the short- 
lived child of Byron and Clare CJare- 
mont was at school. "Allegra," wrote 

EDITORIAL— Literary ftossip. 


the poet, "yet retains the beauty of 
her deep blue eyes and of her mouth, 
but she has a contemplative serious- 
ness which, mixed with her excessive 
vivacity, has a very peculiar effect in 
a child. Her hair, scarcely darker 
than it was, is beautifully profuse, and 
hangs in large curls on her neck. She 
was prettily dressed in white muslin, 
and an apron of black silk, with trous- 
ers. Her light and airy figure and 
her graceful motions were a striking 
contrast to the other children there. 
She seemed a thing of a finer and a 
higher order. At first she was very 
shy, but after a little caressing, and 
especially after I had given her a gold 
chain which I had bought at Ravenna 
for her, she grew more familiar, and 
led me all over the garden and all over 
the convent, running and skipping so 

fast that I could hardly keep up with 

— Mr. Will Carleton, author of 
" Farm Ballads," " Farm Legends," 
and other popular poems, is attracting 
large audiences to his " original mon- 
ologue entertainments," entitled "The 
Golden House," and "The Science 
of Home." These are lectures in 
verse, illustrated with recitations of 
some of his published ballads and 

— Our Earliest Novelists the 
Best. — Any one who will go back to 
the works of the originators of Ameri- 
can fiction will remark at once how 
thoroughly imbued were their minds 
with the traditions and national feel- 
ing of their own country. For them 
the awful forests and prairies of Ameri- 
ca and the heroic struggles of its early 
settlers against innumerable difficul- 
ties had infinitely more attractions 

than the " gilded saloons" of Paris and 
London, or even than the canals and 
palaces of Venice. The men and 
women who passed across their stage 
were peculiar to the land of their birth, 
and the land, as well as the people, 
was brought with marvellous distinct- 
ness before the mental vision of those 
whose eyes had never gazed upon 
either. It is true that these writers 
could not boast that they had made 
fiction a " finer art" than it ever was 
before, and they did not enjoy the 
opportunity of publishing elaborate 
praises of each other's performances 
in the pages of illustrated magazines. 
The most successful of all "fine art" 
in the present day — the art of puff- 
ery — was then comparatively un- 

Another writer, whose works are far 
less known than they deserve to be in 
this country, but who produced nu- 
merous powerful sketches of genuine 
American incident, was William Gil- 
more Simms. . No one, perhaps, in 
these days, reads the series of stories 
which Simms linked with events in 
the Revolutionary war, but they are 
much better worth reading than many 
of the novels which have made fame 
and fortune for inferior writers. Apart 
from their interest as stories, they 
have a permanent value for the fidelity 
with which they describe the South, 
and especially South Carolina, in the 
Revolutionary epoch. 

Thousands of boys, it has often been 
said, have been sent to the sea by 
reading Robi?ison Crusoe, and with 
equal truth it might be affirmed that 
hosts of emigrants have been attracted 
to America by Cooper's fascinating 
pictures of the pleasures of wild life 



in the wilderness. Most settlers found 
out, sooner or later, that across the 
Atlantic, as everywhere else, there is 
a very wide difference between ro- 
mance and reality, and perhaps few of 
them have encountered Indians so no- 
ble as Chingachgook and his son 
Uncas, or hunters quite so unselfish 

as Leather-Stocking. These, charac- 
ters, and many others which Cooper 
brought into existence, will outlast all 
the creations of the school of Cooper's 
countrymen who have since risen up 
to profess the great and solemn prin- 
ciples of " aesthetic realism." — Quar- 
terly Review. 


By Alumni Editor. 

ABOVE THE Sea. — The average 
height of the continent of Europe 
above the level of the sea is, accord- 
ing to Prof. Dana, 974 feet — the ma- 
terial of the Alps being equivalent to 
22 feet of earth spread out over the 
entire area, and the material of the 
Pyrenees to 6 feet. The height of 
Asia is 1,150 feet; of Africa, 1,600; 
of N. America, 748 ; of S. America, 
1,132; of Australia, 500. The highest 
of the continents, therefore, is Africa ; 
the lowest, Australia. 

— The Largest Pear l. — The 
largest pearl in the world was recently 
found in Lower California (Mexico) 
by one of the pearl divers of a firm at 
La Paz. It has the shape of a lemon, 
and weighs 75 carats. Its length is 
one inch ; thickness three-quarters of 
an inch. The largest known before 
this, which at one time adorned the 
crown of the Queen of Spain, was 
found on the same coast ; and there 
is no doubt that Lower California is 
rich in pearls. 

— To Split Paper. — When one 
wishes to paste in a scrap-book a news- 
paper article which is printed on both 
sides of the leaf, the leaf may be split 
in the following way : Paste a piece of 
cloth or strong paper on each side of 
the leaf. When dry, violently pull the 
two pieces apart, and it will be found 
that one side of the leaf has adhered 
to one piece, and the other side to the 
other. The paper is easily removed 
from the cloth by moistening the paste 
in water. 

— Brain Weights. — The fact that 
the brain of the great French Repub- 
lican, Gambetta, weighed only 39 
ounces, while the average European 
brain weighs 49 1-2 ounces, has led to 
the publication o^ a number of brain 
weights. An illiterate bricklayer heads 
the list with 67 ounces, provided the 
statement in our last issue prove in- 
correct. We stated on the authority 
of The Scientific American that the 
brain of the mulatto who died recent- 
ly in Cincinnatti, weighed 68 3-4; it is 
stated elsewhere to have weighed 

EDITORIAL- Science Notes. 

only 61. Cuvier's weighed 64 1-2 ; the 
brains of Dr. Abercombie (physician) 
and Schiller, 63 ounces; Napoleon's 
and Daniel Webster's 57 ; Sir James 
Simpson's 54 ; Chalmer's 53. A man's 
brain generally weighs four or five 
ounces more than a woman's. In this 
connection it is interesting to learn 
that the average Chinese brain is heav- 
ier than that of any other nation, be- 
ing 50 1-2 for males, 45 1-2 for females. 

— Prof. Huxley is now more 
closely connected with Cambridge 
University, England. He delivers this 
year one of the regular courses of lec- 
tures, and will act as elector to the 
professorships of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology. The Religious Herald, of Rich- 
mond, Va., speaks of " Huxley, the 
great German evolutionist." He was 
born May 4, 1825, in Middlesex, Eng- 
land, was graduated from an English 
institution, has spent his life almost 
exclusively in England, and now re- 
sides in London. 

— Seeing by Electricity. — The 
telephone is now followed by the 
electroscope, which makes it possible 
not only to speak with your distant 
friend, but actually to see him. Just 
as in the former instrument vibrations 
of air are transmitted, so in the latter 
vibrations of light are conveyed by 
means of electricity. To Dr. Gnidrah, 
of Victoria (Australia), belongs the 
distinction of the discovery. The trial 
of the wonderful instrument was made 
at Melbourne on the 31st of last Oc- 
tober in the presence of some forty 
scientific and public men, and was a 

signal success. They sat in a dark 
room and saw projected on a disc of 
burnished white metal the race course 
at Flemington with its moving crowds. 
As they looked at the picture through 
binocular glasses, it was difficult to 
imagine that they were not actually 
moving among those whose actions 
they could so completely see. 

— " The Missing Link." — It is 
claimed by some that this troublesome 
link, which figures so largely in dis- 
cussions on the development theory, 
is at last found in Krao, "the human 
monkey," now on exhibition at the 
Royal Aquarium, Westminster. A 
writer in Nature, who has seen the 
curious creature, says that while she 
certainly presents some abnormal pe- 
culiarities, they are of scarcely suffi- 
ciently pronounced type to justify the 
claim. Krao is distinctly a human 
child, about seven years old, and pos- 
sessing an average share of intelli- 
gence and the faculty of articulate 
speech. The low forehead down to 
the bushy eyebrows is covered with 
black hair. The whole body is over- 
grown with a less dense coat of hair a 
quarter of an inch long. The nose is 
low and short, with broad nostrils, 
merging into the full pouched cheeks, 
into which she seems to have the habit 
of stuffing her food, monkey fashion. 
The feet are prehensile like those of 
the anthropoid apes. Krao and her 
parents, also hairy people, were found 
last year in India by Carl Bock. If 
not the missing link, she is proof of a 
hairy race in further India. 





By En. Sr. Editor. 

— Anniversary has come and gone. 
"HOW did you enjoy the speeches?" 

THE weather has been warm 

enough for moonlight strolls and the 
rustic tete-a-tete.- 

— We are now on the home stretch. 
The brow of the hill was turned the 
15th of January. Anniversary was 
the first mile post; Senior Speaking in 
April, the second ; then — Commence- 

— The election of marshals for 
Commencement in the Literary Socie- 
ties results as follows : Phi., C. D. Ray, 
J. B. H. Knight, R. S. Green. Eu., 
J. H. Lamberth, L G. Riddick, W. V. 

— One of our young men who de- 
sired to make an eloquent speech on 
" patriotism, " read carefully the life of 
" Doubting Thomas," hoping there to 
find a grand illustration. 

— We were glaS to see several of 
the members of the General Assem- 
bly present on the occasion of the An- 
niversary. Among them Hon. H. R. 
Scott, Col. Toon, and Mr. J. Y. Phil- 

— We inadvertently failed to men- 
tion in our last issue that Mr. 
W. O. Allen, formerly of the firm 
of Allen, Purefoy& Co., has associated 
himself with Frank and Adler, whole- 
sale dealers in boots and shoes, Balti- 
more, Md. This house may well con- 
gratulate itself on the business talent, 
and long experience it has secured in 
Mr. Allen. 

— Quite a number of the Alumni 
were with us on the 16th ult. Messrs. 
J. E. Ray, W. H. Pace, C. S. Farriss, 
W. N. Jones, B. F. Montague, and J. 
N. Holding, of Raleigh ; W. E. Dan- 
iel, of Weldon, E. F. Aydlett, of Eliz- 
abeth City, W. J. Ferrell, of Wilton, 
L. T. Carroll, of Morrisville, and D. 
L. Ward, of Wilson. 

— Messrs Clifford & Airrey, the 
blind musicians, gave an entertain- 
ment in the College chapel Monday 
night, Feb. 26. Their comic songs of 
course brought them rounds of ap- 
plause. Some of their selections were 
out of taste, others good. 

— Illinois University has a man 
and his wife in the freshman class. — 
Exchange. We can beat that. We 
have a man in the Prep. Department 
who has a wife and four children. 
These he left behind, however. 

The rostrum of the College chapel 
has recently been handsomely carpet- 
ed. Also the windows in the rear 
have been covered, softening the 
light which was formerly somewhat 
painful to the eyes of the audience. 

— A recent mail brought us the in- 
telligence that the young ladies of 
Oxford Female Seminary had fitted 
up a reading room. We gladly send 
The Student, and hope it may find 
many readers among you, fair friends. 
Now publish a magazine, and let's ex- 

—Dr. A. W. Nelson and Rev. E. 
F. Baldwin, are with us to preach in 
the series of meetings just begun. 

EDITORIAL— In and About the College. 


— We extend the thanks of the 
College and community to Mr. J.,Y. 
Phillips and Maj. Stringfield, of the 
House, and the Hon. H. R. Scott, of 
the Senate, for their successful efforts 
against the bill to abridge the limits of 
our protection against the evils of 
grog-shops. It was mainly through 
Mr. Phillips that the bill was defeated 
in the House. 

—We are indebted to Mr. W. B. 
Pritchard, chairman of Committee of 
Reception, for an invitation to be 
present at the Commencement Exer- 
cises of the Medical Department of 
Central University, of Louisville, Ky., 
on Feb. 14th. Many thanks, Will ; 
but your invitation came too late for 
us to attend. 

— It was our pleasure to meet most 
of the Professors, and though they are 
all overworked, God has given them 
excellent health. During the past ses- 
sion there have been 167 students en- 
rolled and others are expected. Prof. 
Royall has proven himself to be a 
manager of surprising ability, and the 
high regard in which he is held by 
both students and instructors insures 
the return of every old student and 
the attraction of numbers of others. 
Biblical Recorder. 

— The Missionary Society of Wake 
Forest holds its meetings on the first 
Sunday afternoon of each month. Its 
February meeting was, perhaps, one 
of its most interesting. Well prepared 
essays were read by Messrs. E. Ward 
and N. S. Jones ; and Mr. J. H. Lam- 
berth's talk seemed to be enjoyed by 
every one. New officers were elected 
at this meeting. For President, H. 
B. Folk ; Vice President, W. B. Mor- 
ton ; Secretary, C. G. Jones ; Treas- 
urer, Mrs. A. V. Purefoy. 

— We were glad to see among us, 
on the 2 1st of February, Rev. W. P. 
Blake, formerly pastor of the Baptist 
church at Weldon, N. C. His sermon 
on Wednesday night, so remarkable 
for its simplicity, was highly enjoyed 
by all. Mr. Blake has a peculiar power 
of impressing his audience with his 
own feelings, which results from his 
pure Christian candor. He will leave 
North Carolina in April for the Indian 
Territory to begin the work to which 
he has been called — that of christian- 
izing the Red Man. Our wishes for 
his success in this noble work follow 
him, and we hope he may escape the 
blade of the tomahawk and the arrows 
£>f the bow, and that they may not es- 
cape the blade of the Spirit and the 
arrows of truth. 

— One of our brother editors had a 
novel experience a few nights since. 
The night was dark. He was waiting 
for his chum in the shrubbery near 
one of the main walks. His chum 
was a Senior, and wore 41 the regula- 
tion." Presently he descried some 
one with a beaver coming, and step- 
ping out took the arm of his supposed 
friend. Now, our brother was in 
trouble. His love affairs were not 
prospering. He began to tell his trou- 
bles — he unbosomed himself — he ask- 
ed for advice, and still he did not see 
his mistake. You may know he was 
in deep trouble. With a low chuckle, 
his companion proceeded to advise 
him ; but that walk had an abrupt 
ending. In a word, 'twas one of 
the Faculty. 

— Wake Forest and the Local 
Option Law. — The Wake county 
members in the House of Represen- 



tatives, endeavored to repeal the 
wholesome law guarding our College 
against the evils of grog-shops. The 
friends of the Institution certainly ap- 
preciate the timely and firm resistance 
of our friends in this matter, and es- 
pecially that of Hon. H. R. Scott, of 
the Senate, and Maj. Stringfield, of 
Haywood county. Maj. Stringfield 
said that unlike most of the applica- 
tions for a repeal of the local law, this 
Institution was the College of the 
largest denomination in the State — 
that our boys are there from all sec- 
tions of the State, and it was, in a 
sense, a State institution, and he re- 
garded every member of the Legisla- 
ture as in honor bound to throw^ 
around it all the moral safe-guards 
possible. He could never consent to 
the repeal, and moved to lay the bill 
on the table. — Biblical Recorder. 

— One of the most prominent mem- 
bers of the Junior class (looking as he 
does from a plain of over six feet 
above earth), at the social gathering 
in the Literary Halls cornered his 
"delight," and with countenance 
flushed with tenderness and eyes 
gleaming with love, was pouring into 
her eager ear the softest whisperings 
of the warmest affection. His rival, 
who, on the other side of the Hall, 
had been gazing upon the interesting 
scene with his countenance flushed 
with rage, and his eyes gleaming with 
fury, approached the oblivious couple ; 
and fixing his eyes, flashing with des- 
peration, on the tall Junior, who, by 
this time, was rising from his place of 
felicity, raved out in tones which 
made the listener quake : " This can 
be borne no longer! You shall die 
before the stars set and the moon 

hides her pale face (!)" " W-e-11," said 
the other, looking first pleadingly at 
the sweet cause of this altercation, and 
then tremblingly at his foe, " I am as 
ready to go now as Til ever be." 

— Rev. J. L. Burrows, D. D., of 
Norfolk, Va., favored us not long since 
with his famous lecture on the Fall of 
Richmond. He described in a happy 
style the geographical situation of 
Richmond, and how difficult of ap- 
proach it was by reason of the rocky, 
dashing James on one side, the Chicka- 
hominy, with its swamps, on the 
other, while high, precipitous bluffs 
kept back the enemy in front. Thus 
protected by natural walls, with the 
enemy outside, they thought Rich- 
mond would stand till judgment came, 
and when it came the enemy would 
have business elsewhere. But on the 
morning of April 3, 1865, consterna- 
tion seized the people by the announce- 
ment that the lines of defence had 
been broken, and the enemy were 
marching towards the city. In the 
wild confusion and panic which fol- 
lowed, dwellings, business establish- 
ments, factories and churches were set 
on fire ; goods of every character, in- 
cluding whiskey and brandy, were 
thrown and poured into the streets ; 
and while wagons, carts, and wheel- 
barrows were gathering up and carry- 
ing off the one, the other, which was 
flooding the streets and filling the 
sewers, was dipped up and drunk by 
the hollow-eyed and wan — some even 
kneeling down and lapping it like 
dogs — (but dogs don't drink whiskey). 
Such was the horrible scene when the 
Federal army marched through the 
heart of the city. Instead of sacking 

EDITORIAL- -In and About the College. 


the city and spreading desolation in 
every quarter, as, perhaps, was ex- 
pected, they set about to save it, and 
to establish order and quiet. So the 
city which was put in flames by Con- 
federate panic, was rescued, as far as 
possible, by Federal effort. Dr. Bur- 
rows is quite an elderly gentleman, 
but in his sallies of humor and wit, 
happily combined with an elegant rhet- 
oric and fine powers of description, he 
amuses, pleases, and entertains his 
audience, as though he possessed all 
the energy and vivacity of an earlier 

— We have in truth been turning 
the leaves of some of the new books 
for the Library. The purchase, which 
is the largest made since the war, 
amounts to about $600, and is, we 
think, first-rate in quality. A notice- 
able feature of the collection is the 
tasty and attractive binding of most 
of them. The art of book-making, at 
least so much of it as pertains to the 
printing house, seems almost to have 
reached perfection. We are particular- 
ly pleased with the dress of the " Eng- 
lish Men of Letters Series." We may 
mention but a few. In the field of 
history we notice Freeman's " Nor- 
man Conquest" and " English People 
in its Three Homes," Kinglake's " In- 
vasion of the Crimea," Bancroft's 
" History of the Constitution," Wil- 
liam's " Negro Race in America," 
" Campaigns of the Civil War," Wil- 
kinson's "Ancient Egyptians," the His- 
tory of India, of Switzerland, of Rus- 
sia, of Spain, etc. In science we have 
the " Voyage of the Ship Challenger," 
Balfour's Embryology, D a w s o n's, 
Tyndall's, St. George Mivart's, com- 

plete works, Beale's " Protoplasm," 
"Past in Present," "Recent Origin of 
Man," etc. Literature is represented 
by Welsh's " English Literature," Oli- 
phant's " Literary History," Mon- 
taigne's Essays, Dobson's "Eighteenth 
Century Essays," and others. Charles 
Reade, Trollope, Hawthorne, Jules 
Verne, Victor Hugo, in part supply 
the demand for fiction, and we may 
laugh over Mark Twain, Uncle Remus, 
and Artemus Ward. 

— Anniversary. — " Anniv ersary 
has come and gone." That is true in 
part and in part untrue. The occasion, 
to be- sure, has passed away; but 
much that came with it still remains, 
and its fruitage is yet to be seen in 
the future. Pleasing emotions with 
which a large audience was stirred, 
have ceased to effervesce ; but the im- 
pressions have become memories as 
well, and will thus take on the glamour 
of the passing years. The anniversary 
celebration is an occasion in some re- 
spects the most important of the year. 
It is one in which the individuality of 
the student becomes more prominent, 
untrammelled by rulings of higher au- 
thorities. It is a time under the or- 
derings and management of the stu- 
dents, more especially, and affords 
them an opportunity to try their 
strength, unsupported by the hands 
that have led them — and their weak- 
ness too, if youth has any. The oc- 
casion just passed has been, altogether, 
the most successful in the history of 
the Societies. And in some respects 
the most memorable. The early ef- 
forts of the most distinguished are 
seldom worth much in the light of 
later and maturer work ; but they are 



important items in studying those 
who have made a history. The essay 
or speech of many a young collegian 
has been forgotten till fame has lighted 
up his pathway and put his biographer 
on the way to earlier records. We do 
not mean to say that any one on the 
present occasion has reared a monu- 
ment to himself or won his fame; but, 
if not deceived, we think some have fur- 
nished the very best material for the 
first chapter in their history, and if we 
should ever be called on to write that 
history, no time would be lost in serv- 
ing it up in the proper order. 

To particularize, we quote below 
from a report which we have already 
made and printed elsewhere: 

The exercises of the occasion began 
at 2 o'clock p. m., on the 16th ult., 
with an animated discussion of the 
question " Ought immigration to be 
prohibited ? " The debate was pre- 
sided over by Mr. G. C. Briggs, of 
Asheville, N. C, in such a manner as 
the presence of that gentleman would 
insure, and Mr. H. P. Markham, of 
Durham, N. C, acted as Secretary. 
The dialectics were conducted by four 
young and well equipped debaters, 
and the delight was shared by a large 
and intelligent assembly. Mr. L. L. 
Jenkins, of Charlotte, N. C, first 
speaker on the affirmative, said : Amer- 
ica has always been a home for the op- 
pressed. Hither they have come and 
have been welcomed. But the evils 
that come with those pressing in from 
all parts of the world overbalance the 
good. The castaways of Europe come 
here, and in their hands will soon be the 
balance of power. Old Worldism and 
superstitions are destined here to cor- 
rupt both society and government. 

The influence of Catholicism imported 
from abroad is to be looked on with 
dread. The Roman Catholic church 
is only a club for the accommodation 
of its members. They contaminate 
society and politics. 

This is only one of the poisoning 
qualities of immigration. Immigrants^ 
however low, become factors in our 
government, with all the rights of cit- 
izenship. The Nation seems safe ; 
but if immigration goes on, the sun 
of the Republic will soon set in a sea 
of blood, to rise elsewhere, and on a 
people wiser than we. 

Mr. D. M. Austin, of Wadesboro, 
N. C, in support of the negative, said : 
This Nation is young. Along the 
lines thus far are some points of weak- 
ness. But immigration is not one. 
The experiments have taught wisdom. 
Little over a century ago there were 
only 3,000,000 of people in this coun- 
try. What did it need ? The demand 
was for labor, and honest labor came. 
The industry has been quickened. 
This factor has rapidly effected per- 
manent results. Witness New Eng. 
land. Immigrants have become assim- 
ilated with our people. They became 
patriotic, and fought and died for our 
country. It is objected that they have 
had their day and done their work. 
The country's natural resources are 
enormous. Foreign men and women 
are to develop them. Imported talent 
has been used in the highest offices. 
If these blessings have been so great, 
why not still ? The great question 
of liberty is here to be solved, Here 
is to be broken kingly power. Here 
is taught the lesson that man can, and 
must be free. The spirit of liberty is 
energizing and vitalizing. Let it go 

EDITORIAL -In and About the College. 


out from here to all lands that there 
is truth in liberty, power in liberty, 
life in liberty. 

What Mr. W. F. Marshall, of Louis- 
burg, N. C, had to say on the affirma- 
tive was in substance this: The pre- 
sumptions in favor of immigration are, 
i. That the comers are honest men 
ready to tolerate as well as enjoy civil 
and religious liberty, ready to make 
an honest living, to obey laws and be- 
come Americans; 2. That the 
strength of our civilization can as- 
similate all foreign elements ; 3. That 
we have an abundance of room with no 
one to occupy it save those who come 
from abroad. These w r ere once true, 
but not true now. Foreigners want 
too much civil and religious liberty. 
They do not assimilate with our coun- 
try. American society is too complex 
for it. To unite with them, our stand- 
ard must be lowered. It is a reflec- 
tion on the rising generation to say 
that we cannot fill up and develop 
this country. Doubling every 25 years 
we (?) will soon have all the territory 
populated. It is time to stop this ac- 
cumulation from abroad and go to 
work to develop what is at home. 

Mr. H. B. Folk, of Brownsville, 
Tenn., in a broad sweep that shut the 
door against the affirmative and opened 
the ports of the migratory world, left 
nothing else to say. He said : Civiliza- 
tion sprang up in the East ; and ''west- 
ward the star of empire takes its way." 
What a country is here ! Immigration 
has done good in the past. Like causes 
produce like effects. No one is so un- 
reasonable as to- suppose that 50,000, 
000 of people can develop a country ca- 
pable of sustaining 800,000,000. Great 
plantations need men and money. Im- 

migration brings annually $61,000,000. 
Records show the vigor and intelli- 
gence of immigrants to be above the 
average of their race. This is a com- 
posite nation. Here is seen the "sur- 
vival of the fittest." Herbert Spencer 
thinks that here will be evolved the 
highest type of man ever seen. Our 
ancestros were immigrants. Among 
them are the great names of our his- 
tory. Public opinion at home 
encourages immigration. Some na- 
tions abroad enact laws to prevent it. 
Restriction, not prohibition, is what 
we want. * Prohibition violates the 
principles of this government. Isola- 
tion is a suicidal policy. Prohibition 
violates social and divine laws. 

The vote was taken and the ques- 
tion was decided in the negative by 
117 to 51. 

At 7:30 o'clock p. m., the orations 
were delivered by the representatives 
from the Literary Societies. They 
had for a prelude the presentation of 
the " Magazine Medal" to Mr. W. H. 
Osborne, of Asheville, with some choice 
remarks by Senator H. R. Scott, of 
Rockingham co. Mr. Ed. S. Alderman, 
of Wilmington, Philomathesian orator, 
spoke on "The Homeless Race." The 
history of the Jews began with Abra- 
ham. Their sufferings through the 
centuries make that history a pathetic 
one. Crosses and crucifixes take strong- 
est hold on humanity. God made the 
Holy Land and the poet, the one for 
the other. The Jews have never ac- 
knowledged any hand but God's. The 
greatest figures in history are Jews. 
What works they have wrought in art, 
in literature, in statesmanship ! We 
dislike them ; and we know not why. 
We believe in equal rights, and yet we 



do not accord this to the Jews. It is 
a poor reason to maltreat a man now 
because his ancestors instigated Pilate 
to crucify Christ 1 8 centuries ago. All 
manner of persecutions have been 
heaped upon them. We should con- 
quer our prejudices against them. 
What civilization is to do for the Jews 
and what they are to do for civiliza- 
tion, is the great problem of the age. 
It may be that after a training of 2,000 
years Europe and the world will find 
in them a power too great to resist. 
The signs of the times suggest a great 
civilization in the East. The Turk 
feels that his day is over; the Jew 
looks for his in the future. No people 
has more right to glory in their ances- 
try. They gave us our devotional 
poetry, our Bible, our God ! American 
hatred towards the Jew is a paradox. 

Mr. Thos. Dixon, of Shelby, N. C, 
Euzelian orator, spoke on " The New 
South." The South, 25 years ago, was 
a land of beauty and wealth. War 
came and deluged it with blood, death, 
and desolation. She was still farther 
cursed with reconstruction, and its off- 
spring, the Invisible Empire. The 
South is now recovering from those 
blows so terrible in their results. . To- 
day a new spirit is abroad, which is 
working wonders. It is developing the 
country materially — her agriculture, 
mining, railroads, cotton mills, tobacco 
interests, &c. She still loves whiskey 
and will manufacture and sell it. 

Politics have been affected by the 
new spirit — less attention given to 
them and more to work. Sectional 
hatred is dying. The social world lias 
felt the new spirit — we are shaking off 

laziness. Education has. received new 
impulse. The loveliest womanhood on 
earth is developing in the South. Our 
advancement has been phenomenal — 
no nation of history has made such pro- 
gress under such circumstances. Still 
the New South is grand and poetic, 
more in what she promises to be, in 
what she willbe. We need more hard 
work, men, and money. The destiny 
of the New South is inspiring. Her 
enormous territory is to be developed. 
Her boundless prairies and untilled 
acres will be waving fields of grain and 
cotton. The earth will yield up her 
treasures. Factories will convert our 
timber into lumber, furniture, and im- 
plements of agriculture, and every 
pound of our cotton into the finished 

This speech on "The New South" 
is printed in full in the present num- 
ber of The Student ; and those who 
desire to read a fine address in which 
much of the oratory is left out can find 
it there. 

In conclusion we say that to the 
judgment of these two gentlemen, we 
are indebted for a very important 
change in the character of the anni- 
versary orations, — we mean the omis- 
sion of the memorial part at the first 
and that taste-offending apostrophe 
at the close of the orations. Certainly 
we believe in honoring the dead ; but 
it cannot be done in the manner hith- 
erto attempted with any degree of 
sense or propriety by the young whose 
hilarious feelings on such a festive day 
can hardly be kept within reasonable 
bounds. W. H. OSBORNE. 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni. 



— '8 1. Mr. David L. Ward, who 
applied in February for iicense to 
practise law, has associated himself 
with Mr. S. C. Herren (once a student 
of this College), of Marshall, Madison 
county, N. C. 

— '8i. Mr. R. A. P. Cooley, for- 
merly of Raleigh, and who also ob- 
tained license to practise law at the 
same time with Mr. Ward, will open 
his office at Nashville, Nash co., N.C. 

— '77. Rev. C. W. Scarborough, of 
Wake Forest, has received a unani- 
mous call to the Baptist church of 
Elizabeth City, N. C. 

— '80. Rev. B. H. Phillips is now 
pastor of the important church at 
Reidsville, N. C. 

— OUR good brother Aydlett, true 
to the duty and instincts of alma ma- 
ternity, has gone to Wake Forest to 
attend the celebration of the Society 
anniversaries. Faculty and students 
of W. F., treat him nicely, for Ed. 
Aydlett is an honor to you. — E. City 

—'39. Elder W.T.Brooks, D.D., 
was born in Chatham county, Dec. 
6th, 1809. His father owned a farm 
of 1,500 acres of land, and raised a 
family of eleven children. The family 
lived comfortably, the boys doing a 
Jarge part of the farm work, and the 
girls aiding the mother in the house- 
hold duties. 

It is difficult for the present genera- 
tion to form any conception of the 
lack of schools and facilities for ac- 
quiring knowledge in those days. In 

1812, there was no paper published in 


the State west of Raleigh ; no public 
schools, and subscription schools were 
few and of short duration. Dr. Brooks 
has often described to the writer the 
school attended during his boyhood 
as " getting to baker and turning back 
schools." They continued in session 
long enough to enable a boy to begin 
with his letters and get as far as 
" baker," but the interval between 
that and the next session would be so 
great that he would forget everything 
and have to begin the second time at 
his letters. By the time he had reach- 
ed *' baker" a second time, the session 
would close. So it was getting to 
" baker" and turning back all the time. 

In 1832, Dr. Brooks was baptized 
into the fellowship of the Rives' 
Chapel Baptist church, located about 
three miles from his home. The Bap- 
tist State Convention met with this 
church in 1835, and during its session 
was ordained to the work of the min- 
istry. He was greatly interested in 
the discussion of our College during 
the session of the Convention, and 
after a long conversation with Dr. 
Wait, he determined to sell all that he 
had and get an education. It is re- 
markable that raised upon a farm so 
far off in the back country, and with 
so few facilities for acquiring knowl- 
edge, he should have been so quick to 
decide in favor of the value of an edu- 

In his diary kept at College, he tells 
us how much he enjoyed the beauties 
of the classics, and on the same page, 
how much he was troubled on account 
of ill health. The change from the 



active life on the farm to the seden- 
tary habits of the student occurred in 
his twenty-fifth year — too late for such 
a radical change in one's habits. Dys- 
pepsia attacked him early in his Col- 
lege course, and remained with him as 
long as he lived. 

The records of the College show 
that in scholarship he was " head and 
shoulders " above the other members 
of the first class graduating from this 
Institution in 1839. He- holds an en- 
viable position — the head of the fust 
class graduating from our College, and 
the first on that long roll of energetic 
young men who, in spite of poverty 
and every other obstacle, have fought 
their way to an education. Such men 
have ever been the chief glory of this 
Institution. Immediately after his 
graduation he was called to teach in 
the College, and remained at his post 
till June, 1858. The writer met him 
first in 1857. As a teacher he was 
diligent and faithful, often enlivening 
the routine of the class-room with his 
genial wit. His health was delicate, 
and his digestion poor. The minds of 
men of robust health develop, grow 
round, ripen and mellow as they grow 
old. To men of poor digestion this 
is usually denied. Dr. Brooks was of 
the latter class. He had many gifts, 
and had his health been good, his life 
work would have been more marked. 
As a preacher he was tender and pa- 
thetic, and usually spoke with much 

He was greatly beloved by his 
churches, and his twenty years at 
Henderson and thirty years at Mount 
Vernon, indicate very clearly his suc- 
cess as a pastor. Though sick and 
feeble during the week, when Satur- 

day morning came, go he would to his 
churches. His ways in this respect 
often reminded me of the old prophet, 
— sick under the juniper tree and 
ready to die, but when it was time to 
pray God to give his people rain after 
a long drought, girding up his loins 
and running before the horses of 
Ahab's chariot. 

He was a true friend of this Insti- 
tution. He gave $500 for the erection 
of the old building. In 1854, he gave 
$500 for the endowment. In 1867, 
notwithstanding the war had swept 
away the bulk of his property, he gave 
$500 more, selling some of his land to 
pay his subscription. He often gave 
smaller sums. For a number of years 
he was President of the Board of Trus- 
tees of this College, and of our Baptist 
State Convention. 

In 1839, he married Miss E. W. 
Fort, a daughter of deacon Foster 
Fort, of Wake county. Of this mar- 
riage four children were born, three of 
whom are now living. After the death 
of his wife, he married, in 1863, Miss 
D. S. Ray, who is still living. 

For the last several years of his life, 
he was confined to his room and to 
his bed the greater portion of the time. 
But any mention of the College or the 
work of the denomination would rouse 
him at any time. And he seemed 
never to tire of talking about these 
two things. 

" Having served his generation by 
the will of God, he fell on sleep." 

L. R. Mills. 

Jan. 16th, 1883. 

Alumni Association. — The com- 
mittee, appointed by the Association 
at its last meeting, held on the 5th 
inst. a consultation in Raleigh. The 

EDITORIAL— Wake Forest Alumni. 


following points in the programme for 
next Commencement were agreed 
upon : 

1. That the regular meeting of the 
Association occur in the College Read- 
ing Room immediately after the ad- 
dress of the Alumni orator on Tues- 
day night. 

2. That letters be written to the 
members of the Association urging a 
large attendance. 

3. That simple refreshments be 
served in connection with short vol- 
untary addresses by members. 

The suitableness of the place pro- 

posed will commend itself to every 
one acquainted with the room. The 
committee thought further that it was 
appropriate for the meeting to occur 
immediately after the address, and 
that the time was fitting especially 
because the Board of Trustees would 
hold no meeting then, and all would 
not be worn out by the exercises of 
previous meetings. The third conclu- 
sion only conforms our programme to 
an all but universal custom on similar 
occasions. No one could object to 
ice-cream in June. 


Chairman of Committee. 





[From the March Century.] 

In my morning journal stands five 
solid columns of advertisements of 
girls' schools. " It is fit," says Mr. 
Samuel Pepys, speaking of some new 
gown bought for his wife, "that the 
poor wretch should have something 
wherewith to content her." But it 
would seem that some hundreds of 
New York wives refuse to content 
themselves with these manifold educa- 
tional concessions of the Pepysian 
spirit. For besides the journal lies a pe- 
tition, very fully signed, a large propor- 
tion of names being those of women, 
which reads : 

" We, the undersigned residents of 
New York City and neighborhood, beg 
leave to present our respectful peti- 
tion : That in view of the present state 
of public opinion, both here and in 
other countries, touching the justice 
and expediency of admitting women 
to the sajne educational advantages as 
men, a state of opinion, especially evi- 
denced by the recent action of the 
English Universities, of Cambridge 
and London, and in view of the influ- 
ential position of Columbia College as 
among the oldest and most richly en- 
dowed educational institutions in the 
United States, and preeminently rep- 
resenting the intellectual interests of 
the city of New York, you will be 
pleased to consider how best to ex- 
tend, with as little delay as possible, 
to such properly qualified women, as 

may desire it, the many and great ben- 
efits of education in Columbia College, 
by admitting them to lectures and ex- 

To many sober and conscientious 
persons, both men and women, this 
demand sounds absurd, needless, im- 
proper and dangerous. But do these 
objectors remember that every appeal 
for a better female education seemed, 
in its day, equally preposterous? It is 
hardly three centuries since Made- 
moiselle Francoise de Saintonge was 
hooted through the streets of her na- 
tive village for proposing so disrepu- 
table a plan as the establishment of 
schools for girls in France, and her 
anxious father called in four learned 
doctors to determine whether this mad 
idea was not due to her possession by 
devils. The doctors pronounced her 
in her right mind, but her pious fellow- 
citizens stopped the spread of immoral 
ideas by the conclusive argument of in- 
sults leveled at the teacher and stones 
addressed at the pupils. The progress 
of the next century and a half is re- 
corded in Dean Swift's observation 
that men constantly asked each other 
whether it was prudent to choose a 
wife who had good natural parts, some 
sense of wit and humor, a little knowl- 
edge of history, the capacity to relish 
travels or moral and entertaining dis- 
course, and to discern the more obvi- 
ous beauties of poetry. The general 
verdict, he says, was against such at- 
tainments in women, because their 
tendency was to make wives preten. 



tious and conceited, and not duly sub- 
ject to their husbands. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, 
translating Epictetus at nineteen, and 
sending her work to her kind friend, 
the Lord Bishop of Salisbury, apolo- 
gizes at length for attempting a task 
universally pronounced unfit for a wo- 
man and certain to draw down censure 
upon her (excusing herself, however, 
by citing the opinions of Erasmus, in 
the Latin!) Nearly fifty years after- 
ward, in advising her daughter con- 
cerning the education of a bright little 
namesake, she entreats that free scope 
may be accorded the child's capacity 
for the sake of the pure delight of 
learning and of her future happiness. 
But she adds the warning that, to in- 
sure a satisfactory marriage, the young 
girl's wit and acquirements must be as 
carefully concealed as a deformity,from 
a world which suspected or despised a 
learned woman. So strong, almost to 
our own day, has been this half-con- 
scious contempt of the feminine men- 
tality, that even Charles Lamb, that 
gentle and charitable soul, could speak 
of " Li E. L," with an unmanly sneer, 
and declare that a female poet, or fe- 
male author of any kind invited disre- 

It is but ninety years since an Eng- 
lish woman published the first serious 
demand for the higher education of 
English women. Her public found 
the book immodest, irreligious, an- 
archic. Issued to-day, it would appear 
a harmless plea, a trifle heavy and con- 
servative, perhaps for the thorough 
cultivation of the female mind, urged 
on social, moral, and religious grounds, 
and protesting against the sentimen- 
talism of Rousseau, and the now for- 

gotten Dr. Gregory. Mrs. Hannah 
Moore's dull novel of "Coelebs in 
Search of a wife," issued in 1808, con- 
tained, perhaps, the first argument in 
fiction that a ninny is not necessarily 
the ideal wife, or knowledge of the 
Latin grammar incompatible with a 
turn for housekeeping. 

It was no scoffer but the sweet spir- 
ited Fenelon, who taught that con- 
tact with learning would be almost as 
fatal to womanly delicacy as contact 
with vice. To Voltaire's love of epi- 
gram might be pardoned his saying 
that, " Ideas are like beards ; women 
and young men have none." But Less- 
ing was serious when he declared that 
" The woman who thinks is like the 
man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." 
And even Niebuhr, the large-minded, 
believed that he should not have edu- 
cated a girl well, for he should have 
made her know too much. 

It was the first care of the Pilgrim 
Fathers so establish schools. Girls 
were allowed to attend these two 
hours a days. But afterwards the 
system was remodeled in a spirit of 
wide liberality, and girls were suffered 
all day, in the summer. When women 
teachers came to be employed, they 
are required to " teach the English 
language correctly and the rudiments 
of arithmetic." In 1826, after a dis- 
cussion of three years, the city fathers 
of Boston resolved to establish a high 
school for girls, on the model of its 
admirable high school for boys. But 
such an army of young women bat- 
tered the gates of that educational 
heaven with storms of prayers, that, 
after a trial of eighteen months, the 
dismayed corporation decided — to en- 
large the building and multiply teach„ 



ers ? No, but to close the school al- 

We smile at Monsieur de Saintonge 
and the sages of Boston. The two 
hundred and fifty advertisements re- 
fute the ancient prejudices. The in- 
numerable names of women who have 
conquered success in Literature, 
science, art ; as great organizers, ad- 
ministrators, educators, refute them. 
The very discussion of the hour puts 
them to silence, for it declares that the 
question is no longer whether women 
are worth educating, but what educa- 
tion is worth most to them. The 
point of view is changed because the 
social conditions are changed. 



In the old church tower 

Hangs the bell ; 
And above on the vane, 
In the sunshine and the rain, 
Cut in gold St. Peter stands, 
With the keys in his two hands, 

And all is well. 

In the old church tower 

Hangs the bell ; 
You can hear its great heart beat, 
Ah ! so loud, and mild, and sweet, 
As the parson says his prayer 
Over happy lovers there, 

And all is well ! 

In the old church tower 
Hangs the bell, 
Deep and solemn. Hark! again ; 
Ah ! what passion and what pain ! 

With her hands upon her breast, 
Some poor soul has gone to rest 
Where all is well ! 

In the old church tower— 

Hangs the bell — 
A quaint friend that seems to know 
All our joy and all our woe ; 
It is glad when we are wed, 
It is sad when we are dead, 

And all is well. 


Oh, sweet and fair! Oh, rich and rare ! 

That day so long ago, 
The Autumn sunshine everywhere, 

The heather all aglow. 
The ferns were clad in cloth of gold, 

The waves sang on the shore ; 
Such suns will shine, such waves will 

For ever, ever more. 

Oh, fit and few ! Oh, tried and true ! 

The friends who met that day. 
Each one the other's spirit knew ; 

And so in earnest play 
The hours flew past, until at last 

The twilight kissed the shore ; 
We said :— " Such days shall come 

For ever, ever more." 

One day again, no cloud of pain 

A shadow o'er us cast, 
And yet we strove in vain, in vain, 

To conjure up the past ; 
Like, but unlike the sun that shone, 

The waves that beat the shore, 
The words we said, the songs we sung, 

Like — unlike — ever more. 

WORTS REPEATING— Don't take it to Heart 


For ghost unseen crept in between, 
And, when our songs flowed free. 

Sang discords in an undertone, 
And marred the harmony. 

"The past is ours, not yours," they 
said ; 

" The waves that beat the shore, 
Though like the same are not the same, 
Oh, never, never more !" 

— Frazers Magazine. 


There's many a trouble 

Would break like a bubble, 
And into the waters of Lethe depart, 

Did we not rehearse it, 

And tenderly nurse it, 
And give it permanent place in the 

There's many a sorrow 
Would vanish to-morrow, 
Were we but willing to furnish the 
wings ; 
So sadly intruding, 
And quietly brooding, 
It hatches out all sorts of horrible 

How welcome the seeming, 
Of looks that are beaming, 
Whether one's wealthy or whether 
one's poor ; 
Eyes bright as a berry, 
Cheeks red as a cherry, 
The groan and the curse and the heart- 
ache can cure. 

Resolved to be merry, 
All worry to ferry 
Across the tame waters that bid us 
And no longer fearful, 
But happy and cheerful, 
We feel life has much that's worth 
living for yet. 

— Tins ley s Magazine. 



of North Carolina at home again in 


It is with very great pleasure that I an- 
nounce to the citizens of North Carolina, and 
to the students of Wake Forest College par- 
ticularly, that after an absence of several 
years, working in the interest of my profes- 
sion in other States, I have returned to Ral- 
eigh, X. C, where I have fitted up one of the 
most complete and best equipped Galleries in 
the South, having procured a full set of instru- 
ments made by the celebrated optician of 
London, J. H. Dalmeyer, whose Lenses are 
acknowledged to be the best in the world. 
One of these instruments is particularly 
adapted for large group?, and I would par- 
ticularly call the attention of Graduating 
Classes and Families to give me a call. With 
my long experience of over 30 years, and the 
best instruments that can be made, I ean 
guarantee satisfaction. 


Don't forget the new place, over Heller's 
Shoe Store, 31 Fayetteville, Ealeigh, N. C. 





Blank Book Manufacturers, 

We have just received a lot of new type and are 
now prepared to print 


In the best style at low rates. 



If you wish anything in the way of Printing, 
Binding or Blank Books, address, 


Cor. Salisbury & Hargett Sts., 

Raleigh, N. C. 




These Goods are sold under an 

Absolute Guarantee 

That they are the Finest and PUREST 

goods upon the market; 
They ARE FREE from DRUGS and 

CHEMICALS of any kind; 
They consist of the Finest Tobacco and 

Purest Rice-Paper made. 

OUR SALES EXCEED th e products 

of ALL leading manufactories combined. 

None Genuine without the trade-mark 
of the BULL. Take no other. 


Sole Manufacturers. Durham, N. C. 


Watch-Maker and Jeweler, 


Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, &c. 


Orders by mail will receive prompt attention. 
With thanks for past patronage, and asking a 
continuance of same, I am, 
Very respectfully, 






SURPASSES^ others 


Chicago ill. 

«— ^j) 0 RANGE MASS. 



State Agent, 



Yarborough House,. 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Table of Contents. 

APRIL, 1683. 


Industrial Education, J. H. Mills. 331 

A Strange Adventure, W. B. P. 332 

The Deserter's Story, I. G. R. 337 

Graded Schools, G. 339 

Capturing a Whale, Palmetto. 342 

The Senior's Soliloquy, T. D. 345 


Help for the Poor, W. L. P. 347 

Co-Education, _. 347 

Self-Knowledge, 348 

College Medals, .__ D. M. A. 349 

Educational, 351 

Literary Gossip, 354 

Science Notes, 359 

In and About the College, . 363 

Wake Forest Alumn